A report on Mohawk people

Map of Mohawk River
Kanienʼkehá:ka dancer at a pow wow in 2015
Contemporary Quebec Kanienʼkehá꞉ka dance performance at Wikimania 2017
Teyoninhokovrawen (John Norton) played a prominent role in the War of 1812, leading Iroquois warriors from Grand River into battle against Americans. Norton was part Cherokee and part Scottish.
Pauline Johnson, Mohawk writer

The Mohawk people are the most easterly section of the Haudenosaunee, or Iroquois Confederacy.

- Mohawk people
Map of Mohawk River

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Iroquoian-speaking confederacy of First Nations peoples in northeast North America/Turtle Island.

Iroquoian-speaking confederacy of First Nations peoples in northeast North America/Turtle Island.

Map showing historical (in purple) and currently recognized (in pink) Iroquois territory claims.
Map of the Five Nations (from the Darlington Collection)
Map showing dates Iroquois claims relinquished, 1701–1796. Note: In the 1701 Nanfan Treaty, the Five Nations abandoned their nominal claims to "beaver hunting" lands north of the Ohio in favor of England; however, these areas were still de facto controlled by other tribes allied with France.
Iroquois painting of Tadodaho receiving two Mohawk chiefs
Engraving based on a drawing by Champlain of his 1609 voyage. It depicts a battle between Iroquois and Algonquian tribes near Lake Champlain
Map of the New York tribes before European arrival:
Iroquois conquests 1638–1711
The four "Mohawk Kings" who travelled to London in 1710.
Iroquois engaging in trade with Europeans, 1722
Unnamed Iroquois chief, early 18th century
Lithograph of the Mohawk war and political leader Thayendanegea or Joseph Brant
Stone pipe (19th-century engraving)
Traditional Iroquois longhouse
Seneca man in traditional dress
gusto'weh headdress
Seneca woman in traditional dress
Member of the False Face Society
Detail. Ball-headed club. A diplomatic gift to James Bruce (8th Earl Elgin and 12th Earl of Kincardine), made most probably by Haudenosaunee (Iroquois). From Canada, early-mid 19th century CE. National Museum of Scotland
Mohawk leader John Smoke Johnson (right) with John Tutela and Young Warner, two other Six Nations War of 1812 veterans. Photo: July 1882
Chiefs of the Six Nations explaining their wampum belts to Horatio Hale, 1871
Famous Seneca chief, Red Jacket, political negotiator and critic of European religion, speaking to crowd
Seneca chief Cornplanter
Joseph Brant, painted by the American artist Gilbert Stuart
Meeting of the Society of Mystic Anamals c. undefined1900

The English called them the Five Nations, comprising the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca (listed geographically from east to west).


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Historic photo of Kahnawake, ca. 1860
Sault-Saint-Louis seigneury, 1829. The surveyor (McCarty) identifies the portion of land that is claimed by the people of Kahnawake as "Morceau réclamé par les Sauvages" - portion claimed by the Indians. Also, with the words "Vraie ligne de la seigneurie Sauvage" - true boundary of the Indian Seigneury, the surveyor highlights that the original boundary of the Iroquois seigneury is situated in the Seigneury of LaPrairie.
Charles-Gédéon Giasson & Agathe McComber
Claude-Nicolas-Guillaume de Lorimier (Major de Lorimier), sketch, c. 1810.
An article on European-Mohawk conflict from the Montreal Star, 1907
Kahnawake seen from Montreal
Kahnawake, Presbytery (1719) and Saint Francis Xavier mission (1845)

The Kahnawake Mohawk Territory (Territoire Mohawk de Kahnawake, in the Mohawk language, Kahnawáˀkye in Tuscarora) is a First Nations reserve of the Mohawks of Kahnawá:ke on the south shore of the Saint Lawrence River in Quebec, Canada, across from Montreal.

New York (state)

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State in the Northeastern United States.

State in the Northeastern United States.

New York was dominated by Iroquoian (purple) and Algonquian (pink) tribes.
New Amsterdam, present-day Lower Manhattan, 1660
New York and neighboring provinces, by Claude Joseph Sauthier, 1777
British general John Burgoyne surrenders at Saratoga in 1777
1800 map of New York from Low's Encyclopaedia
The Erie Canal at Lockport, New York, in 1839
Flight 175 hitting the South Tower on September11, 2001
Flooding on AvenueC in Lower Manhattan caused by Hurricane Sandy
New York is bordered by six U.S. states, two Great Lakes, and the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec.
Enveloped by the Atlantic Ocean and Long Island Sound, New York City and Long Island alone are home to about eleven million residents conjointly.
Lake-effect snow is a major contributor to heavy snowfall totals in western New York, including the Tug Hill region.
Two major state parks (in green) are the Adirondack Park (north) and the Catskill Park (south).
The Statue of Liberty in New York Harbor is a symbol of the United States and its ideals.
The African Burial Ground National Monument in Lower Manhattan
Map of the counties in New York
New York population distribution map. New York's population is primarily concentrated in the Greater New York area, including New York City and Long Island.
The Stonewall Inn in the gay village of Greenwich Village, Lower Manhattan, site of the June 1969 Stonewall riots, the cradle of the modern LGBT rights movement
The main laboratory building of the IBM Watson Research Center is located in Yorktown Heights, New York.
Times Square in Midtown Manhattan, hub of the Broadway theater district, a media center, and one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections
"I Love New York"
CMA CGM Theodore Roosevelt, the largest container ship to enter the Port of New York and New Jersey as of September7, 2017
Harris Hall of the City College of New York, a public college of the City University of New York
Butler Library at Columbia University
University of Rochester
South campus of the University at Buffalo, the flagship of the State University of New York
The New York City Subway is one of the world's busiest, serving more than five million passengers per average weekday.
Grand Central Terminal in New York City
John F. Kennedy Airport in Queens, the busiest international air passenger gateway to the United States
The New York State Capitol in Albany
New York State Court of Appeals
Kirsten Gillibrand and Chuck Schumer, New York's U.S. Senators
Kathy Hochul (D), the 57th Governor of New York
Yankee Stadium in The Bronx
Koppen climate of New York

Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk—part of the original Iroquois Five Nations, and the Petun.

Mohawk River

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149 mi river in the U.S. state of New York.

149 mi river in the U.S. state of New York.

Mohawk River at confluence of South Chuctanunda Creek
As the Laurentian Glacier retreated, it blocked the outflow of Glacial Lake Iroquois. Instead of flowing down the St Lawrence Valley it flowed down the Mohawk River.
Aerial view of the Mohawk River, with Troy and the Hudson River in the foreground, and Schenectady in the background

The river is named for the Mohawk Nation of the Iroquois Confederacy.

St. Lawrence River

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Large river in the middle latitudes of North America, flowing from Lake Ontario in a roughly northeasterly direction into the Gulf of St. Lawrence, connecting the Great Lakes to the North Atlantic Ocean and forming the primary drainage outflow of the Great Lakes Basin.

Large river in the middle latitudes of North America, flowing from Lake Ontario in a roughly northeasterly direction into the Gulf of St. Lawrence, connecting the Great Lakes to the North Atlantic Ocean and forming the primary drainage outflow of the Great Lakes Basin.

The Champlain Sea
Map of 1543 showing Cartier's discoveries
Basque settlements and sites dating from the 16th and 17th centuries
A watercolour painting by Elizabeth Simcoe created [ca. 1792] depicting a bend in the St. Lawrence River, Quebec from the Simcoe Family fonds held at the Archives of Ontario.
Watching fin whales off Tadoussac

Innu-aimun, the language of Nitassinan, refers to it as Wepistukujaw Sipo/Wepìstùkwiyaht sīpu; the Abenaki call it Moliantegok/Moliantekw ("Montréal River"), Kchitegw/Ktsitekw/Gicitegw ("Great River"), or Oss8genaizibo/Ws8genaisibo/Wsogenaisibo ("River of the Algonquins"); the Mohawk refer to it in Kanienʼkéha as Roiatatokenti, Raoteniateara, Ken’tarókwen, or Kaniatarowanénhne; the Tuscarora call it Kahnawáˀkye or Kaniatarowanenneh ("Big Water Current"); the Algonquins (or Omàmiwininiwak) call it "the Walking Path" or Magtogoek or Kitcikanii sipi, the "Large Water River"; the Huron-Wendats refer to it as Lada8anna or Laooendaooena; and, the Atikamekw of Nitaskinan refer to it as Micta sipi ("Huge River").

Hudson River

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315 mi river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York in the United States.

315 mi river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York in the United States.

The Hudson River Watershed, including the Hudson and Mohawk rivers
The mouth of the Hudson (yellow), located between Jersey City and New York City
The Hudson River flowing out of Henderson Lake in Tahawus
The river from Poughkeepsie, looking north.
The river between Hudson Waterfront in New Jersey (left) and Manhattan (right)
The bulk carrier Nord Angel breaking ice on the Hudson
Robert Havell, Jr., View of the Hudson River from Tarrytown, c. 1866
The Erie Canal in Amsterdam, New York
The George Washington Bridge links Upper Manhattan and Fort Lee, New Jersey
The Hudson Valley Hot-Air Balloon Festival, 2009
US Airways Flight 1549 after landing on the waters of the Hudson River in January 2009
North River by George Bellows, 1908, Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts
The Norrie Point Environmental Center in Staatsburg, headquarters of the Hudson River National Estuarine Research Reserve
Debris floating on the river near the World Trade Center, 1973
A juvenile house sparrow by the Hudson River

The Hudson River runs through the Munsee/Lenape, Mohican, and Mohawk, Haudenosaunee homelands.


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Joseph Onasakenrat, Kanesatà:ke Chief, 1868–1881

Kanesatake (Kanehsatà:ke in Mohawk) is a Mohawk (Kanien'kéha:ka in Mohawk) settlement on the shore of the Lake of Two Mountains in southwestern Quebec, Canada, at the confluence of the Ottawa and Saint Lawrence rivers and about 48 km west of Montreal.

A 1776 portrait of Brant by leading court painter George Romney

Joseph Brant

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A 1776 portrait of Brant by leading court painter George Romney
Joseph Brant, watercolour by William Armstrong
Joseph Thayendaneken, The Mohawk Chief, 1776.
Portrait of Joseph Brant by Charles Willson Peale (1797)
Joseph Brant, painted in London by Gilbert Stuart in 1786
Statue of Brant in Brantford, Ontario.
1830s lithograph based on the last portrait of Brant, an 1806 oil on canvas painting by Ezra Ames.
Statue of Joseph Brant at the Valiants Memorial in Ottawa
Fort Brant, Royal Military College of Canada

Thayendanegea or Joseph Brant (March 1743 – November 24, 1807) was a Mohawk military and political leader, based in present-day New York, who was closely associated with Great Britain during and after the American Revolution.

Mohawk language stop sign.

Mohawk language

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Mohawk language stop sign.
Plaque in English, Mohawk, and French describing the Grand River. Plaque located in Galt, Cambridge, Ontario
A warning sign in Mohawk

Mohawk (Kanienʼkéha, "[language] of the Flint Place") is an Iroquoian language currently spoken by around 3,500 people of the Mohawk nation, located primarily in current or former Haudenosaunee territories, predominately Canada (southern Ontario and Quebec), and to a lesser extent in the United States (western and northern New York).


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State in the New England region of the United States.

State in the New England region of the United States.

The Old Constitution House at Windsor, where the Constitution of Vermont was adopted on July 8, 1777
A circa 1775 flag used by the Green Mountain Boys
The gold leaf dome of the neoclassical Vermont State House (Capitol) in Montpelier
1791 Act of Congress admitting Vermont into the Union
Vermont in 1827. The county boundaries have since changed.
Map of Vermont showing cities, roads, and rivers
Population density of Vermont
Mount Mansfield
Western face of Camel's Hump Mountain (elevation 4079 ft).
Fall foliage at Lake Willoughby
Köppen climate types of Vermont, using 1991–2020 climate normals.
Silurian and Devonian stratigraphy of Vermont
The hermit thrush, the state bird of Vermont
A proportional representation of Vermont exports, 2020
Fall foliage seen from Hogback Mountain, Wilmington
Lake Champlain
Autumn in Vermont
Stowe Resort Village
The Lyndon Institute, a high school in Lyndon, Vermont
The University of Vermont
Old Mill, the oldest building of the university
Vermont welcome sign in Addison on Route 17 just over the New York border over the Champlain Bridge
Amtrak station in White River Junction
The Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plant, in Vernon
The Vermont Supreme Court's building in Montpelier
Vermont towns hold a March town meeting for voters to approve the town's budget and decide other matters. Marlboro voters meet in this building.
Senators Bernie Sanders and Patrick Leahy and Representative Peter Welch greet supporters in 2017.
Vermontasaurus sculpture in Post Mills, in 2010

The historically competitive tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Abenaki and Iroquoian-speaking Mohawk were active in the area at the time of European encounter.