Mongolia

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7th-century artifacts found 180 km from Ulaanbaatar.
Mongol Empire expansion (1206 till 1294)
This map shows the boundary of the 13th-century Mongol Empire compared to today's Mongols. The red area shows where the majority of Mongolian speakers reside today.
The Northern Yuan at its greatest extent.
Genghis Khan the first Mongol Emperor
Altan Khan (1507–1582) founded the city of Hohhot, helped introduce Buddhism and originated the title of Dalai Lama
The eighth Jebtsundamba Khutuktu, Bogd Khaan
Map of unified Mongolia in 1917
Khorloogiin Choibalsan led Mongolia during the Stalinist era and presided over an environment of intense political persecution
Mongolian troops fight against the Japanese counterattack at Khalkhin Gol, 1939
Mongolian Premier Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal was the longest-serving leader in the Soviet Bloc, with over 44 years in office
The southern portion of Mongolia is taken up by the Gobi Desert, while the northern and western portions are mountainous.
Mongolia map of Köppen climate classification zones.
The Khentii Mountains in Terelj, close to the birthplace of Genghis Khan.
Bactrian camels by sand dunes in Gobi Desert.
Mongolian steppe
Ulaanbaatar is the capital and largest city of Mongolia
In settlements, many families live in ger districts
Amarbayasgalant Monastery
State Great Khural chamber in session
Mongolia's President Tsakhia Elbegdorj with U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, June 2016
Mongolia's President Khaltmaagiin Battulga and Vladimir Putin in Vladivostok, September 2017
Mongolian, Chinese and Russian national flags set on armored vehicles during the large-scale military exercise Vostok 2018 in Eastern Siberia
Historical development of real GDP per capita in Mongolia
A proportional representation of Mongolia exports, 2019
View of Ulaanbaatar with the Blue Sky Tower
Oyu Tolgoi employs 18,000 workers and expects to be producing 450,000 tonnes of copper a year by 2020
Train in Zamyn-Üüd station in Dornogovi aimag
While the Mongolian horse continues to be revered as the national symbol, they are rapidly being replaced by motorized vehicles.
Mongolian ferry Sukhbaatar on Lake Khovsgol in Khovsgol Province
A ger in front of the Gurvan Saikhan Mountains
Musician playing the traditional Mongolian musical instrument morin khuur
Mongolian media interviewing the opposition Mongolian Green Party in 2008. The media has gained significant freedoms since democratic reforms initiated in the 1990s.
Naadam is the largest summer celebration.
Riders during Naadam festival
Kazakh hunters in Mongolia with eagles
1236-1242 Mongol invasions of Europe

Landlocked country in East Asia, bordered by Russia to the north and China to the south.

- Mongolia

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Mongol Empire

The largest contiguous land empire in history.

Expansion of the Mongol Empire 1206–1294
superimposed on a modern political map of Eurasia
Mongolian tribes during the Khitan Liao dynasty (907–1125)
The Old World on the eve of the Mongol invasions, c. 1200
Genghis Khan, National Palace Museum in Taipei, Taiwan
Genghis Khan ascended the throne in the Ikh Khuraldai region in the Onan river, from the Jami' al-tawarikh.
Mongol Empire circa 1207
Coronation of Ögedei Khan in 1229 as the successor of Genghis Khan. By Rashid al-Din, early 14th century.
The sack of Suzdal by Batu Khan in 1238, miniature from a 16th-century chronicle
The battle of Liegnitz, 1241. From a medieval manuscript of the Hedwig legend.
Batu Khan consolidates the Golden Horde
Güyük Khan demanding Pope Innocent IV's submission. The 1246 letter was written in Persian.
A Stone Turtle at the site of the Mongol capital, Karakorum.
Hulagu, Genghis Khan's grandson and founder of the Il-Khanate. From a medieval Persian manuscript.
Mongol invasion of Baghdad
Fall of Baghdad, 1258
The extent of the Mongol Empire after the death of Möngke Khan (reigned 1251–1259).
The Mongols at war
Kublai Khan, Genghis Khan's grandson and founder of the Yuan dynasty
The samurai Suenaga facing Mongol's bomb and Goryeo's arrows. Mōko Shūrai Ekotoba (蒙古襲来絵詞), circa 1293.
defeating the Mongolian invasion army (left) Samurai Mitsui Sukenaga (right)
Samurai Shiraishi clan
Mongol warrior on horseback, preparing a mounted archery shot.
The funeral of Chagatai Khan.
Mongol rider, Yuan dynasty
A European depiction of the four khans, Temür (Yuan), Chapar (House of Ögedei), Toqta (Golden Horde), and Öljaitü (Ilkhanate), in the Fleur des histoires d'orient.
Hungarian King Béla IV in flight from the Mongols under general Kadan of the Golden Horde.
The successor states of the Mongol Empire in 1335: the Ilkhanate, Golden Horde, Yuan dynasty and Chagatai Khanate
Iron helmet, Mongol Empire
The Battle of Blue Waters in 1362, in which Lithuania successfully pushed the Golden Horde from the Principality of Kiev.
Crimean Tatar khan, Mengli Giray.
Reconstruction of a Mongol warrior
Mongol general Subutai of the Golden Horde
The executed – the long and full beard probably means he is not a Mongol – has been thrown off a cliff.
Persian miniature depicting Ghazan's conversion from Buddhism to Islam.
A 1363 astronomical handbook with Middle Mongolian glosses. Known as the Sanjufini Zij.
Mongols look on as Persian astronomers work. Early 14th century illustration in the Compendium of Chronicles.
A 1305 letter (on a scroll measuring 302 by) from the Ilkhan Mongol Öljaitü to King Philip IV of France.
Tuda Mengu of the Golden Horde.
Gold dinar of Genghis Khan, struck at the Ghazna (Ghazni) mint, dated 1221/2
Map showing the boundary of 13th century Mongol Empire compared to today's Mongols in Mongolia, Russia, the Central Asian States, and China
Tokhtamysh and the armies of the Golden Horde initiate the Siege of Moscow (1382).
Dominican martyrs killed by Mongols during the Mongol invasion of Poland in 1260.

Originating in present-day Mongolia in East Asia, the Mongol Empire at its height stretched from the Sea of Japan to parts of Eastern Europe, extending northward into parts of the Arctic; eastward and southward into the Indian subcontinent, Mainland Southeast Asia and the Iranian Plateau; and westward as far as the Levant and the Carpathian Mountains.

Mongols

Image of a Mongolian lady (incorrectly identified as Genepil, Queen consort of Mongolia )
Asia in 500, showing the Rouran Khaganate and its neighbors, including the Northern Wei and the Tuyuhun Khanate, all of them were established by Proto-Mongols
Mongol man with a hat, Yuan dynasty
Mongol wearing a hat, 14th c.
Yuan dynasty Mongol rider
A portrait of Kublai Khan by Araniko (1245–1306)
Mongol huntsmen, Ming dynasty
The Northern Yuan dynasty and Turco-Mongol residual states and domains by the 15th century
Map showing wars between Qing Dynasty and Dzungar Khanate
A Dzungar soldier called Ayusi from the high Qing era, by Giuseppe Castiglione, 1755
The Battle of Oroi-Jalatu in 1755 between the Qing (that ruled China at the time) and Mongol Dzungar armies. The fall of the Dzungar Khanate
Khorloogiin Choibalsan, leader of the Mongolian People's Republic (left), and Georgy Zhukov consult during the Battle of Khalkhin Gol against Japanese troops, 1939
World War II Zaisan Memorial, Ulaan Baatar, from the People's Republic of Mongolia era.
Mongolian President Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj (right)
A Mongolic Ger
Chronological tree of the Mongolic languages
Buddhist temple in Buryatia, Russia
Timur of Mongolic origin himself had converted almost all the Borjigin leaders to Islam.
Mongols grazing livestock, by Roy Chapman Andrews photographs in 1921
Mural of a Mongol family, Yuan dynasty
The Mughal Emperor Babur and his heir Humayun. The word Mughal is derived from the Persian word for Mongol.
This map shows the boundary of the 13th-century Mongol Empire and location of today's Mongols in modern Mongolia, Russia and China.
Mongol women in traditional dress
Strong Mongol men at August games. Photo by Wm. Purdom, 1909
Mongol Empress Zayaat (Jiyatu), wife of Kulug Khan (1281–1311)
Genghis' son Tolui with Queen Sorgaqtani
Hulegu Khan, ruler of the Ilkhanate
13th century Ilkhanid Mongol archer
Mongol soldiers by Rashid al-Din, BnF. MS. Supplément Persan 1113. 1430-1434 AD.
Kalmyk Mongol girl Annushka (painted in 1767)
A 20th-century Mongol Khan, Navaanneren
The 4th Dalai Lama Yonten Gyatso
Dolgorsürengiin Dagvadorj became the first Mongol to reach sumo's highest rank.
Mongol women archers during Naadam festival
A Mongol musician
A Mongol Wrangler
Buryat Mongol shaman
Kalmyks, 19th century
Mongol girl performing Bayad dance
Buryat Mongols (painted in 1840)
Daur Mongol Empress Wanrong (1906–1946), also had Borjigin blood on maternal side.
Buryat Mongol boy during shamanic rite
Concubine Wenxiu was Puyi's consort
A Mongolian Buddhist monk, 1913

The Mongols (Монголчууд,, Moŋğolçuud, ; ; Монголы) are an East Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia, Inner Mongolia in China and the Buryatia Republic of the Russian Federation.

Steppe

Ecoregion characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes.

Two types of steppes
The Eurasian Steppe Belt (in on the map), a path of passage for cultures – a possible origin for the Indo-European languages, the domesticated horse, the wheel and chariot
Steppe in Mongolia
Steppe in Kazakhstan
Steppe in Turkey
Steppe in Ukraine
Steppe in Russia
Southern Siberian steppe: windbreaker trees in the wintertime
Cold Patagonian steppe near Fitz Roy, Argentina
Prairie in Alberta, Canada
Sagebrush steppe in northeastern Nevada along US 93

In both the highlands of Mongolia and northern Nevada, 30 C can be reached during the day with sub-freezing readings at night.

Yuan dynasty

Successor state to the Mongol Empire after its division and an imperial dynasty of China established by Kublai (Emperor Shizu), leader of the Mongol Borjigin clan, lasting from 1271 to 1368.

Yuan dynasty (c. 1294)
Goryeo was a semi-autonomous vassal state
Mongol successor khanates
Yuan dynasty (c. 1294)
Goryeo was a semi-autonomous vassal state
Kublai Khan, founder of the Yuan dynasty
Guan Daosheng "the most famous and talented female painter and calligrapher in Chinese history" flourished in the Yuan dynasty
The Bailin Temple Pagoda of Zhaoxian County, Hebei Province, built in 1330 during the Yuan dynasty
A Yuan dynasty jade swan
A Yuan dynasty blue-and-white porcelain dish with fish and flowing water design, mid-14th century, Freer Gallery of Art
Yuan porcelain jar
Yuan underglaze blue Jingdezhen porcelain plate
A plate made of lacquer, wood, and paper from the Yuan dynasty. The Chinese were able to perfect a method of making lacquer. Decorating this plate are parrots and peonies. The parrot was a symbol of fidelity; because of its ability to mimic human speech, it was believed to be a suitable companion to a woman whose husband was away from home. The bird would be able to inform each person of the other's activities. The peony was a symbol of female virtue. When shown in full bloom, it is a token of love, affection, and feminine beauty. Birmingham Museum of Art.
The Yuan dynasty arched bridges of Taicang were built to show the prosperity the city enjoyed under the Yuan.
Yuan dynasty coinage
Map of the Northwest territory
A diagram of Pascal's triangle in Zhu Shijie's Jade Mirror of the Four Unknowns, written in 1303
Yang Hui's Magic Circle
Yuan dynasty banknote with its printing plate, 1287
A revolving typecase with individual movable type characters from Wang Zhen's Nong Shu, published in 1313
Blue-and-white Covered Jar with Fretwork Floral Design in Red and Blue Glaze, excavated in Baoding
Painting of Kublai Khan on a hunting expedition, by Chinese court artist Liu Guandao, c. 1280
Wine jar with fish and aquatic plants, 14th century. Porcelain with underglaze cobalt blue decoration. Brooklyn Museum.
Manichaean Diagram of the Universe, a painting describing Yuan period Manichaean cosmology
A Yuan Qingbai porcelain statue of Guanyin, a bodhisattva of Mahayana Buddhism
Box with pavilion and figures, Yuan dynasty.
Covered box with lunar palace, 14th century. Yuan dynasty.
Jinan Great Southern Mosque was completed during the reign of Temür Khan (the Emperor Chengzong of Yuan).
Administrative divisions of the Yuan dynasty.
Mongol Empire's Ayimaq in North China
Magic square in Arabic numerals (Yuan dynasty)
smelting machines (Yuan dynasty)
Water wheel (Yuan dynasty)
Water hammer (Yuan dynasty)
Weaving machine (Yuan dynasty)
water mill gear (Yuan dynasty)
loom (Yuan dynasty)
Yuan painting (Zhao Mengfu)
Chuangzi Nu (Yuan dynasty)<ref name="bm">{{cite web |url = http://www.grandhistorian.com/chinesesiegewarfare/index-english12122007.html |title=Archived copy |access-date=November 11, 2009 |url-status=dead |archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20091202081843/http://www.grandhistorian.com/chinesesiegewarfare/index-english12122007.html |archive-date=December 2, 2009 }}</ref>
Military costume.
Yuan painting of a legendary figure riding on a dragon.
Yuan cavalry
Yuan Mongol soldier
Genghis Khan's grandson, Kublai Khan during his youth
Mongol rider (Yuan dynasty)
Chinese stone inscription of a Nestorian Christian Cross from a monastery of Fangshan District in Beijing (then called Dadu, or Khanbaliq), dated to the Yuan Dynasty

His realm was, by this point, isolated from the other Mongol khanates and controlled most of modern-day China and its surrounding areas, including modern Mongolia.

Mongolia–Russia border

Map of Mongolia, with Russia to the north
The Sino-Russian border within the regions of Mongolia, as it ran throughout the 19th century, largely corresponded to today's Mongolia–Russia border; the main difference is the absorption of Tuva into Russia
The peak of Mt Munku Sardyk is located on the Mongolia–Russia border
Tourists at the border
Border sign

The Mongolia–Russia border (Монгол-Оросын хил, ; Российско-монгольская граница) is the international border between Mongolia and the Russian Federation.

Mongolian language

Mongolian script and Mongolian Cyrillic on Sukhbaatar's statue in Ulaanbaatar
Modern Mongolian's place on the chronological tree of Mongolic languages
Nova N 176 found in Kyrgyzstan. The manuscript (dating to the 12th century Western Liao) is written in the Mongolic Khitan language using cursive Khitan large script. It has 127 leaves and 15,000 characters.
Edict of Yesün Temür Khan, Emperor Taiding of Yuan (1328). Only the 'Phags-pa script retains the complete Middle Mongol vowel system.
The Secret History of the Mongols which goes back to a lost Mongolian script original is the only document that allows the reconstruction of agreement in social gender in Middle Mongol.

Mongolian is the official language of Mongolia and both the most widely spoken and most-known member of the Mongolic language family.

Genghis Khan

The founder and first Great Khan (Emperor) of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death.

Genghis Khan as portrayed in a 14th-century Yuan era album; now located in the National Palace Museum, Taipei, Taiwan. The original version was in black and white; produced by the Mongol painter Ho-li-hosun in 1278 under the commission of Kublai Khan.
Burkhan Khaldun mountain
Autumn at the Onon River, Mongolia, the region where Temüjin was born and grew up
The locations of the Mongolian tribes during the Khitan Liao dynasty (907–1125)
Jurchen inscription (1196) in Mongolia relating to Genghis Khan's alliance with the Jin against the Tatars
Genghis Khan and Toghrul Khan, illustration from a 15th-century Jami' al-tawarikh manuscript
Genghis Khan proclaimed Khagan of all Mongols. Illustration from a 15th-century Jami' al-tawarikh manuscript.
Mongol Empire c. 1207
Battle between Mongol warriors and the Chinese
Genghis Khan entering Beijing.
Khwarazmian Empire (green) c. 1200, on the eve of the Mongol invasions
Genghis Khan watches in amazement as the Khwarezmi Jalal ad-Din prepares to ford the Indus.
Significant conquests and movements of Genghis Khan and his generals
Gold dinar of Genghis Khan, struck at the Ghazna (Ghazni) mint, dated 1221/2
Western Xia dynasty, Jin/Jurchen dynasty, Song dynasty and Kingdom of Dali in 1142
Mongol Empire in 1227 at Genghis Khan's death
Genghis Khan (center) at the coronation of his son Ögedei, Rashid al-Din, early 14th century
Expansion of the Mongol Empire 1206–1294
Mural of siege warfare, Genghis Khan Exhibit in San Jose, California, US
Reenactment of Mongol battle
Genghis Khan on the reverse of a Kazakh 100 tenge collectible coin.
Portrait on a hillside in Ulaanbaatar, 2006
Genghis Khan Monument in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, China
Invasions like the Battle of Baghdad by his grandson are treated as brutal and are seen negatively in Iraq. This illustration is from a 14th-century Jami' al-tawarikh manuscript.
Genghis Khan and Great Khans of the Yuan dynasty, late 13th and early 14th-century Yuan paintings
16th century Ottoman miniature of Genghis Khan
A bust of Genghis Khan adorns a wall in the presidential palace in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.
Statue of Genghis Khan at his mausoleum, Inner Mongolia, China
Monument in Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia, China
The actor LeKain in the role of Genghis Khan

Present-day Mongolians regard him as the founding father of Mongolia for unifying the nomadic tribes of Northeast Asia.

Satellite state

Country that is formally independent in the world, but under heavy political, economic, and military influence or control from another country.

The marked territories on this global map are mostly of countries which are sovereign states with full international recognition (brackets denote the country of a marked territory that is not a sovereign state). Some territories are countries in their own right but are not recognized as such (e.g. Taiwan), and some few marked territories are disputed about which country they belong to (e.g. Kashmir) or if they are countries in their own right (e.g. West Sahara).

When the Mongolian Revolution of 1921 broke out, Mongolian revolutionaries expelled Russian White Guards (during the Russian Civil War of 1917–1923 following the Communist October Revolution of 1917) from Mongolia, with the assistance of the Soviet Red Army.

Xiongnu

The Xiongnu were a tribal confederation of nomadic peoples who, according to ancient Chinese sources, inhabited the eastern Eurasian Steppe from the 3rd century BC to the late 1st century AD. Chinese sources report that Modu Chanyu, the supreme leader after 209 BC, founded the Xiongnu Empire.

Domain and influence of Xiongnu under Modu Chanyu around 205 BC
Asia in 200 BC, showing the early Xiongnu state and its neighbors
Plaque in the shape of a grazing kulan (wild ass), 2nd–1st century BC, Northwest China, Xiongnu culture.
A traveling nomad family led by a man in belted jacket and trousers, pulling a nomadic cart. Belt Buckle, Mongolia or southern Siberia, dated to 2nd-1st century BC (Xiongnu period).
The Han dynasty world order in AD 2.
Xiongnu among other people in Asia around 1 AD.
Bronze seal of a Xiongnu chief, conferred by the Eastern Han government. Inscribed 漢匈奴/歸義親/漢長 ("The Chief of the Han Xiongnu, who have returned to righteousness and embraced the Han"). Seal, impression, and transcription in standard characters.
Belt hook depicting an animal fight, Xiongnu, 200-100 BC, bronze. Östasiatiska museet, Stockholm.
Southern and Northern Xiongnu in 200 AD, before the collapse of the Han Dynasty.
Xiongnu cauldron, Eastern Han
Location of Xiongnu and other steppe nations in 300 AD.
An embroidered rug from the Xiongnu Noin-Ula burial site. This luxury item was imported from Bactria, and is thought to represent Yuezhi figures.
Belt plaque in the shape of a kneeling horse, 3rd-1st century BCE, gilded silver, made in North China for Xiongnu patrons.
Belt Buckle, 2nd-1st century BCE, Xiongnu. Another naturalistic belt buckle made to the Xiongnu taste, showing a mounted warrior frontally, holding a dagger and grabbing the hair of a demon who is also attacked by a dog. Also appears a nomadic cart pulled by reindeers, and another dog on top of the cart.
Xiongnu Leather Robe, Han period, Henan Provincial Museum, Zhengzhou
Xiongnu bow
Belt plaque with design of wrestling men, Ordos region and western part of North China, 2nd century BC, bronze - Ethnological Museum, Berlin.
Belt buckle with three Ibexes, 2nd-1st century BC, Xiongnu. Chinese foundries made bronze belt plaques to the taste of the Xiongnu, who preferred designs of real animals in naturalistic settings. These plaques have typically been excavated in Xiongnu tombs of the 1st century BC.
Belt buckle with animal combat scene, 2nd-1st century BCE, made in North China for the Xiongnu. These plates were inspired by the art of the steppes, but the design was flattened and compressed within the frame.
Belt Buckle with nomadic-inspired zoomorphic design, manufactured in China for the Xiongnu. Mercury-gilded bronze (a Chinese technique). North China, 3rd-2nd century BC.
2nd century BC – 2nd century AD characters of Xiongnu-Xianbei script (Mongolia and Inner Mongolia).{{sfn|Ishjamts|1996|p=166, Fig 5}}
2nd century BC – 2nd century AD, characters of Xiongnu-Xianbei script (Mongolia and Inner Mongolia).{{sfn|Ishjamts|1996|p=166, Fig 5}}

A Scythian culture, it was identified by excavated artifacts and mummified humans, such as the Siberian Ice Princess, found in the Siberian permafrost, in the Altay Mountains, Kazakhstan and nearby Mongolia.

Mongolian Revolution of 1921

Back row from left: ?, ?, Rinchingiin Elbegdorj, Soliin Danzan, Damdin Sükhbaatar, Ajvaagiin Danzan, Boris Shumyatsky, ?, Dogsomyn Bodoo
The Bogd Khan
Xu Shuzheng
Ceremony marking the abolition of Mongolian autonomy 1920
The Russian Consulate in Niislel Hüree where Bodoo taught and headed the Consular Hill group
Roman von Ungern-Sternberg
Sükhbaatar meets with Lenin, a poster of Bolsheviks
Damdin Sükhbaatar in Troitskosavsk
Soviet and Mongol cavalry occupied Urga in August
Mongolia's regime transferred to the People's Party, led by Sükhbaatar (painting)
Dogsomyn Bodoo
Khorloogiin Choibalsan
Soliin Danzan
Dansranbilegiin Dogsom
Darizavyn Losol
Damdin Sükhbaatar

The Mongolian Revolution of 1921 (Outer Mongolian Revolution of 1921, or People's Revolution of 1921) was a military and political event by which Mongolian revolutionaries, with the assistance of the Soviet Red Army, expelled Russian White Guards from the country, and founded the Mongolian People's Republic in 1924.