Monarchy of Canada

Queen of CanadaCanadian monarchCanadian Royal Familymonarch of CanadaKing of the British Dominions Beyond the SeasQueenmonarchCanadian monarchyKing of CanadaCanadian Crown
The monarchy of Canada is at the core of Canada's constitutional federal structure and Westminster-style parliamentary democracy.wikipedia
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Canada

CanadianCANCanadians
The monarchy of Canada is at the core of Canada's constitutional federal structure and Westminster-style parliamentary democracy.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with a monarch and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the Cabinet and head of government.

Style of the Canadian sovereign

QueenTitle and style of the Canadian monarchQueen of Canada
As a result, the current monarch is officially titled Queen of Canada and, in this capacity, she, her consort, and other members of the Canadian Royal Family undertake public and private functions domestically and abroad as representatives of Canada.
The title and style of the Canadian sovereign is the formal mode of address of the monarch of Canada.

Government of Canada

Canadian governmentfederal governmentfederal
The monarchy is the foundation of the executive (Queen-in-Council), legislative (Queen-in-Parliament), and judicial (Queen-on-the-Bench) branches of both federal and provincial jurisdictions.
In both senses, the current construct was established at Confederation through the Constitution Act, 1867—as a federal constitutional monarchy, wherein the Canadian Crown acts as the core, or "the most basic building block", of its Westminster-style parliamentary democracy.

House of Commons of Canada

House of CommonsMPMember of Parliament
While some powers are exercisable only by the sovereign, most of the monarch's operational and ceremonial duties (such as summoning the House of Commons and accrediting ambassadors) are exercised by his or her representative, the Governor General of Canada. As such, the constitution instructs that any change to the position of the monarch or his or her representatives in Canada requires the consent of the Senate, the House of Commons, and the legislative assemblies of all the provinces.
The House of Commons of Canada (Chambre des communes du Canada) is the lower chamber of the bicameral Parliament of Canada, along with the sovereign (represented by the governor general) and the Senate of Canada.

Monarchy in the Canadian provinces

it does in all of Canada's other provincesCrown in right of each provincea province
In Canada's provinces, the monarch in right of each is represented by a lieutenant governor.
The monarchy of Canada forms the core of each Canadian provincial jurisdiction's Westminster-style parliamentary democracy, being the foundation of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government in each province.

Governor General of Canada

Governor GeneralGovernor-General of CanadaGovernor-General
While some powers are exercisable only by the sovereign, most of the monarch's operational and ceremonial duties (such as summoning the House of Commons and accrediting ambassadors) are exercised by his or her representative, the Governor General of Canada. As the 1947 Letters Patent issued by King George VI permit the Governor General of Canada to exercise almost all of the monarch's powers in respect of Canada, the viceroy is expected to continue to act as the personal representative of the monarch, and not any regent, even if the monarch is a child or incapacitated.
The Queen, on the advice of her Canadian prime minister, appoints a governor general to carry out most of constitutional and ceremonial duties.

Cabinet of Canada

CabinetCanadian Cabinetfederal cabinet
Thus, within a constitutional monarchy the sovereign's direct participation in any of these areas of governance is limited, with the sovereign normally exercising executive authority only on the advice of the executive committee of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada, and the sovereign's legislative and judicial responsibilities largely carried out through parliamentarians as well as judges and justices of the peace.
The Cabinet of Canada (Cabinet du Canada) is a body of ministers of the Crown that, along with the Canadian monarch, and within the tenets of the Westminster system, forms the government of Canada.

Queen's Privy Council for Canada

PCPrivy CouncilPrivy Council of Canada
Thus, within a constitutional monarchy the sovereign's direct participation in any of these areas of governance is limited, with the sovereign normally exercising executive authority only on the advice of the executive committee of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada, and the sovereign's legislative and judicial responsibilities largely carried out through parliamentarians as well as judges and justices of the peace. It is customary for the accession of the new monarch to be publicly proclaimed by the governor general on behalf of the Privy Council, which meets at Rideau Hall after the accession.
The Queen's Privy Council for Canada (QPC; Conseil privé de la Reine pour le Canada; known as the King's Privy Council for Canada in the reign of a male monarch), sometimes called Her Majesty's Privy Council for Canada or simply the Privy Council, is the full group of personal consultants to the monarch of Canada on state and constitutional affairs.

Parliament of Canada

ParliamentCanadian ParliamentMP
Thus, within a constitutional monarchy the sovereign's direct participation in any of these areas of governance is limited, with the sovereign normally exercising executive authority only on the advice of the executive committee of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada, and the sovereign's legislative and judicial responsibilities largely carried out through parliamentarians as well as judges and justices of the peace. As such, the king or queen of Canada is the employer of all government officials and staff (including the viceroys, judges, members of the Canadian Forces, police officers, and parliamentarians), the guardian of foster children (Crown wards), as well as the owner of all state lands (Crown land), buildings and equipment (Crown held property), state owned companies (Crown corporations), and the copyright for all government publications (Crown copyright).
The body consists of the Canadian monarch, represented by a viceroy, the Governor General; an upper house, the Senate; and a lower house, the House of Commons.

Rideau Hall

Government Househer closing of the Rideau Hall estate to the publicresidence
It is customary for the accession of the new monarch to be publicly proclaimed by the governor general on behalf of the Privy Council, which meets at Rideau Hall after the accession.
Rideau Hall (officially Government House) is, since 1867, the official residence in Ottawa of both the Canadian monarch and his or her representative, the Governor General of Canada.

Royal Canadian Mounted Police

RCMPMountieMounties
Once in Canadian airspace, or arrived at a Canadian event taking place abroad, the Canadian Secretary to the Queen, officers of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and other Canadian officials will take over from whichever of their other realms' counterparts were previously escorting the Queen or other member of the Royal Family.
Federal operations include: enforcing federal laws including commercial crime, counterfeiting, drug trafficking, border integrity, organized crime, and other related matters; providing counter-terrorism and domestic security; providing protection services for the Canadian Monarch, governor general, prime minister, their families and residences, and other ministers of the Crown, visiting dignitaries, and diplomatic missions; and participating in various international policing efforts.

Canadian Secretary to the Queen

Canadian Secretary to the Queen of CanadaQueen's Canadian SecretarySecretary to the Queen
Once in Canadian airspace, or arrived at a Canadian event taking place abroad, the Canadian Secretary to the Queen, officers of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and other Canadian officials will take over from whichever of their other realms' counterparts were previously escorting the Queen or other member of the Royal Family.
The Canadian Secretary to the Queen (Secrétaire canadien de la Reine) is the senior operational member of the Royal Household of Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada.

Head of state

heads of stateChief of Stateheads of states
The current Canadian monarch and head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952.
For instance, the Canadian monarch is described by the government as being the personification of the Canadian state and is described by the Department of Canadian Heritage as the "personal symbol of allegiance, unity and authority for all Canadians".

Charles, Prince of Wales

Prince CharlesThe Prince of WalesPrince of Wales
Elizabeth's eldest son, Charles, Prince of Wales, is heir apparent.
In Canada, the Department of Justice announced its decision that the Queen's Privy Council for Canada was not required to meet to give its consent to the marriage, as the union would not result in offspring and would have no impact on the succession to the Canadian throne.

Oath of Allegiance (Canada)

Oath of AllegianceOath of Allegiance in Canada
By the Interpretation Act of 2005, no incumbent appointee of the Crown is affected by the death of the monarch, nor are they required to take the Oath of Allegiance again, and all references in legislation to previous monarchs, whether in the masculine (e.g. His Majesty) or feminine (e.g. the Queen), continue to mean the reigning sovereign of Canada, regardless of his or her gender. The monarch is at the apex of the Canadian order of precedence and, as the embodiment of the state, is also the focus of oaths of allegiance, required of many of the aforementioned employees of the Crown, as well as by new citizens, as by the Oath of Citizenship.
The Canadian Oath of Allegiance is a promise or declaration of fealty to the Canadian monarch, as personification of the Canadian state, taken, along with other specific oaths of office, by new occupants of various federal and provincial government offices, members of federal, provincial, and municipal police forces, members of the Canadian Armed Forces, and, in some provinces, all lawyers upon admission to the bar.

Commonwealth realm

Commonwealth realmsrealmsCommonwealth
Although the person of the sovereign is shared with 15 other independent countries within the Commonwealth of Nations, each country's monarchy is separate and legally distinct.
During his tenure as Governor General of Canada, Lord Tweedsmuir urged the organisation of a royal tour of the country by King George VI, so that he might not only appear in person before his people, but also personally perform constitutional duties and pay a state visit to the United States as king of Canada.

Prime Minister of Canada

Prime MinisterCanadian Prime MinisterPrime Ministers
The Manual of Official Procedure of the Government of Canada states the prime minister is responsible for convening parliament, tabling a resolution of loyalty and condolence from parliament to the new monarch, and arranging for the motion to be seconded by the Leader of the Official Opposition.
Under the Canadian constitution, all of the power to exercise these activities is actually vested in the monarch of Canada, but in practice the monarch (who is the head of state) or her representative, the governor general of Canada, approves them routinely, and their role is largely ceremonial, and their powers are only exercised under the advice of the prime minister.

Succession to the Throne Act, 2013

possible exception of Canadawas challenged
As a result of the Perth Agreement, the Canadian parliament passed the Canadian Succession to the Throne Act, 2013, which gave the country's assent to the Succession to the Crown Bill 2013, at that time proceeding in the parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Succession to the Throne Act, 2013, which has the long title An Act to assent to alterations in the law touching the Succession to the Throne (Bill C-53), (the Act) was passed by the Parliament of Canada to give assent to the Succession to the Crown Bill, which was intended to change the line of succession to the Canadian throne and was passed with amendments by the UK parliament on 25 April 2013.

Senate of Canada

SenatorSenateCanadian Senator
As such, the constitution instructs that any change to the position of the monarch or his or her representatives in Canada requires the consent of the Senate, the House of Commons, and the legislative assemblies of all the provinces.
The Senate of Canada (Sénat du Canada) is the upper house of the Parliament of Canada, along with the House of Commons and the monarch (represented by the governor general).

O'Donohue v Canada

O'Donohue v. Canadaa court action2003
For example, under the provisions of the Bill of Rights 1689 and the Act of Settlement 1701, Catholics are barred from succeeding to the throne; this prohibition has been upheld twice by Canadian courts, once in 2003 and again in 2014.
O'Donohue v Canada was a legal challenge to the exclusion of Roman Catholics from the throne of Canada.

Crown corporations of Canada

Crown corporationCrown corporationsBritish Columbia Investment Management Corporation
As such, the king or queen of Canada is the employer of all government officials and staff (including the viceroys, judges, members of the Canadian Forces, police officers, and parliamentarians), the guardian of foster children (Crown wards), as well as the owner of all state lands (Crown land), buildings and equipment (Crown held property), state owned companies (Crown corporations), and the copyright for all government publications (Crown copyright).
Canadian Crown corporations (sociétés d'État du Canada) are state-owned enterprises owned by the Sovereign of Canada (i.e. the Crown).

Advisory Committee on Vice-Regal Appointments

Governor General Consultation Committee
The Advisory Committee on Vice-Regal Appointments, which may seek input from the relevant premier and provincial or territorial community, proposes candidates for appointment as governor general, lieutenant governor, and commissioner.
The Advisory Committee on Vice-Regal Appointments was established on 4 November 2012 to assist the government of Canada (the Crown-in-Council) with the appointment of the Governor General of Canada, provincial lieutenant governors, and territorial commissioners.

Commissioner

commissionersCommissionDistrict Commissioner
The commissioners of Canada's territories are appointed by the federal Governor-in-Council, at the recommendation of the Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development; but, as the territories are not sovereign entities, the commissioners are not personal representatives of the sovereign.
Unlike the governor general or a lieutenant governor, commissioners are not viceregal representatives of the Canadian monarch; rather, they are delegates of the federal Crown-in-Council and, under federal statutes governing the territories, act in accordance with written instructions from Cabinet or the minister responsible (currently the Minister of Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development).

Canadian order of precedence

order of precedence14th in order of precedencenational order of precedence
The monarch is at the apex of the Canadian order of precedence and, as the embodiment of the state, is also the focus of oaths of allegiance, required of many of the aforementioned employees of the Crown, as well as by new citizens, as by the Oath of Citizenship.
The Department of Canadian Heritage issues a Table of Precedence for Canada, which does not include members of the Royal Family, save for the sovereign, mentioned in a note as preceding the governor general.

Letters Patent, 1947

letters patentLetters Patent of 19471947 Letters Patent
As the 1947 Letters Patent issued by King George VI permit the Governor General of Canada to exercise almost all of the monarch's powers in respect of Canada, the viceroy is expected to continue to act as the personal representative of the monarch, and not any regent, even if the monarch is a child or incapacitated.
The Letters Patent, 1947 (more formally, the Letters Patent Constituting the Office of Governor General and Commander-in-Chief of Canada) are letters patent signed by George VI as King of Canada which reconstituted the office of Governor General of Canada under the terms of the Constitution Act, 1867.