Molybdenum

MomolyMolybdenum (Mo)Molybdenum-42 99 MoMo 99 Mo(0)Molybdenimolybdenum oremolybdenum powders
Molybdenum is a chemical element with the symbol Mo and atomic number 42.wikipedia
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Carl Wilhelm Scheele

Carl ScheeleScheeleKarl Scheele
Molybdenum minerals have been known throughout history, but the element was discovered (in the sense of differentiating it as a new entity from the mineral salts of other metals) in 1778 by Carl Wilhelm Scheele.
For example, Scheele discovered oxygen (although Joseph Priestley published his findings first), and identified molybdenum, tungsten, barium, hydrogen, and chlorine before Humphry Davy, among others.

Peter Jacob Hjelm

Hjelm, Peter JacobJ. Hjelm
The metal was first isolated in 1781 by Peter Jacob Hjelm.
Peter (Petter) Jacob Hjelm (2 October 1746 – 7 October 1813) was a Swedish chemist and the first person to isolate the element molybdenum in 1781, four years after its discovery by Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele.

Molybdate

molybdatesMoOMoO 4
Most molybdenum compounds have low solubility in water, but when molybdenum-bearing minerals contact oxygen and water, the resulting molybdate ion is quite soluble.
In chemistry a molybdate is a compound containing an oxoanion with molybdenum in its highest oxidation state of 6.

Native metal

nativefree metalfree
Molybdenum does not occur naturally as a free metal on Earth; it is found only in various oxidation states in minerals.
Metals that can be found as native deposits singly or in alloys include aluminium, antimony, arsenic, bismuth, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, indium, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, niobium, rhenium, selenium, tantalum, tellurium, tin, titanium, tungsten, vanadium, and zinc, as well as two groups of metals: the gold group, and the platinum group.

Steel

steel industrysteelworkersteels
It readily forms hard, stable carbides in alloys, and for this reason most of world production of the element (about 80%) is used in steel alloys, including high-strength alloys and superalloys.
Common alloying elements include: manganese, nickel, chromium, molybdenum, boron, titanium, vanadium, tungsten, cobalt, and niobium.

Superalloy

superalloysadvanced metal alloyssuper alloy
It readily forms hard, stable carbides in alloys, and for this reason most of world production of the element (about 80%) is used in steel alloys, including high-strength alloys and superalloys.
The properties of these Ni based superalloys can be tailored to a certain extent through the addition of many other elements, both common and exotic, including not only metals, but also metalloids and nonmetals; chromium, iron, cobalt, molybdenum, tungsten, tantalum, aluminium, titanium, zirconium, niobium, rhenium, yttrium, vanadium, carbon, boron or hafnium are some examples of the alloying additions used.

Rhenium

ReNipponiumRe 2
It has a melting point of 2623 °C; of the naturally occurring elements, only tantalum, osmium, rhenium, tungsten, and carbon have higher melting points.
Rhenium has the third-highest melting point and highest boiling point of any stable element at 5903 K. Rhenium resembles manganese and technetium chemically and is mainly obtained as a by-product of the extraction and refinement of molybdenum and copper ores.

Nitrogen fixation

nitrogen-fixingfix nitrogennitrogen fixing
are by far the most common bacterial catalysts for breaking the chemical bond in atmospheric molecular nitrogen in the process of biological nitrogen fixation.
These enzymes contain iron, often with a second metal, usually molybdenum but sometimes vanadium.

Symbol (chemistry)

symbolchemical symbolchemical symbols
Molybdenum is a chemical element with the symbol Mo and atomic number 42.

Tungsten

WwolframTungsten (W)
It has a melting point of 2623 °C; of the naturally occurring elements, only tantalum, osmium, rhenium, tungsten, and carbon have higher melting points.
However, tungsten interferes with molybdenum and copper metabolism and is somewhat toxic to more familiar forms of animal life.

Alloy

alloysmetal alloyalloying
It readily forms hard, stable carbides in alloys, and for this reason most of world production of the element (about 80%) is used in steel alloys, including high-strength alloys and superalloys.
Alloy steels can be made by adding other elements, such as chromium, molybdenum, vanadium or nickel, resulting in alloys such as high-speed steel or tool steel.

Technetium

Tc 99 Tc43
All unstable isotopes of molybdenum decay into isotopes of niobium, technetium, and ruthenium.
Naturally occurring technetium is a spontaneous fission product in uranium ore and thorium ore, the most common source, or the product of neutron capture in molybdenum ores.

Isotopes of molybdenum

molybdenum-99 99 MoMo-99
The most common isotopic molybdenum application involves molybdenum-99, which is a fission product.
Molybdenum ( 42 Mo) has 33 known isotopes, ranging in atomic mass from 83 to 115, as well as four metastable nuclear isomers.

Carbide

methanidecarbidespolycarbide
It readily forms hard, stable carbides in alloys, and for this reason most of world production of the element (about 80%) is used in steel alloys, including high-strength alloys and superalloys.

Molybdenum disulfide

MoS 2 molybdenum sulfideMoS2
The highest oxidation state is seen in molybdenum(VI) oxide (MoO 3 ), whereas the normal sulfur compound is molybdenum disulfide MoS 2.
Molybdenum disulfide (or moly) is an inorganic compound composed of molybdenum and sulfur.

List of chemical elements

List of elements by melting pointList of elements by nameList of elements by atomic number
The free element, a silvery metal with a gray cast, has the sixth-highest melting point of any element.

Technetium-99m

99m TcTc-99m99m
It is a parent radioisotope to the short-lived gamma-emitting daughter radioisotope technetium-99m, a nuclear isomer used in various imaging applications in medicine.
Technetium-99m was discovered as a product of cyclotron bombardment of molybdenum.

Lead

Pblead orelead mining
The name is from Neo-Latin molybdaenum, from Ancient Greek Μόλυβδος, meaning lead, since its ores were confused with lead ores.

Ruthenium

RuRu(NH 3 ) 6 3+ ruthenate
All unstable isotopes of molybdenum decay into isotopes of niobium, technetium, and ruthenium. Molybdenum-100 has a half-life of about 10 19 y and undergoes double beta decay into ruthenium-100.
This anomaly is observed in the neighboring metals niobium (41), molybdenum (42), and rhodium (45).

Molybdenum cofactor

Mo-cofactor(s)MoCo
These nitrogenases contain molybdenum in a form different from other molybdenum enzymes, which all contain fully oxidized molybdenum in a molybdenum cofactor.
A molybdenum cofactor is a biochemical cofactor that contains molybdenum.

Metal

metalsmetal ionsmetal ion
The free element, a silvery metal with a gray cast, has the sixth-highest melting point of any element.
The addition of silicon will produce cast irons, while the addition of chromium, nickel and molybdenum to carbon steels (more than 10%) results in stainless steels.

Molybdenum trioxide

molybdenum(VI) oxideMoO 3 molybdenum
The highest oxidation state is seen in molybdenum(VI) oxide (MoO 3 ), whereas the normal sulfur compound is molybdenum disulfide MoS 2. Weak oxidation of molybdenum starts at 300 °C; bulk oxidation occurs at temperatures above 600 °C, resulting in molybdenum trioxide.
This compound is produced on the largest scale of any molybdenum compound.

Molybdenite

molybdenamolybdenite transistorsMolybdenum glance
Molybdenite—the principal ore from which molybdenum is now extracted—was previously known as molybdena.
Molybdenite is a mineral of molybdenum disulfide, MoS 2.

Chromium

Crchromechromium(III)
Like chromium and some other transition metals, molybdenum forms quadruple bonds, such as in Mo 2 (CH 3 COO) 4 and [Mo 2 Cl 8 ] 4−, which also has a quadruple bond.
This occurs again later in the periodic table with other elements and their electron configurations, such as copper, niobium, and molybdenum.

Nitrogenase

nitrogenasesdinitrogenasedinitrogenase reductase
These nitrogenases contain molybdenum in a form different from other molybdenum enzymes, which all contain fully oxidized molybdenum in a molybdenum cofactor.
Studies with Mo generally point towards a distal pathway, while studies with Fe generally point towards an alternating pathway.