Mongolian People's Republic

Mongolian People's Republic in 1989
A Soviet-Russian and Mongolian tiled mural at the World War II Zaisan Memorial, Ulan-Bator, date to the era of the People's Republic.
Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal led Mongolia for over 44 years
First Ulsyn Ikh Khural (State Great Assembly) which discussed and approved the first constitution, November 1924.
Yurt quarter under the Zajsan Hill, Ulaanbaatar, 1972
Distribution of military power in the Far East and Mongolia of the Soviet Union during the Cold War

Socialist state which existed from 1921 to 1992, located in the historical region of Outer Mongolia in East Asia.

- Mongolian People's Republic

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Capital and most populous city of Mongolia.

Remains of Wang Khan's 12th-century palace in Ulaanbaatar
Detail of 19th-century painting of Urga (Ulaanbaatar): in the centre the movable square temple of Bat Tsagaan, built in 1654, besides numerous other temples
The Russian Consulate of Urga (Ulaanbaatar) and the Holy Trinity Church, both built in 1863
Engraving of N.A.Charushin's panorama photo of the old center of Urga from trip (1888) with Potanin
A 1913 panorama of Urga. The large circular compound in the middle is the Zuun Khuree temple-palace complex. The Gandan temple complex is to the left. The palaces of the Bogd are to the south of the river. To the far bottom right of the painting is the Maimaicheng district. To its left are the white buildings of the Russian consulate area. The Manjusri monastery can be seen on Mount Bogd Khan Uul at the bottom-right of the painting
1913 color photo of Gandan Monastery
Green areas were increased in the city center during the communist era.
Outdoor market near Gandan hill in 1972; State Department Store in the background
The private sector with yurts against the backdrop of high-rise new buildings in Ulaanbaatar.
Map of the districts of Ulaanbaatar
Peace Gate of the Winter Palace (Amgalan Enkhiin Khaalga in Mongolian, Andimen in Chinese), for which no nails were used
Throne given to Zanabazar by his disciple the Kangxi Emperor, used by later Jebtsundamba Khutuktus in Urga
Downtown Ulaanbaatar around Sükhbaatar Square
Mongolian National Song and Dance Academic Ensemble
Gorkhi-Terelj National Park is a popular picnic and camping ground all year round.
Main building of the National University of Mongolia
The National Library
Biking event at Peace avenue. Turkish Embassy in the background
Ulaanbaatar railway station
Ger district in Ulaanbaatar with the Temple of Boddhisattva Avalokiteshvara at Gandantegchinlen Monastery in the background.
Wedding at the Sükhbaatar Square.
International Food Festival held annually in UB in September.
Zaisan Memorial is dedicated to the Russian and Mongolian war hero.
The Sükhbaatar Square and Mongolian Parliament.
One of many events in the city. (Shown here, Naadam)
Equestrian statue of Genghis Khan.
Aryabal Meditation Center at Gorkhi-Terelj National Park.
Street art at UB's Peace Avenue
The Beatles monuments is a popular place for the youth of UB to gather around.
Khustain Nuruu National Park, home of the wild horse Takhi, is just {{convert|90|km|abbr=off}} west of UB.
thumb|Dambadarjaalin Monastery in UlaanBaatar
Ruins of the Tsogchin Temple (1749) of Manjusri Monastery
A building of the Dambadarjaalin Monastery (1765) in Sukhbaatar District
Vajradhara Temple (1841) in the center, Zuu Temple (1869) on the left, connected by a passage built in 1945–1946
Winter residence of the Bogd Gegeen, built in 1903, designed under Tsar Nicholas II
Zanabazar's Fine Arts Museum, built in 1905 by Russian merchant Gudvintsal as a trading shop
Ulaanbaatar History Museum, built in 1904 by a Buryat-Mongol merchant
Choijin Lama temple complex, built in 1904–1908
West Geser Temple in UB, built in 1919–1920 by Guve Ovogt Zakhar
Residence of Prince Chin Wang Khanddorj (Minister of Foreign Affairs), built in 1913.

With the proclamation of the Mongolian People's Republic in 1924, the city was officially renamed Ulaanbaatar and declared the country's capital.

Tuvan People's Republic

Partially recognized socialist republic that existed between 1921 and 1944.

Blue line is the early border of the TPR Red line is the Tuvan Autonomous Oblast border
The first official Tuvan delegation to Moscow in June 1925, signing a “Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation between Tuva and the USSR”.
Blue line is the early border of the TPR Red line is the Tuvan Autonomous Oblast border
A 10 Tuvan akşa bill, the country's currency.
Blue line is the early border of the TPR Red line is the Tuvan Autonomous Oblast border
A 1926 Tuvan postage stamp.
Map of western Mongolia and part of Tannu Tuva in 1935.
Decree "On the Adoption of the Tuvan People's Republic into the USSR", issued on 11 October 1944.

The Soviet Union and Mongolia were the only countries to formally recognize it during its existence, in 1924 and 1926 respectively.

Battles of Khalkhin Gol

Japanese infantrymen near wrecked USSR armored vehicles, July 1939
Mongolian cavalry in the Khalkhin Gol (1939)
Mongolian troops fight against a Japanese counterattack on the western beach of the river Khalkhin Gol, 1939
Japanese soldiers cross the Khalkhin Gol
Destroyed Soviet BA-10 armored car
A destroyed Soviet biplane fighter (presumably an I-15 or an I-153)
Japanese soldiers cheering alongside captured Soviet AFVs
Japanese soldiers posing for a photo with captured Soviet equipment
Crew of a BT-5 cavalry tank surrendering to the Japanese
The commander of the 149th Rifle Regiment before the offensive
Japanese pilots pictured on a Toyota KC starter truck
BT-7 Tanks in the Battle of Khalkhin Gol
Captured Japanese soldiers
Captured Japanese Type 95 scout car
Japanese tank Type 95 Ha-Go captured by Soviet troops after battle of Khalkhin Gol
Captured Japanese guns
Nakajima Ki-27b of Kenji Shimada, commander of the 1st Chutai of the 11th Sentai, battle of Khalkhin Gol, June 1939
Grigori Shtern, Khorloogiin Choibalsan and Georgy Zhukov at Khalkhin Gol
North Strike Group plans
Russian President Dmitry Medvedev and Mongolian President Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj standing in front of a statue of Zhukov at a ceremony in Ulaanbaatar in August 2009, commemorating the 70th anniversary of the battle
Troops of the Mongolian Armed Forces during the 80th anniversary parade in 2019

The Battles of Khalkhin Gol (Бои на Халхин-Голе; Халхын голын байлдаан) were the decisive engagements of the undeclared Soviet–Japanese border conflicts involving the Soviet Union, Mongolia, Japan and Manchukuo in 1939.

Mongolian Revolution of 1921

Back row from left: ?, ?, Rinchingiin Elbegdorj, Soliin Danzan, Damdin Sükhbaatar, Ajvaagiin Danzan, Boris Shumyatsky, ?, Dogsomyn Bodoo
The Bogd Khan
Xu Shuzheng
Ceremony marking the abolition of Mongolian autonomy 1920
The Russian Consulate in Niislel Hüree where Bodoo taught and headed the Consular Hill group
Roman von Ungern-Sternberg
Sükhbaatar meets with Lenin, a poster of Bolsheviks
Damdin Sükhbaatar in Troitskosavsk
Soviet and Mongol cavalry occupied Urga in August
Mongolia's regime transferred to the People's Party, led by Sükhbaatar (painting)
Dogsomyn Bodoo
Khorloogiin Choibalsan
Soliin Danzan
Dansranbilegiin Dogsom
Darizavyn Losol
Damdin Sükhbaatar

The Mongolian Revolution of 1921 (Outer Mongolian Revolution of 1921, or People's Revolution of 1921) was a military and political event by which Mongolian revolutionaries, with the assistance of the Soviet Red Army, expelled Russian White Guards from the country, and founded the Mongolian People's Republic in 1924.

Khorloogiin Choibalsan

Choibalsan c. 1925
The Russian Consulate in Khüree played a central role in Choibalsan's early development.
Sükhbaatar (left) with Choibalsan in the early 1920s
Choibalsan in 1930s
Prime Minister Dogsomyn Bodoo
MPP General Secretary Soliin Danzan
Jambyn Lkhümbe
Deputy NKVD Chief Mikhail Frinovsky
The ruins of Manzushir Khiid, one of several hundred Buddhist monasteries destroyed during the purge.
Georgy Zhukov and Khorloogiin Choibalsan (left) consult during the Battle of Khalkhin Gol
Choibalsan hoped to unite ethnic Mongols in Inner Mongolia with the MPR
Choibalsan in military uniform at a military parade in the 1940s.
Choibalsan refused to attend Stalin's 70th-birthday celebration in 1949, sending Tsedenbal (far right) in his place.
Choibalsan's remains were interred in Sükhbaatar's mausoleum from 1954 until 2005
Choibalsan's statue stands in front of the National University in Ulaanbaatar.

Khorloogiin Choibalsan (Хорлоогийн Чойбалсан, spelled Koroloogiin Çoibalsan between 1931 and 1941 and before 1931; 8 February 1895 – 26 January 1952) was the leader of Mongolia (Mongolian People's Republic) and Marshal (general chief commander) of the Mongolian People's Army from the 1930s until his death in 1952.

Satellite state

Country that is formally independent in the world, but under heavy political, economic, and military influence or control from another country.

The marked territories on this global map are mostly of countries which are sovereign states with full international recognition (brackets denote the country of a marked territory that is not a sovereign state). Some territories are countries in their own right but are not recognized as such (e.g. Taiwan), and some few marked territories are disputed about which country they belong to (e.g. Kashmir) or if they are countries in their own right (e.g. West Sahara).

The term was coined by analogy to planetary objects orbiting a larger object, such as smaller moons revolving around larger planets, and is used mainly to refer to Central and Eastern European countries of the Warsaw Pact during the Cold War or to Mongolia or Tannu Tuva between 1924 and 1990, for example.

Jebtsundamba Khutuktu

The Jebtsundamba Khutuktu are the spiritual heads of the Gelug lineage of Tibetan Buddhism in Mongolia.

Statue of Zanabazar, the 1st Jetsun Damba
The 8th Jebtsundamba, known as the Bogd Khan

The communist government of the Mongolian People's Republic, which replaced the theocracy in 1924, declared that there were to be no further reincarnations.

Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

Independent federal socialist state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest and most populous of the Soviet socialist republics of the Soviet Union (USSR) from 1922 to 1991, until becoming a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991, the last two years of the existence of the USSR.

The Russian SFSR (red) within the Soviet Union (red and light yellow) between 1956 and 1991
The Russian SFSR in 1922
The Russian SFSR (red) within the Soviet Union (red and light yellow) between 1956 and 1991
The Russian SFSR in 1924
The Russian SFSR in 1929
The Russian SFSR in 1936
The Russian SFSR in 1940
Flag adopted by the Russian SFSR national parliament in 1991
Matryoshka doll taken apart

The international borders of the RSFSR touched Poland on the west; Norway and Finland of Scandinavia on the northwest; and to its southeast in eastern Asia were the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), Mongolian People's Republic (Mongolia) and the People's Republic of China (China, formerly the Republic of China; 1911–1949).


Landlocked country in East Asia, bordered by Russia to the north and China to the south.

7th-century artifacts found 180 km from Ulaanbaatar.
Mongol Empire expansion (1206 till 1294)
This map shows the boundary of the 13th-century Mongol Empire compared to today's Mongols. The red area shows where the majority of Mongolian speakers reside today.
The Northern Yuan at its greatest extent.
Genghis Khan the first Mongol Emperor
Altan Khan (1507–1582) founded the city of Hohhot, helped introduce Buddhism and originated the title of Dalai Lama
The eighth Jebtsundamba Khutuktu, Bogd Khaan
Map of unified Mongolia in 1917
Khorloogiin Choibalsan led Mongolia during the Stalinist era and presided over an environment of intense political persecution
Mongolian troops fight against the Japanese counterattack at Khalkhin Gol, 1939
Mongolian Premier Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal was the longest-serving leader in the Soviet Bloc, with over 44 years in office
The southern portion of Mongolia is taken up by the Gobi Desert, while the northern and western portions are mountainous.
Mongolia map of Köppen climate classification zones.
The Khentii Mountains in Terelj, close to the birthplace of Genghis Khan.
Bactrian camels by sand dunes in Gobi Desert.
Mongolian steppe
Ulaanbaatar is the capital and largest city of Mongolia
In settlements, many families live in ger districts
Amarbayasgalant Monastery
State Great Khural chamber in session
Mongolia's President Tsakhia Elbegdorj with U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, June 2016
Mongolia's President Khaltmaagiin Battulga and Vladimir Putin in Vladivostok, September 2017
Mongolian, Chinese and Russian national flags set on armored vehicles during the large-scale military exercise Vostok 2018 in Eastern Siberia
Historical development of real GDP per capita in Mongolia
A proportional representation of Mongolia exports, 2019
View of Ulaanbaatar with the Blue Sky Tower
Oyu Tolgoi employs 18,000 workers and expects to be producing 450,000 tonnes of copper a year by 2020
Train in Zamyn-Üüd station in Dornogovi aimag
While the Mongolian horse continues to be revered as the national symbol, they are rapidly being replaced by motorized vehicles.
Mongolian ferry Sukhbaatar on Lake Khovsgol in Khovsgol Province
A ger in front of the Gurvan Saikhan Mountains
Musician playing the traditional Mongolian musical instrument morin khuur
Mongolian media interviewing the opposition Mongolian Green Party in 2008. The media has gained significant freedoms since democratic reforms initiated in the 1990s.
Naadam is the largest summer celebration.
Riders during Naadam festival
Kazakh hunters in Mongolia with eagles
1236-1242 Mongol invasions of Europe

In 1924, the Mongolian People's Republic was founded as a socialist state.

Mongolian People's Army

Emblem of Mongolian People's Army
Sükhbaatar is one of the founders of People's Army
A MPRA soldier on a 1932 Mongolian stamp.
Mongolian People's Army reenactors in 2006.
Roundel of the Mongolian People's Army Air Force
A horseman with MPA-style uniform performs during the opening ceremony for exercise Khaan Quest 2013 at the Five Hills Training Area in Mongolia 3 Aug. 2013
Georgy Zhukov and Khorloogiin Choibalsan (left) consult during the Battle of Khalkhin Gol.
Mongolian cavalry in the Khalkhin Gol (1939).
Mongolian troops defend against a Japanese counterattack on the western beach of river the Khalkhin Gol, 1939.

The Mongolian People's Army (Mongolian: Монголын Ардын Арми), also known as the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Army (Mongolian: Монгол Ардын Хувьсгалт Цэрэг) or the Mongolian Red Army (Mongolian: Монгол Улаан армийн) was an institution of the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party constituting as the armed forces of the Mongolian People's Republic.