Mongoloid

MongolianMongoloid raceMongoloidsMongolian raceEast AsiansEast AsianyellowEast EurasianEastern EurasianNorthern Mongoloid
Mongoloid is a grouping of various people indigenous to East Asia, Central Asia, Southeast Asia, North Asia, Polynesia, and the Americas.wikipedia
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Sinodonty and Sundadonty

SundadontSinodontSinodonty
Individuals within these populations often share certain associated phenotypic traits, such as epicanthic folds, sino- or sundadonty, shovel-shaped incisors and neoteny.
These two patterns were identified by anthropologist Christy G. Turner II as being within the greater "Mongoloid dental complex".

Negroid

CongoidNegroidsNegro
Kroeber indicated that, within the three-part classification, the Mongoloid, the Negroid, and the Caucasian are the three "primary racial stocks of mankind."
Carleton Coon races after Pleistocene.PNG physical anthropology the term is one of the three general racial classifications of humans — Caucasoid, Mongoloid, and Negroid. Under this classification scheme, humans are divisible into broad sub-groups based on phenotypic characteristics such as cranial and skeletal morphology. Later iterations of the terminology, such as Carleton S. Coon's Origin of Races, placed this theory in an evolutionary context. Coon divided the species Homo sapiens into five groups: Caucasoid, Capoid, Congoid, Australoid and Mongoloid, based on the timing of each taxon's evolution from Homo erectus Positing the Capoid race as a separate racial entity, and labeling the two major divisions of what he called the Congoid race as being the "African Negroes" and the "Pygmies", he divided indigenous Africans into distinct Congoid and Capoid groups based on their date of ancestral origin rather than just phenotype.

Vietnamese people

VietnameseKinhViet
Due to covering a large and diverse population, from Native Americans to Vietnamese, the Mongoloid classification is difficult, but Mongoloids are generally considered to share some similar skeletal and dental features.
Bradley J. Adams, a forensic anthropologist in the Office of Chief Medical Examiner of the City of New York, said that Vietnamese people could be classified as Mongoloid.

Asian people

AsianAsiansAsiatic
In 1995, Dr. Marta Mirazón Lahr of the Department of Biological Anthropology at Cambridge University used the term Mongoloid to refer to Asian populations, Indigenous Australians, Pacific Islanders, Negritos, and Amerindians, classifying Northeast Asians as typical Mongoloids and all other Mongoloid groups as atypical Mongoloids.
In 1968, an Asian activist conference decided on favoring the name "Asian American" over the competing terms—"yellow", "Mongoloid", "Asiatic", and "Oriental"—since the Filipinos at the meeting thought they were "brown" rather than "yellow" and the conference thought the term "Oriental" was Eurocentric, since they originate from lands "east" only from Europe's standpoint and, since the term "Oriental" suggested to them "passivity".

Historical race concepts

Historical definitions of raceraceraces
HM-Hsr.jpg, Chinese & Indochinese, Japanese & Korean, Tibetan & Burmese, Malay, Polynesian, Maori, Micronesian, Eskimo, and Native American.
Its first statement suggested in particular to "drop the term 'race' altogether and speak of 'ethnic groups, which proved to be controversial. The 1950 statement was most concerned with dispelling the notion of race as species. It did not reject the idea of a biological basis to racial categories. Instead it defined the concept of race in terms as a population defined by certain anatomical and physiological characteristics as being divergent from other populations; it gives the examples of the Caucasian, Mongoloid and Negroid races. The statements maintain that there are no "pure races" and that biological variability was as great within any race as between races. It argued that there is no scientific basis for believing that there are any innate differences in intellectual, psychological or emotional potential among races.

Malay race

MalayMalaysMalayan
HM-Hsr.jpg, Chinese & Indochinese, Japanese & Korean, Tibetan & Burmese, Malay, Polynesian, Maori, Micronesian, Eskimo, and Native American.
In his 1775 doctoral dissertation titled De generis humani varietate nativa (trams: On the Natural Varieties of Mankind), Blumenbach outlined four main human races by skin color, namely Caucasian (white), Negroid (black), Native American (red), and Mongolian (yellow).

Race (human categorization)

raceracialraces
Historically, the racial classification of the Turkic peoples was sometimes given as "Turanid".
The 1775 treatise "The Natural Varieties of Mankind", by Johann Friedrich Blumenbach proposed five major divisions: the Caucasoid race, the Mongoloid race, the Ethiopian race (later termed Negroid), the American Indian race, and the Malayan race, but he did not propose any hierarchy among the races.

Negro

NegroesblackNEGRO RACE
In 1858, the California State Legislature enacted the first bill of several that prohibited the attendance of "Negroes, Mongolians and Indians" from public schools.
"Negroid" has traditionally been used within physical anthropology to denote one of the three purported races of humankind, alongside Caucasoid and Mongoloid.

Mongolian idiocy

MongolismmongoloidMongol
Those affected were often referred to as "Mongoloids" or in terms of "Mongolian idiocy" or "Mongolian imbecility".
Due to his perception that children with Down syndrome shared facial similarities with the populations that Johann Friedrich Blumenbach described as the "Mongolian race", Down used the term mongoloid.

White people

whitewhitesCaucasian
The reasons for this were the arguments and theories about the Finns originally being of Mongolian instead of "native" European origin due to the Finnish language belonging to the Uralic and not the Indo-European language family.

Australo-Melanesian

AustraloidProto-AustraloidAustralo-Melanesians
Archaeologist Peter Bellwood claims that the vast majority of people in Southeast Asia, the region he calls the "clinal Mongoloid-Australoid zone", are Southern Mongoloids but have a high degree of Australoid admixture.
An Australioid (sic, with an additional -i-) racial group was first proposed by Thomas Huxley in an essay On the Geographical Distribution of the Chief Modifications of Mankind (1870), in which he divided humanity into four principal groups (Xanthochroic, Mongoloid, Negroid, and Australioid).

Turkmens

TurkmenTurkomanTurcoman
The term "Turkic" represents a broad ethnic group of peoples including existing societies such as Altai, Azerbaijanis, Balkars, Bashkirs, Chuvashes, Crimean Karaites, Gagauz, Karachays, Karakalpaks, Kazakhs, Khakas, Krymchaks, Kyrgyz people, Nogais, Qashqai, Tatars, Turkmens, Turkish people, Tuvans, Uyghurs, Uzbeks, and Yakuts and as well as past civilizations such as Dingling, Bulgars, Chuban, Göktürks, Oghuz Turks, Khazars, Khaljis, Kipchaks, Kumans, Karluks, Tiele, Turgeshes, Yenisei Kirghiz, and possibly Huns, Tuoba and the Xiongnu. Malyarchuk said that the decline in the frequency of the Mongoloid component in the gene pools of Central Asians going westward, from 60% in Kyrgyzes, Kazakhs, and Uigurs to 20% in Eastern Iranians, and Turkmen, most likely has to do with the process of settling of the Turkic tribes.
Genetic studies on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) restriction polymorphism confirmed that Turkmen were characterized by the presence of mostly local West Asian mtDNA lineages, similar to the Eastern Iranian populations, nevertheless Turkemns have modest female Mongoloid mtDNA components were observed in Turkmen populations with the frequencies of about 20%.

Uyghurs

UyghurUighurUighurs
The term "Turkic" represents a broad ethnic group of peoples including existing societies such as Altai, Azerbaijanis, Balkars, Bashkirs, Chuvashes, Crimean Karaites, Gagauz, Karachays, Karakalpaks, Kazakhs, Khakas, Krymchaks, Kyrgyz people, Nogais, Qashqai, Tatars, Turkmens, Turkish people, Tuvans, Uyghurs, Uzbeks, and Yakuts and as well as past civilizations such as Dingling, Bulgars, Chuban, Göktürks, Oghuz Turks, Khazars, Khaljis, Kipchaks, Kumans, Karluks, Tiele, Turgeshes, Yenisei Kirghiz, and possibly Huns, Tuoba and the Xiongnu. Malyarchuk said that the decline in the frequency of the Mongoloid component in the gene pools of Central Asians going westward, from 60% in Kyrgyzes, Kazakhs, and Uigurs to 20% in Eastern Iranians, and Turkmen, most likely has to do with the process of settling of the Turkic tribes.
Thus, Uyghurs are one of the many populations of Central Eurasia considered to be genetically related to "Caucasoid" and "Mongoloid" populations.

Down syndrome

Down's syndrometrisomy 21Downs Syndrome
The term Mongoloid has had a second usage referencing Down syndrome, now generally regarded as highly offensive.
Due to his perception that children with Down syndrome shared facial similarities with those of Blumenbach's Mongolian race, John Langdon Down used the term "mongoloid".

Color terminology for race

yellowcolorYellow people
The modern categorization was coined at the Göttingen School of History in the late 18th century – in parallel with the Biblical terms for race Semitic, Hamitic and Japhetic – dividing mankind into five colored races: "Caucasian or White", "Mongolian or Yellow", "Aethiopian or Black", "American or Red" and "Malayan or Brown" subgroups.

Epicanthic fold

epicanthal foldepicanthal foldsepicanthic folds
Individuals within these populations often share certain associated phenotypic traits, such as epicanthic folds, sino- or sundadonty, shovel-shaped incisors and neoteny.

Turkic peoples

TurkicTurksTurkish
Malyarchuk said that the decline in the frequency of the Mongoloid component in the gene pools of Central Asians going westward, from 60% in Kyrgyzes, Kazakhs, and Uigurs to 20% in Eastern Iranians, and Turkmen, most likely has to do with the process of settling of the Turkic tribes.
They possess physical features ranging from Caucasoid to Northern Mongoloid.

Homo sapiens

anatomically modern humanshumananatomically modern human
By this time, Coon hypothesized, the Mongoloid race had become "sapien".
Introgression of genetic variants acquired by Neanderthal admixture have different distributions in European and East Asians, reflecting differences in recent selective pressures.

Ainu people

AinuAinu cultureAinus
Peschel said that the race of the Ainu people was not clear.
Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza places the Ainu in his "Northeast and East Asian" genetic cluster.

Shovel-shaped incisors

shovel-shaped
Individuals within these populations often share certain associated phenotypic traits, such as epicanthic folds, sino- or sundadonty, shovel-shaped incisors and neoteny.

Iranian peoples

IranianIraniansIranian people
Ohkura et al. (1984) analyzed 18 genetic polymorphic traits in two Iranian populations: the Mazandaranian population, and the Guilanian population.

Mediterranean race

MediterraneanMediterraneansHomo mediterraneus
In 1870, Thomas Huxley argued that there were four basic racial categories (Xanthochroic, Mongoloid, Australioid and Negroid).

East Asian people

East AsiansEast AsianEast
Christos Stavrianos et al. (2012), of the Department of Endodology (Forensic Odontology) at Aristotle University, said that East Asians and Native Americans have been separated for at least 11,000 years on two distinct continents, yet due to East Asians and Native Americans sharing many physical traits in common due to common ancestry, some anthropologists classify them together as Mongoloids while other anthropologists, due to their differing traits, classify them as two separate races: the East Asian, and the Native American.

Cumans

CumanCuman peoplePolovtsy
The term "Turkic" represents a broad ethnic group of peoples including existing societies such as Altai, Azerbaijanis, Balkars, Bashkirs, Chuvashes, Crimean Karaites, Gagauz, Karachays, Karakalpaks, Kazakhs, Khakas, Krymchaks, Kyrgyz people, Nogais, Qashqai, Tatars, Turkmens, Turkish people, Tuvans, Uyghurs, Uzbeks, and Yakuts and as well as past civilizations such as Dingling, Bulgars, Chuban, Göktürks, Oghuz Turks, Khazars, Khaljis, Kipchaks, Kumans, Karluks, Tiele, Turgeshes, Yenisei Kirghiz, and possibly Huns, Tuoba and the Xiongnu.
The study further mentioned, "This may be the result of the habits of the Cumanian nomads. Horsemen of the steppes formed a political unit that was independent from their maternal descent or their language and became members of a tribal confederation. According to legends, Cumanians frequently carried off women from raided territories. So the maternal lineages of a large part of the group would reflect the maternal lineage of those populations that had geographic connection with Cumanians during their migrations. Nevertheless, the Asian mitochondrial haplotype in sample Cu26 may still reflect the Asian origins of the Cumanians of Csengele. However, by the time the Cumanians left the Trans-Carpathian steppes and settled in Hungary, they had acquired several more westerly genetic elements, probably from the Slavic, Finno-Ugric, and Turkic-speaking peoples who inhabited the regions north of the Black and Caspian Seas."