Map of Mohawk River
Kanienʼkehá:ka dancer at a pow wow in 2015
New York was dominated by Iroquoian (purple) and Algonquian (pink) tribes.
A depiction of Jacques Cartier by Théophile Hamel, 1844
Contemporary Quebec Kanienʼkehá꞉ka dance performance at Wikimania 2017
New Amsterdam, present-day Lower Manhattan, 1660
Three Huron-Wyandot chiefs from Wendake. New France had largely peaceful relations with the Indigenous people, such as their allies the Huron. After the defeat of the Huron by their mutual enemy, the Iroquois, many fled from Ontario to Quebec.
Teyoninhokovrawen (John Norton) played a prominent role in the War of 1812, leading Iroquois warriors from Grand River into battle against Americans. Norton was part Cherokee and part Scottish.
New York and neighboring provinces, by Claude Joseph Sauthier, 1777
Montcalm leading his troops into battle. Watercolour by Charles William Jefferys.
Pauline Johnson, Mohawk writer
British general John Burgoyne surrenders at Saratoga in 1777
The Province of Quebec in 1774
1800 map of New York from Low's Encyclopaedia
The Battle of Saint-Eustache was the final battle of the Lower Canada Rebellion.
The Erie Canal at Lockport, New York, in 1839
George-Étienne Cartier, creator of the Quebec state and premier of Canada East
Flight 175 hitting the South Tower on September11, 2001
Maurice Duplessis, premier of Quebec from 1936 to 1939 and during the Grande Noirceur
Flooding on AvenueC in Lower Manhattan caused by Hurricane Sandy
"Maîtres chez nous" was the electoral slogan of the Liberal Party during the 1962 election.
New York is bordered by six U.S. states, two Great Lakes, and the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec.
René Lévesque, one of the architects of the Quiet Revolution, and the Premier of Quebec's first modern sovereignist government
Enveloped by the Atlantic Ocean and Long Island Sound, New York City and Long Island alone are home to about eleven million residents conjointly.
Map of Quebec
Lake-effect snow is a major contributor to heavy snowfall totals in western New York, including the Tug Hill region.
Michel's falls on Ashuapmushuan River in Saint-Félicien, Saguenay–Lac-Saint-Jean
Two major state parks (in green) are the Adirondack Park (north) and the Catskill Park (south).
Köppen climate types of Quebec
The Statue of Liberty in New York Harbor is a symbol of the United States and its ideals.
Baie-Saint-Paul during winter
The African Burial Ground National Monument in Lower Manhattan
The Parliament Building in Quebec City
Map of the counties in New York
The seventeen administrative regions of Quebec.
New York population distribution map. New York's population is primarily concentrated in the Greater New York area, including New York City and Long Island.
The Édifice Ernest-Cormier is the courthouse for the Quebec Court of Appeal in Montreal
The Stonewall Inn in the gay village of Greenwich Village, Lower Manhattan, site of the June 1969 Stonewall riots, the cradle of the modern LGBT rights movement
The Basilica of Sainte-Anne-de-Beaupré
258x258px
The main laboratory building of the IBM Watson Research Center is located in Yorktown Heights, New York.
Map of aboriginal communities in Quebec, this includes reserves, settlements and northern villages.
Times Square in Midtown Manhattan, hub of the Broadway theater district, a media center, and one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections
The Institut national de la recherche scientifique helps to advance scientific knowledge and to train a new generation of students in various scientific and technological sectors.
"I Love New York"
Quebec's exports to the international market. The United States is the country which buys the most Québécois exports by far. (2011)
CMA CGM Theodore Roosevelt, the largest container ship to enter the Port of New York and New Jersey as of September7, 2017
The Beauharnois generating station, operated by Hydro-Québec
Harris Hall of the City College of New York, a public college of the City University of New York
A mockup of the Airbus A220 (formerly the Bombardier CSeries), originally developed by Bombardier Aerospace
Butler Library at Columbia University
The Château Frontenac is the most photographed hotel in the world.
University of Rochester
In 1969, Héroux-Devtek designed and manufactured the undercarriage of the Apollo Lunar Module.
South campus of the University at Buffalo, the flagship of the State University of New York
The ferry N.M. Camille-Marcoux, of the Société des traversiers du Québec
The New York City Subway is one of the world's busiest, serving more than five million passengers per average weekday.
The show Dralion, Cirque du Soleil, introduced in 2004
Grand Central Terminal in New York City
La chasse-galerie (1906) by Henri Julien, showing a scene from a popular Quebec folk legend.
John F. Kennedy Airport in Queens, the busiest international air passenger gateway to the United States
La Cavalière by Charles Daudelin, 1963, installed in front of the pavilion Gérard Morisset of the Quebec National Museum of Fine Arts in Quebec City
The New York State Capitol in Albany
Maison Routhier in Sainte-Foy. This kind of Canadien-style house remains a symbol of Canadien nationalism.
New York State Court of Appeals
A classic poutine from La Banquise in Montreal
Kirsten Gillibrand and Chuck Schumer, New York's U.S. Senators
The Montreal Canadiens at the Bell Centre
Kathy Hochul (D), the 57th Governor of New York
St-Jean-Baptiste Day celebrations at Maisonneuve park in Montréal
Yankee Stadium in The Bronx
The Fleurdelisé flying at Place d'Armes in Montreal
Koppen climate of New York
Canada in the 18th century.
The Province of Quebec from 1763 to 1783.
Lower Canada from 1791 to 1841. (Patriots' War in 1837, Canada East in 1841)
Quebec from 1867 to 1927.
Quebec today. Quebec (in blue) has a border dispute with Labrador (in red).
Different forest areas of Quebec. 1. Middle Arctic Tundra
2. Low Arctic Tundra
3. Torngat Mountain Tundra
4. Eastern Canadian Shield Taiga
5. Southern Hudson Bay Taiga
6. Central Canadian Shield Forests
7. Eastern Canadian Forests
8. Eastern Forest/Boreal Transition
9. Eastern Great Lakes Lowland Forests
10. New England/Acadian Forests
11. Gulf of St. Lawrence Lowland Forests

They are an Iroquoian-speaking Indigenous people of North America, with communities in southeastern Canada and northern New York State, primarily around Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River.

- Mohawk people

The state of New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south, and Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Vermont to the east; it has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest.

- New York (state)

Located in Central Canada, the province shares land borders with Ontario to the west, Newfoundland and Labrador to the northeast, New Brunswick to the southeast, and a coastal border with Nunavut; in the south it borders Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, and New York in the United States.

- Quebec

Their territory ranged north to the St. Lawrence River, southern Quebec and eastern Ontario; south to greater New Jersey and into Pennsylvania; eastward to the Green Mountains of Vermont; and westward to the border with the Iroquoian Oneida Nation's traditional homeland territory.

- Mohawk people

Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk—part of the original Iroquois Five Nations, and the Petun.

- New York (state)

In 2016, the Mohawk reserves of Kahnawake and Doncaster 17 along with the Indian settlement of Kanesatake and Lac-Rapide, a reserve of the Algonquins of Barriere Lake, were not counted.

- Quebec

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Ontario

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One of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada.

One of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada.

Typical landscape of the Canadian Shield at Queen Elizabeth II Wildlands Provincial Park, located in Central Ontario
Köppen climate types of Ontario
Cold northwesterly wind over the Great Lakes creating lake-effect snow. Lake-effect snow most frequently occurs in the snowbelt regions of the province.
A 1755 map of the Pays d'en Haut region of New France, an area that included most of Ontario
A monument in Hamilton commemorating the United Empire Loyalists, a group of settlers who fled the United States during or after the American Revolution
Depiction of the Battle of Queenston Heights, during the War of 1812. Upper Canada was an active theatre of operation during the conflict.
A map highlighting the Canadas, with Upper Canada in orange, and Lower Canada in green. In 1841, the two colonies were united to form the Province of Canada.
Oliver Mowat, Premier of Ontario from 1872 to 1896
Law enforcement confiscate stores of alcohol in Elk Lake in an effort to enforce prohibition. The prohibition measures were introduced in 1916 and were not repealed until 1927.
A monument commemorating the immigrant family in Toronto. The province saw a large number of migrants settle in Ontario in the decades following World War II.
Evolution of the borders of Ontario since Canadian Confederation in 1867
Population density of Ontario
English and French displayed on a gantry sign. Communities with sizeable Francophone populations are able to receive provincial services in French.
Container ship at Algoma Steel. The Great Lakes provide ocean access for industries in the province's interior.
A worker at the Oakville Assembly installs a battery in an automobile. The automotive industry is a contributor to the economy of Ontario.
Toronto's Financial District serves as the centre for Canada's financial services.
Aerial view of farms in Waterloo. A significant portion of the land in Southern Ontario is used as farmland.
Grapevines growing in Prince Edward County, a wine-growing region
A sign marking the Ottawa Greenbelt, an initiative to protect farmland and limit urban sprawl
The Pickering Nuclear Generating Station is one of three nuclear power stations in Ontario.
The Sir Adam Beck Hydroelectric Generating Stations are hydroelectric plants located in Niagara Falls.
Osgoode Hall houses the Court of Appeal for Ontario, the appellate court for the province.
The Ontario Legislative Building at Queen's Park. The building serves as the meeting place for the Legislative Assembly of Ontario.
Map of the counties, regional municipalities, districts, and municipalities of Ontario.
An Ontario licence plate with the slogan Yours to Discover at the bottom of the plate
Thunder Bay International Airport is one of five international airports operating in Ontario.
Highway 400 in Seguin. The roadway forms a part of the province's 400-series highways.
Map of Upper Canada, 1811
Map of Canada West from 1855. Canada West formed the western portion of the Province of Canada.

Located in Central Canada, it is Canada's most populous province, with 38.3 percent of the country's population, and is the second-largest province by total area (after Quebec).

Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, and Quebec to the east and northeast, and to the south by the U.S. states of (from west to east) Minnesota, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York.

The British also set up reserves in Ontario for the Mohawks who had fought for the British and had lost their land in New York state.

St. Lawrence River

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Large river in the middle latitudes of North America, flowing from Lake Ontario in a roughly northeasterly direction into the Gulf of St. Lawrence, connecting the Great Lakes to the North Atlantic Ocean and forming the primary drainage outflow of the Great Lakes Basin.

Large river in the middle latitudes of North America, flowing from Lake Ontario in a roughly northeasterly direction into the Gulf of St. Lawrence, connecting the Great Lakes to the North Atlantic Ocean and forming the primary drainage outflow of the Great Lakes Basin.

The Champlain Sea
Map of 1543 showing Cartier's discoveries
Basque settlements and sites dating from the 16th and 17th centuries
A watercolour painting by Elizabeth Simcoe created [ca. 1792] depicting a bend in the St. Lawrence River, Quebec from the Simcoe Family fonds held at the Archives of Ontario.
Watching fin whales off Tadoussac

The river traverses the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec as well as the U.S. state of New York, and is part of the international boundary between Canada and the United States.

Innu-aimun, the language of Nitassinan, refers to it as Wepistukujaw Sipo/Wepìstùkwiyaht sīpu; the Abenaki call it Moliantegok/Moliantekw ("Montréal River"), Kchitegw/Ktsitekw/Gicitegw ("Great River"), or Oss8genaizibo/Ws8genaisibo/Wsogenaisibo ("River of the Algonquins"); the Mohawk refer to it in Kanienʼkéha as Roiatatokenti, Raoteniateara, Ken’tarókwen, or Kaniatarowanénhne; the Tuscarora call it Kahnawáˀkye or Kaniatarowanenneh ("Big Water Current"); the Algonquins (or Omàmiwininiwak) call it "the Walking Path" or Magtogoek or Kitcikanii sipi, the "Large Water River"; the Huron-Wendats refer to it as Lada8anna or Laooendaooena; and, the Atikamekw of Nitaskinan refer to it as Micta sipi ("Huge River").

<center>Western Abenaki (Arsigantegok, Missisquoi, Cowasuck, Sokoki, Pennacook)</center>

Abenaki

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Indigenous peoples of the Northeastern Woodlands of Canada and the United States.

Indigenous peoples of the Northeastern Woodlands of Canada and the United States.

<center>Western Abenaki (Arsigantegok, Missisquoi, Cowasuck, Sokoki, Pennacook)</center>
<center>Eastern Abenaki (Penobscot, Kennebec, Arosaguntacook, Pigwacket/Pequawket)</center>
Abenaki teepee with birch bark covering.
Flag of Missisquoi Abenaki Tribe, a state-recognized tribe in Vermont
Statue of Keewakwa Abenaki Keenahbeh in Opechee Park in Laconia, New Hampshire (standing at 36 ft.)
<center>Miꞌkmaq</center>
<center>Maliseet,

The Eastern Abenaki language was predominantly spoken in Maine, while the Western Abenaki language was spoken in Quebec, Vermont, and New Hampshire.

Tribal members are working to revive the Abenaki language at Odanak (means "in the village"), a First Nations Abenaki reserve near Pierreville, Quebec, and throughout New Hampshire, Vermont, and New York state.

Some captives were adopted into the Mohawk and Abenaki tribes; older captives were generally ransomed, and the colonies carried on a brisk trade.

Vermont

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State in the New England region of the United States.

State in the New England region of the United States.

The Old Constitution House at Windsor, where the Constitution of Vermont was adopted on July 8, 1777
A circa 1775 flag used by the Green Mountain Boys
The gold leaf dome of the neoclassical Vermont State House (Capitol) in Montpelier
1791 Act of Congress admitting Vermont into the Union
Vermont in 1827. The county boundaries have since changed.
Map of Vermont showing cities, roads, and rivers
Population density of Vermont
Mount Mansfield
Western face of Camel's Hump Mountain (elevation 4079 ft).
Fall foliage at Lake Willoughby
Köppen climate types of Vermont, using 1991–2020 climate normals.
Silurian and Devonian stratigraphy of Vermont
The hermit thrush, the state bird of Vermont
A proportional representation of Vermont exports, 2020
Fall foliage seen from Hogback Mountain, Wilmington
Lake Champlain
Autumn in Vermont
Stowe Resort Village
The Lyndon Institute, a high school in Lyndon, Vermont
The University of Vermont
Old Mill, the oldest building of the university
Vermont welcome sign in Addison on Route 17 just over the New York border over the Champlain Bridge
Amtrak station in White River Junction
The Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plant, in Vernon
The Vermont Supreme Court's building in Montpelier
Vermont towns hold a March town meeting for voters to approve the town's budget and decide other matters. Marlboro voters meet in this building.
Senators Bernie Sanders and Patrick Leahy and Representative Peter Welch greet supporters in 2017.
Vermontasaurus sculpture in Post Mills, in 2010

It borders the states of Massachusetts to the south, New Hampshire to the east, and New York to the west, and the Canadian province of Quebec to the north.

The historically competitive tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Abenaki and Iroquoian-speaking Mohawk were active in the area at the time of European encounter.

Clockwise from top:
Damage to the United States Capitol after the burning of Washington

Mortally wounded Isaac Brock spurs on the York Volunteers at the battle of Queenston Heights

USS Constitution vs HMS Guerriere

The death of Tecumseh in 1813

Andrew Jackson defeats the British assault on New Orleans in 1815

War of 1812

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Fought by the United States of America and its indigenous allies against the United Kingdom and its allies in British North America, with limited participation by Spain in Florida.

Fought by the United States of America and its indigenous allies against the United Kingdom and its allies in British North America, with limited participation by Spain in Florida.

Clockwise from top:
Damage to the United States Capitol after the burning of Washington

Mortally wounded Isaac Brock spurs on the York Volunteers at the battle of Queenston Heights

USS Constitution vs HMS Guerriere

The death of Tecumseh in 1813

Andrew Jackson defeats the British assault on New Orleans in 1815
Upper and Lower Canada, circa 1812
Map showing the general distribution of Indian tribes in the Northwest Territory in the early 1790s
American expansion in the Indiana Territory
James Madison, the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817). Madison was the leader of the Democratic-Republican Party, whose power base came from southern and western states.
Depiction of a British private soldier (left) and officer (right) of the period
Governor General George Prévost was urged to maintain a defensive strategy as British forces were already preoccupied with the Napoleonic Wars.
Northern theatre, War of 1812
American surrender of Detroit, August 1812
Oliver Hazard Perry's message to William Henry Harrison after the Battle of Lake Erie began as such: "We have met the enemy and they are ours".
Laura Secord providing advance warning to James FitzGibbon, which led to a British-Iroquois victory at the Battle of Beaver Dams, June 1813
Fencibles, militia, and Mohawks repel an American attack on Montreal, Battle of the Chateauguay, October 1813
American infantry prepare to attack during the Battle of Lundy's Lane
Unsuccessful British assault on Fort Erie, 14 August 1814
Defeat at Plattsburgh led Prévost to call off the invasion of New York.
The Upper Mississippi River during the War of 1812:
The Royal Navy's North American squadron was based in Halifax, Nova Scotia and Bermuda. At the start of the war, the squadron had one ship of the line, seven frigates, nine sloops as well as brigs and schooners.
USS Constitution defeats in a single-ship engagement. The battle was an important victory for American morale.
Captain Broke leads the boarding party to USS Chesapeake (1799). The British capture of Chesapeake was one of the bloodiest contests in the age of sail.
The Battle of Valparaíso ended the American naval threat to British interests in the south Pacific Ocean.
The capture of USS President was the last naval duel to take place during the conflict, with its combatants unaware of the signing of the Treaty of Ghent several weeks prior.
Marines aboard USS Wasp (1814) engage, June 1814. During the war, sloops of the United States Navy scored several victories against British sloops.
Baltimore Clippers were a series of schooners used by American privateers during the war.
A map of the American coastline. British naval strategy was to protect their shipping in North America and enforce a naval blockade on the United States.
The only known photograph of a Black Refugee, c. 1890. During the war, a number of African Americans slaves escaped aboard British ships, settling in Canada (mainly in Nova Scotia) or Trinidad.
Map of the Chesapeake Campaign
Admiralty House, at Mount Wyndham, Bermuda, where the Chesapeake campaign was planned
An artist's rendering of the bombardment at Fort McHenry during the Battle of Baltimore. Watching the bombardment from a truce ship, Francis Scott Key was inspired to write the four-stanza poem that later became "The Star-Spangled Banner".
In 1813, Creek warriors attacked Fort Mims and killed 400 to 500 people. The massacre became a rallying point for Americans.
Creek forces were defeated at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend, bringing an end to the Creek War.
American forces repelled a British assault on New Orleans in January 1815. The battle occurred before news of a peace treaty reached the United States.
A political caricature of delegates from the Hartford Convention deciding whether to leap into the hands of the British, December 1814. The convention led to widespread fears that the New England states might attempt to secede from the United States.
Depiction of the signing of the Treaty of Ghent, which formally ended the war between the British Empire and the United States
United States per capita GDP 1810–1815 in constant 2009 dollars
The Royal Naval Dockyard, Bermuda
Fort Henry at Kingston in 1836. Built from 1832 to 1836, the fort was one of several works undertaken to improve the colonies' defences.
Independence Day celebrations in 1819. In the United States, the war was followed by the Era of Good Feelings, a period that saw nationalism and a desire for national unity rise throughout the country.

Thomas Jefferson believed taking "...Canada this year, as far as...Quebec, will be a mere matter of marching, and will give us the experience for the attack on Halifax, the next and final expulsion of England from the American continent".

Charles de Salaberry defeated Hampton's force of 4,000 at the Chateauguay River on 25 October with a smaller force of Canadian Voltigeurs and Mohawks.

Indigenous nations were displaced in Alabama, Georgia, New York and Oklahoma, losing most of what is now Indiana, Michigan, Ohio and Wisconsin within the Northwest Territory as well as in New York and the South.