Monarch

The Nine Sovereigns at Windsor for the funeral of King Edward VII, photographed on 20 May 1910. Standing, from left to right: King Haakon VII of Norway, Tsar Ferdinand of the Bulgarians, King Manuel II of Portugal and the Algarve, Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany and Prussia, King George I of the Hellenes and King Albert I of the Belgians. Seated, from left to right: King Alfonso XIII of Spain, King George V of the United Kingdom and King Frederick VIII of Denmark.
Postcard from 1908 showing nineteen of the world's reigning monarchs: (left to right) King Rama V/Chulalongkorn of Siam, King George I of Greece, King Peter I of Serbia, King Carol I of Romania, Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria-Hungary, Tzar Ferdinand I of Bulgaria, Sultan Abdul Hamid II of the Ottoman Empire, King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy, Emperor Nicholas II of the Russia, King Edward VII of Britain, Emperor Wilhelm II of Germany, King Gustav V of Sweden, King Haakon VII of Norway, King Frederick VIII of Denmark, Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands, Guangxu Emperor of China, Meiji Emperor of Japan, King Manuel II of Portugal and King Alfonso XIII of Spain.
Ramesses II (r. 1279–1213 BC), the third Pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt
Mohamoud Ali Shire, the 26th Sultan of the Somali Warsangali Sultanate
A map of Europe exhibiting the continent's monarchies (red) and republics (blue)
Elizabeth II has been monarch of independent countries in Europe, Asia, Africa, Oceania and the Americas.
From left to right, Japanese Emperor Hirohito, Crown Prince Akihito, Crown Princess Michiko and Empress Nagako, 1959
Sultan Mehmed III from Ottoman Dynasty
King Norodom Sihanouk of Cambodia
Sri Lankan King Devanampiya Tissa, Queen consort Anula, and Prince Uththiya, c. 307 BC
Jacques I, Emperor of Haiti, 1804
Pedro II, Emperor of Brazil, by Delfim da Câmara
Francisco Pizarro meets with the Inca emperor Atahualpa, 1532
Kamehameha IV, King of Hawaii

Head of state for life or until abdication, and therefore the head of state of a monarchy.

- Monarch
The Nine Sovereigns at Windsor for the funeral of King Edward VII, photographed on 20 May 1910. Standing, from left to right: King Haakon VII of Norway, Tsar Ferdinand of the Bulgarians, King Manuel II of Portugal and the Algarve, Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany and Prussia, King George I of the Hellenes and King Albert I of the Belgians. Seated, from left to right: King Alfonso XIII of Spain, King George V of the United Kingdom and King Frederick VIII of Denmark.

500 related topics

Relevance

The frontispiece of Thomas Hobbes' Leviathan

Personal union

The frontispiece of Thomas Hobbes' Leviathan

A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct.

Charlemagne or Charles the Great (748–814) was King of the Franks, King of the Lombards, and the first Holy Roman Emperor. Due to his military accomplishments and conquests, he has been called the "Father of Europe".

King

Charlemagne or Charles the Great (748–814) was King of the Franks, King of the Lombards, and the first Holy Roman Emperor. Due to his military accomplishments and conquests, he has been called the "Father of Europe".
Heraldic crown of the King of the Romans (variant used in the early modern period)
The Iron Crown of the Lombards, a surviving example of an early medieval royal crown
12th-century depiction of Theodoric the Great, King of the Ostrogoths.
Louis XIV of France, the "Sun King" (Roi-Soleil), who ruled at the height of French absolutism (painting by Hyacinthe Rigaud, 1701).
Aztec King Nezahualpiltzintli of Texcoco

King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts.

Commonwealth realm

Elizabeth II is the reigning sovereign of each of the 15 Commonwealth realms.
High Commissioner of Belize to the UK meets with the British Minister of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs. High Commissioners act as liaisons between the governments of the Commonwealth realms.
King George VI, with Queen Elizabeth, grants Royal Assent to bills in the Senate of Canada, 1939
William Orpen's The Signing of Peace in the Hall of Mirrors: a compiled portrait of the main delegates to the signing of the Treaty of Versailles, including some of the dominion delegates
King George V with his prime ministers at the Imperial Conference of 1926
Edward VIII and Wallis Simpson in 1936. His proposal to marry her led to his abdication, an act that required the consent of the dominions.
The prime ministers of five Commonwealth countries at the 1944 Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference; from left to right: William Lyon Mackenzie King (Canada), Jan Smuts (South Africa), Winston Churchill (United Kingdom), Peter Fraser (New Zealand), and John Curtin (Australia)
The British Empire as it was at the beginning of Queen Elizabeth II's reign, with the United Kingdom itself shown in light red and the other Commonwealth realms shown in pink.
The Governor of Queensland, John Lavarack, proclaims the accession of Elizabeth II at Parliament House, Brisbane, 1952.
Elizabeth II in 2010. In 2010, she addressed the United Nations as queen of all then-16 Commonwealth realms.

A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state in the Commonwealth of Nations that has Elizabeth II as its monarch and head of state.

Elizabeth II, Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, here with her husband on the occasion of her coronation in 1953

Queen regnant

Elizabeth II, Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, here with her husband on the occasion of her coronation in 1953
Margaret I ruled Denmark, Norway and Sweden in the late 14th and early 15th centuries.

A queen regnant (plural: queens regnant) is a female monarch, equivalent in rank and title to a king, who reigns in her own right over a realm known as a "kingdom"; as opposed to a queen consort, who is the wife of a reigning king; or a queen regent, who is the guardian of a child monarch and rules temporarily in the child's stead, be it de jure in sharing power or de facto in ruling alone.

Cicero attacks Catiline in the Senate of the Roman Republic.

Prince

Cicero attacks Catiline in the Senate of the Roman Republic.
Louis de Bourbon, Prince de Condé, was the premier prince du sang during his lifetime (painted by Joost van Egmont).
José, Prince of Brazil, Duke of Braganza, died before he could ascend to the throne of Portugal.
Coat of arms of Otto, prince of Bismarck (German Empire).
Coat of arms of the princes of Waterloo (the Netherlands).
Coat of arms of the princes Sanguszko-Lubartowicz (Poland).
Coat of arms of the princes Youssoupoff
Indian Prince And Parade Ceremony (by Edwin Lord Weeks)
Saint Robert Cardinal Bellarmine was a prince of the Roman Catholic Church during his lifetime.
Coat of arms of the principality of Andorra (1607).
Coat of arms of the principality of Liechtenstein (1719).

A prince is a male ruler (ranked below a king, grand prince, and grand duke) or a male member of a monarch's or former monarch's family.

Grassalkovich Palace in Bratislava is the seat of the President of Slovakia.

Head of state

Public persona who officially embodies a state in its unity and legitimacy.

Public persona who officially embodies a state in its unity and legitimacy.

Grassalkovich Palace in Bratislava is the seat of the President of Slovakia.
World's parliamentary states (as of 2022): Republics with an executive president elected by a parliament Parliamentary republics Parliamentary constitutional monarchies in which the monarch usually does not personally exercise power Presidential republics, one-party states, and other forms of government
Elizabeth II is the reigning monarch and head of state of the United Kingdom and 14 other countries
Charles de Gaulle, President and head of state of the French Fifth Republic (1959–1969)
George Washington, the first president of the United States, set the precedent for an executive head of state in republican systems of government
George V, Emperor of India, and Empress Mary at the Delhi Durbar, 1911.
Tekiso Hati, ambassador of the Kingdom of Lesotho, presenting his credentials to Russian president Vladimir Putin
Daniel B. Shapiro, U.S. ambassador to Israel, presents his credentials to Israeli president Shimon Peres on 3 August 2011
A 1992 Letter of Credence, written in French, for the Czechoslovakian Ambassador to Lithuania, signed by the President of Czechoslovakia and addressed to his Lithuanian counterpart
Albert II, King of the Belgians inspecting troops on Belgium's national day in 2011
Nicolas Sarkozy, President of France and General Jean-Louis Georgelin, Chief of the Defence Staff, reviewing troops during the 2008 Bastille Day military parade on the Champs-Élysées in Paris
Francis, from March 2013 the sovereign of the Vatican City State, an ex officio role of the Pope
Abdulmecid II is the 150th and last Caliph of Islam from Ottoman dynasty
Four generations of Danish kings in 1903: King Christian IX (left), Christian (X) (back), Frederick (VIII) (right), and Frederick (IX) (front)
The National Monument to Emperor Wilhelm I in Berlin, Germany, dedicated 1897, nearly 10 years after his death. The monument was destroyed by the communist government in 1950.
Title page of 1550 Italian edition of Machiavelli's The Prince
Bodin named on title page of Discorsi politici (1602) by Fabio Albergati who compared Bodin's political theories unfavourably with those of Aristotle
Frontispiece of Thomas Hobbes' Leviathan (1651)

In terms of protocol: the head of a sovereign, independent state is usually identified as the person who, according to that state's constitution, is the reigning monarch, in the case of a monarchy; or the president, in the case of a republic.

Gaius Octavian Caesar 'Augustus' or simply Augustus, was the first emperor of Roman Empire, reigning from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.

Emperor

Gaius Octavian Caesar 'Augustus' or simply Augustus, was the first emperor of Roman Empire, reigning from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
A statue of dictator Julius Caesar.
Under Justinian I, reigning in the 6th century, parts of Italy were for a few decades (re)conquered from the Ostrogoths: thus, this famous mosaic, featuring the Byzantine emperor in the center, can be admired at Ravenna.
Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in the 1550s, after Titian
Franz Joseph I of Austria
One of the most famous Imperial coronation ceremonies was that of Napoleon, crowning himself Emperor in the presence of Pope Pius VII (who had blessed the regalia), at the Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris. The painting by David commemorating the event is equally famous: the gothic cathedral restyled style Empire, supervised by the mother of the Emperor on the balcony (a fictional addition, while she had not been present at the ceremony), the pope positioned near the altar, Napoleon proceeds to crown his then wife, Joséphine de Beauharnais as Empress.
John VI, King of Portugal and the Algarves, Emperor of Brazil.
George V, King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, Emperor of India
Wilhelm II, German Emperor and the King of Prussia.
Empress of Russia Catherine the Great
Emperor of Serbia Dušan the Mighty
Agostino Veneziano's engraving of Ottoman emperor Suleiman the Magnificent wearing his Venetian Helmet.
Emperor Moctezuma II of the Aztec Empire wearing a tilmàtli
Pedro II, Emperor of Brazil in regalia at the opening of the General Assembly (oil painting by Pedro Américo)
Portrait of Jean-Jacques Dessalines, Haitian Revolutionary who defeated and expelled the French from Hispaniola, liberated his country's slaves and proclaimed himself emperor, as Jacques I. From a 19th century Haitian mural.
Portrait of Maximilian I of Mexico, by Franz Xaver Winterhalter
Haile Selassie, Emperor of Ethiopia from 1930 to 1974.
Qin Shi Huang
Emperor Hirohito (裕仁), or the Shōwa Emperor (昭和天皇), the last Japanese Emperor having ruled with prerogative powers, combined with assumption of divinity (photographed 1926).
Emperor Gojong of the Korean Empire
Genghis Khan was the founder and first Great Khan or Emperor of the largest land empire in history, the Mongol Empire. His reign as emperor lasted from 1206 to 1227 and he is considered by some to be the greatest conqueror of all time.
Bảo Đại, the last Emperor of Vietnam

An emperor (from imperator, via ) is a monarch, and usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm.

Emperor of Japan

Emperor Go-Daigo
The first arrival of Emperor Meiji to Edo (1868).
Masako, Empress Consort of Japan from 2019
Conjectural images of the Imperial Regalia of Japan.
Enthronement ceremony of Emperor Naruhito with Prime Minister Shinzo Abe (22 October 2019)
Entrance of the Musashi Imperial Graveyard in Hachiōji, Tokyo
Tokyo Imperial Palace
Emperor Shows Hirohito was the Japanese Emperor during World War Two and after

The emperor of Japan is the monarch and the head of the Imperial Family of Japan.

Monarchy of Monaco

The sovereign prince (prince de Monaco) or princess of Monaco (princesse de Monaco) is the monarch and head of state of the Principality of Monaco.

Richard I of England being anointed during his coronation in Westminster Abbey, from a 13th-century chronicle.

Monarchy

Richard I of England being anointed during his coronation in Westminster Abbey, from a 13th-century chronicle.
The Weld-Blundell Prism, inscribed with the Sumerian King List
Map of monarchies and republics in 1648
King George III of the United Kingdom, Portrait by Allan Ramsay, 1762.
King Salman of Saudi Arabia is an absolute monarch.
Postcard of ruling monarchs, taken in 1909
 between February (accession of King Manuel II of Portugal) and November (death of Guangxu Emperor)
Tewodros II, Emperor of Ethiopia.
King Leopold I, an elected founder of the hereditary monarchy of Belgium
Pope Francis, Sovereign of the Vatican City State

A monarchy is a form of government in which a person, the monarch, is head of state for life or until abdication.