Monism

monisticmonistMonadonenessunitymonistssolar monismsubstance monismall-encompassing, highest deityinterconnectedness
Monism attributes oneness or singleness (Greek: μόνος) to a concept e.g., existence.wikipedia
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Neoplatonism

NeoplatonicNeoplatonistNeo-Platonic
Even though neoplatonism primarily circumscribes the thinkers who are now labeled Neoplatonists and not their ideas, there are some ideas that are common to neoplatonic systems, for example, the monistic idea that all of reality can be derived from a single principle, "the One".

Mind–body problem

mind-body problemMind-body dichotomymind and body
Although the term "monism" is derived from Western philosophy to typify positions in the mind–body problem, it has also been used to typify religious traditions. The mind–body problem in philosophy examines the relationship between mind and matter, and in particular the relationship between consciousness and the brain.
Most are either dualist or monist.

Substance theory

substancesubstancessubstantialism
In Hinduism, substance-ontology prevails, seeing Brahman as the unchanging real beyond the world of appearances.
Substance is a key concept in ontology and metaphysics, which may be classified into monist, dualist, or pluralist varieties according to how many substances or individuals are said to populate, furnish, or exist in the world.

Philosophy of mind

mindmental philosophyphilosophy of the mind
Monism is also still relevant to the philosophy of mind, where various positions are defended.
Dualism and monism are the two central schools of thought on the mind–body problem, although nuanced views have arisen that do not fit one or the other category neatly.

Pluralism (philosophy)

pluralismpluralisticpluralist
Pluralism is a term used in philosophy, meaning "doctrine of multiplicity", often used in opposition to monism ("doctrine of unity") and dualism ("doctrine of duality").

Mind–body dualism

dualismCartesian dualismmind-body dualism
The problem was addressed by René Descartes in the 17th century, resulting in Cartesian dualism, and by pre-Aristotelian philosophers, in Avicennian philosophy, and in earlier Asian and more specifically Indian traditions.
Dualism is contrasted with various kinds of monism.

Materialism

materialistmaterialisticmaterialists
=Latter-day Saint theology also expresses a form of Christian monism via materialism and eternalism, claiming that creation was ex materia (as opposed to ex nihilo in conventional Christianity), as expressed by Parley Pratt and echoed in view by Latter-day Saint prophet Joseph Smith, making no distinction between the spiritual and the material, these being not just similarly eternal, but ultimately two manifestations of the same reality or substance.
Materialism is a form of philosophical monism that holds that matter is the fundamental substance in nature, and that all things, including mental states and consciousness, are results of material interactions.

Physicalism

physicalistPhysical ontologynon-reductive physicalism
Physicalism is a form of ontological monism—a "one substance" view of the nature of reality as opposed to a "two-substance" (dualism) or "many-substance" (pluralism) view.

Consciousness

consciousconsciouslyhuman consciousness
The mind–body problem in philosophy examines the relationship between mind and matter, and in particular the relationship between consciousness and the brain.
Proposed solutions can be divided broadly into two categories: dualist solutions that maintain Descartes' rigid distinction between the realm of consciousness and the realm of matter but give different answers for how the two realms relate to each other; and monist solutions that maintain that there is really only one realm of being, of which consciousness and matter are both aspects.

Anaximander

Anaximander of MiletusAnaximandrosἈναξίμανδρος
One thing that is not debatable is that even the ancient Greeks considered Anaximander to be from the Monist school which began in Miletus, with Thales followed by Anaximander and which ended with Anaximenes.

Stoicism

StoicStoicsStoic philosophy
Some of the most famous pantheists are the Stoics, Giordano Bruno and Spinoza.
The Stoics provided a unified account of the world, consisting of formal logic, monistic physics and naturalistic ethics.

Anomalous monism

token identitymind-body identity theorytoken identity theory
Certain positions do not fit easily into the above categories, such as functionalism, anomalous monism, and reflexive monism.
However, according to anomalous monism, events cannot be so explained or predicted as described in mental terms (such as "thinking", "desiring" etc.), but only as described in physical terms: this is the distinctive feature of the thesis as a brand of physical monism.

Reflexive monism

Certain positions do not fit easily into the above categories, such as functionalism, anomalous monism, and reflexive monism.
Monism is the view that the universe, at the deepest level of analysis, is composed of one fundamental kind of stuff.

Mind

mentalhuman mindmental content
The mind–body problem in philosophy examines the relationship between mind and matter, and in particular the relationship between consciousness and the brain.
Dualism and monism are the two major schools of thought that attempt to resolve the mind–body problem.

Polytheism

polytheisticpolytheistspolytheist
Panentheism (from Greek πᾶν (pân) "all"; ἐν (en) "in"; and θεός (theós) "God"; "all-in-God") is a belief system that posits that the divine (be it a monotheistic God, polytheistic gods, or an eternal cosmic animating force) interpenetrates every part of nature, but is not one with nature.
In most religions which accept polytheism, the different gods and goddesses are representations of forces of nature or ancestral principles, and can be viewed either as autonomous or as aspects or emanations of a creator deity or transcendental absolute principle (monistic theologies), which manifests immanently in nature (panentheistic and pantheistic theologies).

Monotheism

monotheisticmonotheistmonotheists
Panentheism (from Greek πᾶν (pân) "all"; ἐν (en) "in"; and θεός (theós) "God"; "all-in-God") is a belief system that posits that the divine (be it a monotheistic God, polytheistic gods, or an eternal cosmic animating force) interpenetrates every part of nature, but is not one with nature.
The Rigveda exhibits notions of monism of the Brahman, particularly in the comparatively late tenth book, which is dated to the early Iron Age, e.g. in the Nasadiya sukta.

Hindu philosophy

Hindu philosopherdarsanasDarshanas
Much Hindu thought is highly characterized by panentheism and pantheism.
Hindu philosophy also includes several sub-schools of theistic philosophies that integrate ideas from two or more of the six orthodox philosophies, such as the realism of the Nyāya, the naturalism of the Vaiśeṣika, the dualism of the Sāṅkhya, the monism and knowledge of Self as essential to liberation of Advaita, the self-discipline of yoga and the asceticism and elements of theistic ideas.

Ernst Haeckel

HaeckelErnst Heinrich HaeckelHaeckel, Ernst
Haeckel became the most famous proponent of Monism in Germany.

F. H. Bradley

Francis Herbert BradleyBradleyFrancis Bradley
His outlook saw a monistic unity, transcending divisions between logic, metaphysics and ethics.

Plotinus

PlotinianPlotinPlotino
In Platonism, and especially Neoplatonism, the goal of henosis is union with what is fundamental in reality: the One, the Source, or Monad.

Pantheism

pantheisticpantheistpantheists
Panentheism differentiates itself from pantheism, which holds that the divine is synonymous with the universe.
Spinoza held the monist view that the two are the same, and monism is a fundamental part of his philosophy.

Deity

deitiesgodsgod
Panentheism (from Greek πᾶν (pân) "all"; ἐν (en) "in"; and θεός (theós) "God"; "all-in-God") is a belief system that posits that the divine (be it a monotheistic God, polytheistic gods, or an eternal cosmic animating force) interpenetrates every part of nature, but is not one with nature.
In most polytheistic religions, the different gods and goddesses are representations of forces of nature or ancestral principles, and can be viewed either as autonomous or as aspects or emanations of a creator God or transcendental absolute principle (monistic theologies), which manifests immanently in nature.

Heraclitus

Heraclitus of EphesusHeracliteanpanta rhei
One interpretation is that it shows his monism, though perhaps a dialectical one.

Ontology

ontologicalontologicallyontologies
The universe and the divine are not ontologically equivalent.
In the prologue or proem to his poem On Nature he describes two views of existence; initially that nothing comes from nothing, and therefore existence is eternal.

Vishishtadvaita

VishistadvaitaVisishtadvaitaVishishtadvaita Vedanta
It can be described as qualified monism or qualified non-dualism or attributive monism.