This image shows an example of the central dogma using a DNA strand being transcribed then translated and showing important enzymes used in the processes
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An example of forward genetics in C. elegans (a nematode) using mutagenesis.
Schematic of bacterial transformation – for which artificial competence must first be induced.
Diagram illustrating the development process of avian flu vaccine by reverse genetics techniques

In molecular biology and genetics, transformation is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the direct uptake and incorporation of exogenous genetic material from its surroundings through the cell membrane(s).

- Transformation (genetics)

In 1972, Cohen and Boyer created the first recombinant DNA organism by inserting recombinant DNA plasmids into E. coli, now known as bacterial transformation, and paved the way for molecular cloning.

- Molecular genetics
This image shows an example of the central dogma using a DNA strand being transcribed then translated and showing important enzymes used in the processes

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Alpha

Diagrammatic representation of Watson and Crick's DNA structure

Molecular biology

Branch of biology that seeks to understand the molecular basis of biological activity in and between cells, including molecular synthesis, modification, mechanisms, and interactions.

Branch of biology that seeks to understand the molecular basis of biological activity in and between cells, including molecular synthesis, modification, mechanisms, and interactions.

Diagrammatic representation of Watson and Crick's DNA structure
Angle description in DNA structure
Diagrammatic representation of experiment
Hershey and Chase experiment
Schematic relationship between biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology
DNA animation
Two percent agarose gel in borate buffer cast in a gel tray.
SDS-PAGE
Proteins stained on a PAGE gel using Coomassie blue dye.
Northern blot diagram
Hybridization of target to probe

Molecular genetics, the study of gene structure and function, has been among the most prominent sub-fields of molecular biology since the early 2000s.

Introducing DNA into bacterial cells can be done by transformation via uptake of naked DNA, conjugation via cell-cell contact or by transduction via viral vector.