This image shows an example of the central dogma using a DNA strand being transcribed then translated and showing important enzymes used in the processes
Diagrammatic representation of Watson and Crick's DNA structure
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An example of forward genetics in C. elegans (a nematode) using mutagenesis.
Angle description in DNA structure
Schematic of bacterial transformation – for which artificial competence must first be induced.
Diagram illustrating the development process of avian flu vaccine by reverse genetics techniques
Diagrammatic representation of experiment
Hershey and Chase experiment
Schematic relationship between biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology
DNA animation
Two percent agarose gel in borate buffer cast in a gel tray.
SDS-PAGE
Proteins stained on a PAGE gel using Coomassie blue dye.
Northern blot diagram
Hybridization of target to probe

In molecular biology and genetics, transformation is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the direct uptake and incorporation of exogenous genetic material from its surroundings through the cell membrane(s).

- Transformation (genetics)

The field of study is based on the merging of several sub-fields in biology: classical Mendelian inheritance, cellular biology, molecular biology, biochemistry, and biotechnology.

- Molecular genetics

In 1972, Cohen and Boyer created the first recombinant DNA organism by inserting recombinant DNA plasmids into E. coli, now known as bacterial transformation, and paved the way for molecular cloning.

- Molecular genetics

Molecular genetics, the study of gene structure and function, has been among the most prominent sub-fields of molecular biology since the early 2000s.

- Molecular biology

Introducing DNA into bacterial cells can be done by transformation via uptake of naked DNA, conjugation via cell-cell contact or by transduction via viral vector.

- Molecular biology
This image shows an example of the central dogma using a DNA strand being transcribed then translated and showing important enzymes used in the processes

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