Moksha

liberationmuktimoksamokṣasalvationvimuttikaivalyaspiritual liberationenlightenmentFreedom
Moksha, also called vimoksha, vimukti and mukti, is a term in Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism which refers to various forms of emancipation, enlightenment, liberation, and release.wikipedia
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Hinduism

HinduHindusHindu culture
Moksha, also called vimoksha, vimukti and mukti, is a term in Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism which refers to various forms of emancipation, enlightenment, liberation, and release.
Prominent themes in Hindu beliefs include the four Puruṣārthas, the proper goals or aims of human life, namely Dharma (ethics/duties), Artha (prosperity/work), Kama (desires/passions) and Moksha (liberation/freedom from the cycle of death and rebirth/salvation); karma (action, intent and consequences), Saṃsāra (cycle of death and rebirth), and the various Yogas (paths or practices to attain moksha).

Soteriology

soteriologicalsoteriologicallysalvation through a personal God
In its soteriological and eschatological senses, it refers to freedom from saṃsāra, the cycle of death and rebirth.
The purpose of one's life is to break free from samsara, the cycle of compulsory rebirth, by attaining moksha and nirvana.

Buddhism

BuddhistBuddhistsBuddhadharma
Moksha, also called vimoksha, vimukti and mukti, is a term in Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism which refers to various forms of emancipation, enlightenment, liberation, and release.
But there is a way to liberation from this endless cycle to the state of nirvana, namely following the Noble Eightfold Path.

Reincarnation

reincarnatedrebirthpast lives
In its soteriological and eschatological senses, it refers to freedom from saṃsāra, the cycle of death and rebirth.
They consider the release from the cycle of reincarnations as the ultimate spiritual goal, and call the liberation by terms such as moksha, nirvana, mukti and kaivalya.

Puruṣārtha

PurusharthapurusharthasPurusartha
Together, these four concepts are called Puruṣārtha in Hinduism.
The four puruṣārthas are Dharma (righteousness, moral values), Artha (prosperity, economic values), Kama (pleasure, love, psychological values) and Moksha (liberation, spiritual values).

Jainism

JainJainsJaina
Moksha, also called vimoksha, vimukti and mukti, is a term in Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism which refers to various forms of emancipation, enlightenment, liberation, and release.
The spiritual goal in Jainism is to reach moksha for ascetics, but for most Jain laypersons and ascetics it is to accumulate good karma that leads to better rebirth and a step closer to liberation.

Kama

kāmaKama-LokaKamaloka
In Hindu traditions, moksha is a central concept and the utmost aim to be attained through three paths during human life; these three paths are dharma (virtuous, proper, moral life), artha (material prosperity, income security, means of life), and kama (pleasure, sensuality, emotional fulfillment).
It is considered an essential and healthy goal of human life when pursued without sacrificing the other three goals: Dharma (virtuous, proper, moral life), Artha (material prosperity, income security, means of life) and Moksha (liberation, release, self-actualization).

Nirvana

nibbanaNibbānaNirvāṇa
In some schools of Indian religions, moksha is considered equivalent to and used interchangeably with other terms such as vimoksha, vimukti, kaivalya, apavarga, mukti, nihsreyasa and nirvana. This release was called moksha, nirvana, kaivalya, mukti and other terms in various Indian religious traditions.
In Indian religions, nirvana is synonymous with moksha and mukti.

Artha

wealth
In Hindu traditions, moksha is a central concept and the utmost aim to be attained through three paths during human life; these three paths are dharma (virtuous, proper, moral life), artha (material prosperity, income security, means of life), and kama (pleasure, sensuality, emotional fulfillment).
In Hindu traditions, Artha is connected to the three other aspects and goals of human life: Dharma (virtuous, proper, moral life), Kama (pleasure, sensuality, emotional fulfillment) and Moksha (liberation, release, self-actualization).

Kaivalya

liberation
This release was called moksha, nirvana, kaivalya, mukti and other terms in various Indian religious traditions.
It is the isolation of purusha from prakṛti, and liberation from rebirth, i.e., Moksha (although this is controversial due to the predominant view that it is impossible to separate/isolate purusha from prakrati, and vice versa).

Karma

karmicKarmaskamma
The rebirth idea ultimately flowered into the ideas of saṃsāra, or transmigration - where one's balance sheet of karma determined one's rebirth.
This cycle continues indefinitely, except for those who consciously break this cycle by reaching moksa.

Punya (Hinduism)

punyameritpunyas
Over time, the ancient scholars observed that people vary in the quality of virtuous or sinful life they lead, and began questioning how differences in each person's puṇya (merit, good deeds) or pāp (demerit, sin) as human beings affected their afterlife.
Punya and pāpa are the seeds of future pleasure and pain, the former, which sows merits, exhausts itself only through pleasure and the latter, which sows demerits, exhausts itself only through pain; but Jiwan mukti ends all karmic debts consisting of and signified by these two dynamics.

Vivekachudamani

Viveka ChudamaniVivekacūḍāmaṇiBrahma Satyam Jagad Mithya
For example, Vivekachudamani - an ancient book on moksha, explains one of many meditative steps on the path to moksha, as:
The text discusses key concepts and the viveka or discrimination or discernment between real (unchanging, eternal) and unreal (changing, temporal), Prakriti and Atman, the oneness of Atman and Brahman, and self-knowledge as the central task of the spiritual life and for Moksha.

Suffering

paindistresssuffer
By release from this cycle, the suffering involved in this cycle also ended.
Thus the soul or true self, which is eternally free of any suffering, may come to manifest itself in the person, who then achieves liberation (moksha).

Katha Upanishad

KathaKathopanishadKathaka Upanishad
Kathaka Upanishad, a middle Upanishadic era script dated to be about 2500 years old, is among the earliest expositions about saṃsāra and moksha.
Their conversation evolves to a discussion of the nature of man, knowledge, Atman (Soul, Self) and moksha (liberation).

Ātman (Hinduism)

AtmanĀtmanAtma
Yama explains that suffering and saṃsāra results from a life that is lived absent-mindedly, with impurity, with neither the use of intelligence nor self-examination, where neither mind nor senses are guided by one's atma (soul, self).
In order to attain liberation (moksha), a human being must acquire self-knowledge (atma jnana), which is to realize that one's true self (Ātman) is identical with the transcendent self Brahman.

Brahman

BrahmBrahmaBrahmam
Moksha has been defined not merely as absence of suffering and release from bondage to saṃsāra, various schools of Hinduism also explain the concept as presence of the state of paripurna-brahmanubhava (the experience of oneness with Brahman, the One Supreme Self), a state of knowledge, peace and bliss.
The orthodox schools of Hinduism, particularly Vedanta, Samkhya and Yoga schools, focus on the concept of Brahman and Atman in their discussion of moksha.

Yoga

yogicyogiYog
Yogic moksha replaced Vedic rituals with personal development and meditation, with hierarchical creation of the ultimate knowledge in self as the path to moksha.
The ultimate goal of Yoga is moksha (liberation), although the exact form this takes depends on the philosophical or theological system with which it is conjugated.

Advaita Vedanta

AdvaitaAdvaita VedāntaAdvaitha
The three main sub-schools in Vedanta school of Hinduism - Advaita Vedanta, Vishistadvaita and Dvaita - each have their own views about moksha.
The followers of this school are known as Advaita Vedantins, or just Advaitins or Mayavadins, and they seek spiritual liberation through acquiring vidyā, meaning knowledge, of one's true identity as Atman, and the identity of Atman and Brahman.

Dharma

DhammaDharmicdharmas
In Hindu traditions, moksha is a central concept and the utmost aim to be attained through three paths during human life; these three paths are dharma (virtuous, proper, moral life), artha (material prosperity, income security, means of life), and kama (pleasure, sensuality, emotional fulfillment).
The other three strivings are Artha – the striving for means of life such as food, shelter, power, security, material wealth, etc.; Kama – the striving for sex, desire, pleasure, love, emotional fulfillment, etc.; and Moksa – the striving for spiritual meaning, liberation from life-rebirth cycle, self-realisation in this life, etc. The four stages are neither independent nor exclusionary in Hindu dharma.

Maitrayaniya Upanishad

Maitri UpanishadMaitriMaitrāyaṇi Upanishad
It is the middle and later Upanishads, such as the Svetasvatara and Maitri, where the word moksha appears and begins becoming an important concept.
and "how one can achieve moksha (liberation)?"; in later sections it offers a debate on possible answers.

Adi Shankara

Adi ShankaracharyaShankaraAdi Sankara
Adi Shankara in the 8th century AD, like Nagarjuna earlier, examined the difference between the world one lives in and moksha, a state of freedom and release one hopes for.
Shankara's primary objective was to understand and explain how moksha is achievable in this life, what it is means to be liberated, free and a Jivanmukta.

Sannyasa

sannyasisanyasisannyasin
During the Upanishadic era, Hinduism expanded this to include a fourth stage of life: complete abandonment.
The goal of the Hindu Sannyasin is moksha (liberation).

Samkhya

SankhyaSāṃkhyaSāṅkhya
The Samkhya school of Hinduism, for example, suggests that one of the paths to moksha is to magnify one's sattvam.
Samkhya school considers moksha as a natural quest of every soul.

Jnana yoga

jnanaJñāna Yogajnani
The first mārga is Jñāna Yoga, the way of knowledge.
It is one of the three classical paths (margas) for moksha (salvation, liberation).