Mono (software)

MonoMonoTouchMono FrameworkMono RuntimeMono development platformMono for AndroidMono ProjectMonoDroid.NET / MonoMono (programming)
Mono is a free and open-source project to create an Ecma standard-compliant .NET Framework-compatible software framework, including a C# compiler and a Common Language Runtime.wikipedia
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Xamarin

Xamarin StudioRoboVMXamarin Mobile
Originally by Ximian, it was later acquired by Novell, and is now being led by Xamarin, a subsidiary of Microsoft and the .NET Foundation.
Xamarin is a Microsoft-owned San Francisco-based software company founded in May 2011 by the engineers that created Mono, Xamarin.Android (formerly Mono for Android) and Xamarin.iOS (formerly MonoTouch), which are cross-platform implementations of the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) and Common Language Specifications (often called Microsoft .NET).

Miguel de Icaza

Miguel de '''Icaza
Miguel de Icaza of Ximian believed that .NET had the potential to increase programmer productivity and began investigating whether a Linux version was feasible.
Miguel de Icaza (born November 23, 1972) is a Mexican-American programmer, best known for starting the GNOME, Mono, and Xamarin projects.

Cross-platform software

Cross-platformPlatform independentmulti-platform
The stated purpose of Mono is not only to be able to run Microsoft .NET applications cross-platform, but also to bring better development tools to Linux developers.

Common Language Infrastructure

CLICommon Language SpecificationECMA-335
When Microsoft first announced their .NET Framework in June 2000 it was described as "a new platform based on Internet standards", and in December of that year the underlying Common Language Infrastructure was published as an open standard, "ECMA-335", opening up the potential for independent implementations.
The .NET Framework, .NET Core, Mono, DotGNU and Portable.NET are implementations of the CLI.

C Sharp (programming language)

C#Visual C#C# programming language
Mono is a free and open-source project to create an Ecma standard-compliant .NET Framework-compatible software framework, including a C# compiler and a Common Language Runtime.
Mono is the name of the free and open-source project to develop a compiler and runtime for the language.

Windows Forms

WinFormsWindows.Forms
Windows Forms 2.0 is also supported, but not actively developed, and as such its support on Mono is incomplete.
Windows Forms (WinForms) is a graphical (GUI) class library included as a part of Microsoft .NET Framework or Mono Framework, providing a platform to write rich client applications for desktop, laptop, and tablet PCs.

Moonlight (runtime)

MoonlightMoonlight browser plugin
An open-source implementation of Microsoft Silverlight, called Moonlight, has been included since Mono 1.9.
Moonlight is a free and open source implementation of the now deprecated Microsoft Silverlight application framework for Linux and other Unix-based operating systems, developed and then abandoned by the Mono Project.

Visual Basic .NET

VB.NETVisual Basic.NETVisual Basic
The Mono project has also created a Visual Basic .NET compiler and a runtime designed for running VB.NET applications.
Mono also includes a command-line VB.NET compiler.

Ximian

Helix Code
Originally by Ximian, it was later acquired by Novell, and is now being led by Xamarin, a subsidiary of Microsoft and the .NET Foundation. Miguel de Icaza of Ximian believed that .NET had the potential to increase programmer productivity and began investigating whether a Linux version was feasible.
In May 2011 The Attachmate Group laid off all its US staff working on Mono, which included De Icaza.

Novell

Novell, Inc.Novell Inc.PGSoft
Originally by Ximian, it was later acquired by Novell, and is now being led by Xamarin, a subsidiary of Microsoft and the .NET Foundation.
In August 2003, Novell acquired Ximian, a developer of open source Linux applications (Evolution, Red Carpet and Mono).

Beagle (software)

BeagleBeagle Desktop Search
Some programs written for the Linux Desktop include Banshee, Beagle, F-Spot, Gbrainy, Docky/GNOME Do, MonoTorrent, Pinta, and Tomboy.
Beagle grew out of Dashboard, an early Mono-based application for watching and presenting useful information from a user's computer.

MonoDevelop

SteticVisual Studio for Mac
Its primary focus is development of projects that use Mono and .NET frameworks.

Common Intermediate Language

CILMicrosoft Intermediate LanguageMSIL
The Mono runtime contains a code execution engine that translates ECMA CIL byte codes into native code and supports a number of processors: ARM, MIPS (in 32-bit mode only), SPARC, PowerPC, S390 (in 64-bit mode), x86, x86-64 and IA-64 for 64-bit modes.
CIL is a CPU- and platform-independent instruction set that can be executed in any environment supporting the Common Language Infrastructure, such as the .NET runtime on Windows, or the cross-platform Mono runtime.

MonoCross

It uses MonoTouch to produce native iOS applications for iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch, Mono for Android to creating native Android applications, and ASP.NET to support HTML5 apps using AJAX, CSS, and JavaScript.

GTK

GTK+Gtk#GTK2
These include: Gtk# for graphical user interface (GUI) development, Mozilla libraries for working with the Gecko rendering engine, Unix integration libraries (Mono.Posix), database connectivity libraries, a security stack, and the XML schema language RelaxNG.
The library facilitates building graphical GNOME applications using Mono or any other compliant Common Language Runtime (CLR).

Managed code

managed.NETmanaged and unmanaged code
Within a native .NET/Mono application, all code is managed; that is, it is governed by the CLI's style of memory management and thread safety.
Managed code is computer program code that requires and will execute only under the management of a Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) Virtual Execution System (VES) virtual machine, e.g. .NET Core CoreFX, .NET Framework Common Language Runtime (CLR), or Mono.

Monobjc

Monobjc is a bridge API for Mac OS X to allow applications that run on Mono runtime to access various Mac OS X API.

Tao Framework

Randy RidgeTao
The Tao Framework is a C# library giving .NET and Mono developers access to popular graphics and gaming libraries like OpenGL and SDL.

Nemerle

MonoDevelop is a free GNOME integrated development environment primarily designed for C# and other .NET languages such as Nemerle, Boo, and Java (via IKVM.NET), although it also supports languages such as C, C++, Python, and Vala.
Nemerle is a general-purpose high-level statically typed programming language designed for platforms using the Common Language Infrastructure (.NET/Mono).

SharpDevelop

Sharp DevelopSharpDX
MonoDevelop was originally a port of SharpDevelop to Gtk#, but it has since evolved to meet the needs of Mono developers.
SharpDevelop (also styled as #develop) is a discontinued free and open source integrated development environment (IDE) for the .NET Framework, Mono, Gtk# and Glade# platforms.

IKVM.NET

IKVM
MonoDevelop is a free GNOME integrated development environment primarily designed for C# and other .NET languages such as Nemerle, Boo, and Java (via IKVM.NET), although it also supports languages such as C, C++, Python, and Vala.
IKVM.NET is an implementation of Java for Mono and the Microsoft .NET Framework.

Cocoa Sharp

Cocoa#
Cocoa# (CocoaSharp) is a bridge framework on OS X to allow applications developed with the Mono runtime to access the Cocoa API.

Microsoft Silverlight

SilverlightSilverlight 3Microsoft Silverlight 2.0
An open-source implementation of Microsoft Silverlight, called Moonlight, has been included since Mono 1.9.
The Mono Team abandoned development of Moonlight, a free and open-source implementation of both the Silverlight 1 and 2 runtimes.

Banshee (media player)

BansheeBanshee Media PlayerHelix Banshee
Some programs written for the Linux Desktop include Banshee, Beagle, F-Spot, Gbrainy, Docky/GNOME Do, MonoTorrent, Pinta, and Tomboy. In November 2011 at a Ubuntu Developer Summit, developers voted to have the Mono-based Banshee media player removed from Ubuntu's default installation beginning on Ubuntu 12.04; although reported reasonings included performance issues on ARM architecture, blocking issues on its GTK+ 3 version, and it being, in their opinion, "not well maintained", speculation also surfaced that the decision was also influenced by a desire to remove Mono from the base distribution, as the remaining programs dependent on Mono, gbrainy and Tomboy, were also to be removed.
Built upon Mono and Gtk#, it uses the GStreamer multimedia platform for encoding and decoding various media formats, including Ogg Vorbis, MP3 and FLAC.