Molecular biology

molecular biologistmolecularmolecular microbiologymolecular biologistsmolecular biologicalbiochemical geneticsmolecular levelmolecular techniquesmolecular mechanismsbiochemical geneticist
Molecular biology is a branch of biology that concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.wikipedia
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Biology

biologicalBiological Sciencesbiologist
Molecular biology is a branch of biology that concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical processes, molecular interactions, physiological mechanisms, development and evolution.

Biomolecule

biochemicalbiomoleculesbiomolecular
Molecular biology is a branch of biology that concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions. There is also a long tradition of studying biomolecules "from the ground up" in biophysics.
Biology and its subfields of biochemistry and molecular biology study biomolecules and their reactions.

Biochemistry

biochemistbiochemicalbiological chemistry
Biochemistry is closely related to molecular biology, the study of the molecular mechanisms of biological phenomena.

William Astbury

William Thomas AstburyAstburyAstbury, William Thomas
Writing in Nature in 1961, William Astbury described molecular biology as:
William Thomas Astbury FRS (also Bill Astbury; 25 February 1898, Longton – 4 June 1961, Leeds) was an English physicist and molecular biologist who made pioneering X-ray diffraction studies of biological molecules.

Bioinformatics

bioinformaticbioinformaticianbio-informatics
Much of molecular biology is quantitative, and recently much work has been done at its interface with computer science in bioinformatics and computational biology.
In experimental molecular biology, bioinformatics techniques such as image and signal processing allow extraction of useful results from large amounts of raw data.

Molecular genetics

molecular geneticmolecularmolecular geneticist
In the early 2000s, the study of gene structure and function, molecular genetics, has been among the most prominent sub-fields of molecular biology.
The field of study is based on the merging of several sub-fields in biology: classical Mendelian inheritance, cellular biology, molecular biology, biochemistry, and biotechnology.

Computational biology

computational biologistcomputationalcomputational biologists
Much of molecular biology is quantitative, and recently much work has been done at its interface with computer science in bioinformatics and computational biology.
The field is broadly defined and includes foundations in biology, applied mathematics, statistics, biochemistry, chemistry, biophysics, molecular biology, genetics, genomics, computer science and evolution.

Biophysics

biophysicistbiophysicalbiological physics
There is also a long tradition of studying biomolecules "from the ground up" in biophysics.
Biophysical research shares significant overlap with biochemistry, molecular biology, physical chemistry, physiology, nanotechnology, bioengineering, computational biology, biomechanics, developmental biology and systems biology.

Biochemist

biochemistsoncological biochemist
Modern biochemistry is considered a sub-discipline of the biological sciences, due to its increased reliance on, and training, in accord with modern molecular biology.

DNA replication

replicationreplication forklagging strand
In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.

Translation (biology)

translationtranslatedprotein translation
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.

Evolutionary biology

evolutionary biologistevolutionary biologistsevolutionary
Increasingly many other areas of biology intersecting with molecular Biology, focus on molecules, either directly studying interactions in their own right such as in cell biology and developmental biology, or indirectly, where molecular techniques are used to infer historical attributes of populations or species, as in fields in evolutionary biology such as population genetics and phylogenetics.
One way is by the level of biological organisation, from molecular to cell, organism to population.

Molecular cloning

cloneclonedrecombinant DNA technology
One of the most basic techniques of molecular biology to study protein function is molecular cloning. In this technique, DNA coding for a protein of interest is cloned using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and/or restriction enzymes into a plasmid (expression vector).
Molecular cloning is a set of experimental methods in molecular biology that are used to assemble recombinant DNA molecules and to direct their replication within host organisms.

Epistasis

epistaticgene interactiongenetic interactions
As the study of genetics developed, and with the advent of molecular biology, epistasis started to be studied in relation to Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) and polygenic inheritance.

Transformation (genetics)

transformationtransformedgenetic transformation
Introducing DNA into bacterial cells can be done by transformation via uptake of naked DNA, conjugation via cell-cell contact or by transduction via viral vector.
In molecular biology, transformation is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the direct uptake and incorporation of exogenous genetic material from its surroundings through the cell membrane(s).

DNA

deoxyribonucleic aciddouble-stranded DNAdsDNA
Molecular biology is a branch of biology that concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.
The most frequently used nucleases in molecular biology are the restriction endonucleases, which cut DNA at specific sequences.

Genome

genomesgenetic materialgenomic
The plasmid may be integrated into the genome, resulting in a stable transfection, or may remain independent of the genome, called transient transfection.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.

Plasmid

plasmidsepisomeplasmid vector
In this technique, DNA coding for a protein of interest is cloned using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and/or restriction enzymes into a plasmid (expression vector).
The term plasmid was introduced in 1952 by the American molecular biologist Joshua Lederberg to refer to "any extrachromosomal hereditary determinant."

Site-directed mutagenesis

mutagenesissite-specific mutagenesistargeted mutagenesis
The PCR technique can be used to introduce restriction enzyme sites to ends of DNA molecules, or to mutate particular bases of DNA, the latter is a method referred to as site-directed mutagenesis.
Site-directed mutagenesis is a molecular biology method that is used to make specific and intentional changes to the DNA sequence of a gene and any gene products.

Real-time polymerase chain reaction

quantitative PCRqPCRreal-time PCR
PCR has many variations, like reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) for amplification of RNA, and, more recently, quantitative PCR which allow for quantitative measurement of DNA or RNA molecules.
A real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR), also known as quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), is a laboratory technique of molecular biology based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

DNA sequencing

DNA sequencesequencesequencing
In brief, PCR allows a specific DNA sequence to be copied or modified in predetermined ways.
Sequencing is used in molecular biology to study genomes and the proteins they encode.

Agarose gel electrophoresis

agarose gelagaroseelectrophoresis
In agarose gel electrophoresis, DNA and RNA can be separated on the basis of size by running the DNA through an electrically charged agarose gel.
Agarose gel electrophoresis is a method of gel electrophoresis used in biochemistry, molecular biology, genetics, and clinical chemistry to separate a mixed population of macromolecules such as DNA or proteins in a matrix of agarose, one of the two main components of agar.

Molecule

molecularmoleculesmolecular structure
Molecular biology is a branch of biology that concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.

Southern blot

Southern blottingSouthern hybridizationblotting, southern
The terms northern, western and eastern blotting are derived from what initially was a molecular biology joke that played on the term Southern blotting, after the technique described by Edwin Southern for the hybridisation of blotted DNA.
A Southern blot is a method used in molecular biology for detection of a specific DNA sequence in DNA samples.

Polymerase chain reaction

PCRPCR amplificationpolymerase chain reaction (PCR)
In this technique, DNA coding for a protein of interest is cloned using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and/or restriction enzymes into a plasmid (expression vector).
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a method widely used in molecular biology to make several copies of a specific DNA segment.