Mongol Empire

Expansion of the Mongol Empire 1206–1294
superimposed on a modern political map of Eurasia
Mongolian tribes during the Khitan Liao dynasty (907–1125)
The Old World on the eve of the Mongol invasions, c. 1200
Genghis Khan, National Palace Museum in Taipei, Taiwan
Genghis Khan ascended the throne in the Ikh Khuraldai region in the Onan river, from the Jami' al-tawarikh.
Mongol Empire circa 1207
Coronation of Ögedei Khan in 1229 as the successor of Genghis Khan. By Rashid al-Din, early 14th century.
The sack of Suzdal by Batu Khan in 1238, miniature from a 16th-century chronicle
The battle of Liegnitz, 1241. From a medieval manuscript of the Hedwig legend.
Batu Khan consolidates the Golden Horde
Güyük Khan demanding Pope Innocent IV's submission. The 1246 letter was written in Persian.
A Stone Turtle at the site of the Mongol capital, Karakorum.
Hulagu, Genghis Khan's grandson and founder of the Il-Khanate. From a medieval Persian manuscript.
Mongol invasion of Baghdad
Fall of Baghdad, 1258
The extent of the Mongol Empire after the death of Möngke Khan (reigned 1251–1259).
The Mongols at war
Kublai Khan, Genghis Khan's grandson and founder of the Yuan dynasty
The samurai Suenaga facing Mongol's bomb and Goryeo's arrows. Mōko Shūrai Ekotoba (蒙古襲来絵詞), circa 1293.
defeating the Mongolian invasion army (left) Samurai Mitsui Sukenaga (right)
Samurai Shiraishi clan
Mongol warrior on horseback, preparing a mounted archery shot.
The funeral of Chagatai Khan.
Mongol rider, Yuan dynasty
A European depiction of the four khans, Temür (Yuan), Chapar (House of Ögedei), Toqta (Golden Horde), and Öljaitü (Ilkhanate), in the Fleur des histoires d'orient.
Hungarian King Béla IV in flight from the Mongols under general Kadan of the Golden Horde.
The successor states of the Mongol Empire in 1335: the Ilkhanate, Golden Horde, Yuan dynasty and Chagatai Khanate
Iron helmet, Mongol Empire
The Battle of Blue Waters in 1362, in which Lithuania successfully pushed the Golden Horde from the Principality of Kiev.
Crimean Tatar khan, Mengli Giray.
Reconstruction of a Mongol warrior
Mongol general Subutai of the Golden Horde
The executed – the long and full beard probably means he is not a Mongol – has been thrown off a cliff.
Persian miniature depicting Ghazan's conversion from Buddhism to Islam.
A 1363 astronomical handbook with Middle Mongolian glosses. Known as the Sanjufini Zij.
Mongols look on as Persian astronomers work. Early 14th century illustration in the Compendium of Chronicles.
A 1305 letter (on a scroll measuring 302 by) from the Ilkhan Mongol Öljaitü to King Philip IV of France.
Tuda Mengu of the Golden Horde.
Gold dinar of Genghis Khan, struck at the Ghazna (Ghazni) mint, dated 1221/2
Map showing the boundary of 13th century Mongol Empire compared to today's Mongols in Mongolia, Russia, the Central Asian States, and China
Tokhtamysh and the armies of the Golden Horde initiate the Siege of Moscow (1382).
Dominican martyrs killed by Mongols during the Mongol invasion of Poland in 1260.

The largest contiguous land empire in history.

- Mongol Empire

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Landlocked country in East Asia, bordered by Russia to the north and China to the south.

7th-century artifacts found 180 km from Ulaanbaatar.
Mongol Empire expansion (1206 till 1294)
This map shows the boundary of the 13th-century Mongol Empire compared to today's Mongols. The red area shows where the majority of Mongolian speakers reside today.
The Northern Yuan at its greatest extent.
Genghis Khan the first Mongol Emperor
Altan Khan (1507–1582) founded the city of Hohhot, helped introduce Buddhism and originated the title of Dalai Lama
The eighth Jebtsundamba Khutuktu, Bogd Khaan
Map of unified Mongolia in 1917
Khorloogiin Choibalsan led Mongolia during the Stalinist era and presided over an environment of intense political persecution
Mongolian troops fight against the Japanese counterattack at Khalkhin Gol, 1939
Mongolian Premier Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal was the longest-serving leader in the Soviet Bloc, with over 44 years in office
The southern portion of Mongolia is taken up by the Gobi Desert, while the northern and western portions are mountainous.
Mongolia map of Köppen climate classification zones.
The Khentii Mountains in Terelj, close to the birthplace of Genghis Khan.
Bactrian camels by sand dunes in Gobi Desert.
Mongolian steppe
Ulaanbaatar is the capital and largest city of Mongolia
In settlements, many families live in ger districts
Amarbayasgalant Monastery
State Great Khural chamber in session
Mongolia's President Tsakhia Elbegdorj with U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, June 2016
Mongolia's President Khaltmaagiin Battulga and Vladimir Putin in Vladivostok, September 2017
Mongolian, Chinese and Russian national flags set on armored vehicles during the large-scale military exercise Vostok 2018 in Eastern Siberia
Historical development of real GDP per capita in Mongolia
A proportional representation of Mongolia exports, 2019
View of Ulaanbaatar with the Blue Sky Tower
Oyu Tolgoi employs 18,000 workers and expects to be producing 450,000 tonnes of copper a year by 2020
Train in Zamyn-Üüd station in Dornogovi aimag
While the Mongolian horse continues to be revered as the national symbol, they are rapidly being replaced by motorized vehicles.
Mongolian ferry Sukhbaatar on Lake Khovsgol in Khovsgol Province
A ger in front of the Gurvan Saikhan Mountains
Musician playing the traditional Mongolian musical instrument morin khuur
Mongolian media interviewing the opposition Mongolian Green Party in 2008. The media has gained significant freedoms since democratic reforms initiated in the 1990s.
Naadam is the largest summer celebration.
Riders during Naadam festival
Kazakh hunters in Mongolia with eagles
1236-1242 Mongol invasions of Europe

In 1206, Genghis Khan founded the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous land empire in history.

Ögedei Khan

A portrait of Ögedei produced during the Yuan dynasty. The original size is 47 cm wide and 59.4 cm high, and produced with paint and ink on silk. It is now located in the National Palace Museum, Taipei, Taiwan.
Coronation of Ögedei in 1229, by Rashid al-Din, early 14th century
Ögedei conquered the Kingdom of Georgia and Armenia.
The Mongol army captures a Rus' city.
Ögedei Khan in traditional Mongolian script
Stone tortoise of Karakorum
Statue of Ögedei Khan in Mongolia

Ögedei Khagan (also Ogodei; c. 1186 – 11 December 1241) was the third son of Genghis Khan and second khagan-emperor of the Mongol Empire, succeeding his father.

Möngke Khan

Battle of Mohi (on 11 April 1241), in which Möngke might have participated.
Möngke qaγan in traditional Mongolian script
The Mongol Empire during the reign of Möngke Khan (r.1251–59)
"Struck by the Georgian King David in the name of his overlord Möngke, by the power of Heaven" (Persian, dated 1253)
Hethum I (seated) in the Mongol court of Karakorum, "receiving the homage of the Mongols". "Histoire des Tartars", Hayton of Corycus, 1307.
Audience with Möngke Khagan. Tarikh-i Jahangushay-i Juvaini
Mongol invasion of Vietnam in 1257
Hulagu imprisons the Caliph Al-Musta'sim among his treasures to starve him to death ("Le livre des merveilles", 15th century).
Mongols sacked Syrian cities in 1259–1260 and advanced to the Egyptian border.
Silver Tree fountain in front of Tumen Amugulang Palace, 18th-century European imagination
The Model of the Khan Palace in Karakorum in the National History Museum of Mongolia in Ulaan-Baatar

Möngke ( Möngke / Мөнх Mönkh; ; 11 January 1209 – 11 August 1259) was the fourth khagan-emperor of the Mongol Empire, ruling from 1 July 1251, to 11 August 1259.

Kublai Khan

Portrait by artist Araniko, sling drawn shortly after Kublai's death in 1294. His white robes reflect his desired symbolic role as a religious Mongol shaman.
Portrait of young Kublai by Araniko, a Nepali artist in Kublai's court
“The Emperor Kublai Khan in a tower carried by four elephants on the day of the battle“ French Engraving, 18th century.
Kublai Khan was chosen by his many supporters to become the next Great Khan at the Grand Kurultai in the year 1260. 
Kublai Khan and His Empress Enthroned, from a Jami al-Twarikh (or Chingiznama). Mughal dynasty, Reign of Akbar, 1596. Mughal Court. Opaque watercolor, ink, and gold on paper. India. Freer Gallery of Art. F1954.31
Painting of Kublai Khan on a hunting expedition, by Han Chinese court artist Liu Guandao, c. 1280.
Extract of the letter of Arghun to Philip IV of France, in the Mongolian script, dated 1289. French National Archives.
The Yuan Dynasty of China, c. 1294
Chinese opera flourished during Yuan China.
The "Muslim trebuchet" (or Huihui Pao) used to breach the walls of Fancheng and Xiangyang.
A Yuan dynasty hand cannon
Two dragons chasing a flaming pearl was a symbol associated with Goryeo.
The Gangnido reflects the Chinese geographical knowledge during the Mongol Empire about countries in the West.
The Japanese samurai Suenaga facing Mongol arrows and bombs. Mōko Shūrai Ekotoba (蒙古襲来絵詞), circa 1293.
Japanese samurai boarding Yuan ships in 1281.
Kublai gives financial support to the Polo family.
Rabban Bar Sauma, ambassador of Great Khan Kublai and Ilkhan Arghun, travelled from Dadu to Rome, Tuscany, Genoa, Paris, and Bordeaux to meet with European rulers in 1287–88.
The White Stupa of Dadu (or Khanbaliq; now Beijing).
A Yuan dynasty jade belt plaque featuring carved designs of the Azure Dragon, highly regarded as a symbol of Yuan China's maritime strength.
In Ilkhanate Persia, Ghazan converted to Islam and recognized Kublai Khan as his suzerain.
Chabi, Khatun of Kublai and Empress of the Mongol Empire
Longevity Hill in Beijing, where Kublai Khan wrote his poem.
Laborers transporting construction materials to Khanbaliq
Statue of Kublai Khan in Sükhbaatar Square, Ulaanbaatar. Together with Ögedei Khan's, and the much larger Genghis Khan's statues, it forms a statue complex dedicated to the Mongol Empire.

Kublai (also spelled Qubilai or Kübilai; Хубилай ; ; 23 September 1215 – 18 February 1294), also known by his regnal name Setsen Khan (薛禪汗), was the founder of the Yuan dynasty of China and the fifth khagan-emperor of the Mongol Empire from 1260 to 1294, although after the division of the empire this was a nominal position.


Mongol army commander who was the eldest son of Genghis Khan, and presumably one of the four sons by his principal wife Börte, though issues concerning his paternity followed him throughout his life.

Statue of Jochi Khan in Mongolia
Genghis Khan seated in the center and Jochi standing in the left.
A Mughal miniature painting of Genghis Khan his wife Börte and their sons.
Juchi Mausoleum, Karagandy Region, Kazakhstan
The Ulus of Jochi

In 1207, Jochi conquered several of the forest peoples in Siberia, extending the northern border of the Mongol Empire for the first time.


Member of a community without fixed habitation who regularly moves to and from the same areas.

A painting by Vincent van Gogh depicting a caravan of nomadic Romani
Romani mother and child
Nomads on the Changtang, Ladakh
Rider in Mongolia, 2012s. While nomadic life is less common in modern times, the horse remains a national symbol in Mongolia.
Beja nomads from Northeast Africa
Starting fire by hand. San people in Botswana.
Cuman nomads, Radziwiłł Chronicle, 13th century.
An 1848 Lithograph showing nomads in Afghanistan.
A yurt in front of the Gurvan Saikhan Mountains. Approximately 30% of Mongolia's 3 million people are nomadic or semi-nomadic.
A Sámi family in Norway around 1900. Reindeer have been herded for centuries by several Arctic and Subarctic people including the Sámi and the Nenets.
Tents of Pashtun nomads in Badghis Province, Afghanistan. They migrate from region to region depending on the season.
A tent of Romani nomads in Hungary, 19th century.
thumb|Nomad camp near Tingri, Tibet. 1993
Mongol nomads in the Altai Mountains.
Snake charmer from Telungu community of Sri Lanka.
A Scythian horseman from the general area of the Ili river, Pazyryk, c. 300 BCE.
Yeniche people in the 15th century
A young Bedouin lighting a camp fire in Wadi Rum, Jordan.
Kyrgyz nomads in the steppes of the Russian Empire, now Uzbekistan, by pioneer color photographer Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky, c. 1910.
Tuareg in Mali, 1974.
Kyrgyz nomads, 1869–1870.
Nomads in the Desert (Giulio Rosati).
Gros Ventre (Atsina) American Indians moving camps with travois for transporting skin lodges and belongings.
House barge of the Sama-Bajau peoples, Indonesia. 1914–1921
Photograph of Bedouins (wandering Arabs) of Tunisia, 1899
Indian nomads painting by well-known artiste Raja Ravi Varma
alt=Banjara|Indian nomad Banjara

In the late 12th century, Genghis Khan united them and other nomadic tribes to found the Mongol Empire, which eventually stretched the length of Asia.

Golden Horde

Decisive Golden Horde victory in the Battle of Mohi
Batu Khan establishes the Golden Horde.
Jochi Mausoleum, Karagandy Region
Routes taken by Mongol invaders
The Golden Horde army defeats the Ilkhanate at the battle of Terek in 1262. Many of Hulagu's men drowned in the Terek River while withdrawing.
Tode Mongke Khan of the Golden Horde
Regions in the lower Volga inhabited by the descendants of Nogai Khan
The Jochid vassal princes of Galicia-Volhynia contributed troops for invasions of Europe by Nogai Khan and Talabuga.
The division of the Mongol Empire, c. 1300, with the Golden Horde in yellow
The Bulgarian Empire was still tributary to the Mongols in 1308.
Dmitri avenging the death of his father in the ordo (palace) of Uzbeg Khan, killing Yury.
Territories of the Golden Horde under Öz Beg Khan.
The battle between the armies of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Golden Horde in 1363
The Battle of Kulikovo in 1380
Emir Timur and his forces advance against the Golden Horde, Khan Tokhtamysh.
Tokhtamysh besieges Moscow.
The Great stand on the Ugra river, 1480
The Golden Horde and its Rus' tributaries in 1313 under Öz Beg Khan
Alexander Nevsky and a Mongol shaman
Tilework fragments of a palace in Sarai.
Talabuga's coin, dating {{ca.}} 1287–1291 AD.
Jani Beg's coin, dating {{ca.}} 1342–1357 AD.
Berdi Beg's coin minted in Azak, dating {{ca.}} 1357 AD.
Kildibeg's coin minted in Sarai, dating {{ca.}} 1360 AD.
Ordumelik's coin minted in Azak, dating {{ca.}} 1360 AD.
Muscovite coin minted in the name of Abdullah ibn Uzbeg, dating {{ca.}} 1367–1368 or 1369–1370
Dawlat Berdi's coin minted in Kaffa, dating {{ca.}} 1419–1421 or 1428–1432 AD.
Golden Horde raid at Ryazan
Golden Horde raid at Kiev
Golden Horde raid at Kozelsk
Golden Horde raid Vladimir
Golden Horde raid Suzdal
Mongol-Tatar warriors besiege their opponents.
Mongols chase Hungarian king from Mohi, detail from Chronicon Pictum.
The Mongol army captures a Rus' city
Mongol invasion of Hungary in 1285
Edigu's invasion of Rus.
The sack of Suzdal by Batu Khan in 1238, miniature from 16th-century chronicle.
The battle of Liegnitz, 1241. From a medieval manuscript of the Hedwig legend.
Drawing of Mongols of the Golden Horde outside Vladimir presumably demanding submission before sacking the city
Paiza of Abdullah Khan (r. 1361–70) with Mongolian script
Mongol-Tatar raid
A Rus' prince being punished by the Golden Horde

The Golden Horde, self-designated as Ulug Ulus, 'Great State' in Turkic, was originally a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire.


Tolui Khan (c.

Painting of Tolui Khan by Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, early 14th century.

1191 – 1232) was a Mongol khan, the fourth son of Genghis Khan by his chief khatun, Börte.


The Ilkhanate at its greatest extent
Hulagu Khan, founder of the Ilkhanate, with his Christian queen Doquz Khatun
A Mongol horse archer of the 13th century.
The Mongol ruler, Ghazan, studying the Qur'an.
The Middle East in 1345, ten years after the death of Abu Sa'id. The Jalayirids, Chobanids, Muzaffarids, Injuids, Sarbadars, and Kartids took the Ilkhanate's place as the major powers in Iran.
Ilkhanate, Lampas with phoenix, silk and gold, Iran or Iraq, 14th century.
Ilkhanate, Lampas textile, silk and gold; second half of 14th century.
1305 letter of the Ilkhan Mongol Öljaitü (official square red stamp of the Ilkhanate).
Seal of Ghazan

The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate (, Ilxānān), known to the Mongols as Hülegü Ulus (Хүлэгийн улс,, Qulug-un Ulus), was a khanate established from the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire.

Yuan dynasty

Yuan dynasty (c. 1294)
Goryeo was a semi-autonomous vassal state
Mongol successor khanates
Yuan dynasty (c. 1294)
Goryeo was a semi-autonomous vassal state
Kublai Khan, founder of the Yuan dynasty
Guan Daosheng "the most famous and talented female painter and calligrapher in Chinese history" flourished in the Yuan dynasty
The Bailin Temple Pagoda of Zhaoxian County, Hebei Province, built in 1330 during the Yuan dynasty
A Yuan dynasty jade swan
A Yuan dynasty blue-and-white porcelain dish with fish and flowing water design, mid-14th century, Freer Gallery of Art
Yuan porcelain jar
Yuan underglaze blue Jingdezhen porcelain plate
A plate made of lacquer, wood, and paper from the Yuan dynasty. The Chinese were able to perfect a method of making lacquer. Decorating this plate are parrots and peonies. The parrot was a symbol of fidelity; because of its ability to mimic human speech, it was believed to be a suitable companion to a woman whose husband was away from home. The bird would be able to inform each person of the other's activities. The peony was a symbol of female virtue. When shown in full bloom, it is a token of love, affection, and feminine beauty. Birmingham Museum of Art.
The Yuan dynasty arched bridges of Taicang were built to show the prosperity the city enjoyed under the Yuan.
Yuan dynasty coinage
Map of the Northwest territory
A diagram of Pascal's triangle in Zhu Shijie's Jade Mirror of the Four Unknowns, written in 1303
Yang Hui's Magic Circle
Yuan dynasty banknote with its printing plate, 1287
A revolving typecase with individual movable type characters from Wang Zhen's Nong Shu, published in 1313
Blue-and-white Covered Jar with Fretwork Floral Design in Red and Blue Glaze, excavated in Baoding
Painting of Kublai Khan on a hunting expedition, by Chinese court artist Liu Guandao, c. 1280
Wine jar with fish and aquatic plants, 14th century. Porcelain with underglaze cobalt blue decoration. Brooklyn Museum.
Manichaean Diagram of the Universe, a painting describing Yuan period Manichaean cosmology
A Yuan Qingbai porcelain statue of Guanyin, a bodhisattva of Mahayana Buddhism
Box with pavilion and figures, Yuan dynasty.
Covered box with lunar palace, 14th century. Yuan dynasty.
Jinan Great Southern Mosque was completed during the reign of Temür Khan (the Emperor Chengzong of Yuan).
Administrative divisions of the Yuan dynasty.
Mongol Empire's Ayimaq in North China
Magic square in Arabic numerals (Yuan dynasty)
smelting machines (Yuan dynasty)
Water wheel (Yuan dynasty)
Water hammer (Yuan dynasty)
Weaving machine (Yuan dynasty)
water mill gear (Yuan dynasty)
loom (Yuan dynasty)
Yuan painting (Zhao Mengfu)
Chuangzi Nu (Yuan dynasty)<ref name="bm">{{cite web |url = |title=Archived copy |access-date=November 11, 2009 |url-status=dead |archive-url = |archive-date=December 2, 2009 }}</ref>
Military costume.
Yuan painting of a legendary figure riding on a dragon.
Yuan cavalry
Yuan Mongol soldier
Genghis Khan's grandson, Kublai Khan during his youth
Mongol rider (Yuan dynasty)
Chinese stone inscription of a Nestorian Christian Cross from a monastery of Fangshan District in Beijing (then called Dadu, or Khanbaliq), dated to the Yuan Dynasty

The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (, Yeke Yuwan Ulus, literally "Great Yuan State"), was a successor state to the Mongol Empire after its division and an imperial dynasty of China established by Kublai (Emperor Shizu), leader of the Mongol Borjigin clan, lasting from 1271 to 1368.