Monocyte

monocytesmonocyticmononuclearmononuclear phagocytemononuclear cellmononuclear cellsmononuclear cellularmononuclears
Monocytes are a type of leukocyte, or white blood cell.wikipedia
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Spleen

splenicsplenetichilum
In an adult human, half of the monocytes are stored in the spleen. About half of the body's monocytes are stored as a reserve in the spleen in clusters in the red pulp's Cords of Billroth.
A study published in 2009 using mice found that the red pulp of the spleen forms a reservoir that contains over half of the body's monocytes.

Myeloid tissue

myeloidmyeloid lineagemyelogenous
They are the largest type of leukocyte and can differentiate into macrophages and myeloid lineage dendritic cells.
In hematopoiesis, myeloid or myelogenous cells are blood cells that arise from a progenitor cell for granulocytes, monocytes, erythrocytes, or platelets (the common myeloid progenitor, that is, CMP or CFU-GEMM), or in a narrower sense also often used, specifically from the lineage of the myeloblast (the myelocytes, monocytes, and their daughter types).

Macrophage

macrophagesM2 macrophagesTissue macrophages
They are the largest type of leukocyte and can differentiate into macrophages and myeloid lineage dendritic cells. These change into macrophages after entering into appropriate tissue spaces, and can transform into foam cells in endothelium. Such roles include: replenishing resident macrophages under normal conditions; migration within approximately 8–12 hours in response to inflammation signals from sites of infection in the tissues; and differentiation into macrophages or dendritic cells to effect an immune response.
Human macrophages are about 21 um in diameter and are produced by the differentiation of monocytes in tissues.

CD4

CD4+CD4 + CD4 count
Triggering monocytes-expressed PD-1 by its ligand PD-L1 induces IL-10 production which activates CD4 Th2 cells and inhibits CD4 Th1 cell function.
In molecular biology, CD4 (cluster of differentiation 4) is a glycoprotein found on the surface of immune cells such as T helper cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells.

Innate immune system

innate immunityinnateinnate immune response
As a part of the vertebrate innate immune system monocytes also influence the process of adaptive immunity.
In tissues, organ-specific macrophages are differentiated from phagocytic cells present in the blood called monocytes.

Foam cell

foam cellsfoamy macrophages
These change into macrophages after entering into appropriate tissue spaces, and can transform into foam cells in endothelium.
Foam cells are formed when circulating monocyte-derived cells are recruited to the atherosclerotic lesion site or fat deposits in the blood vessel walls.

Inflammation

inflammatoryinflammatory responseinflamed
Such roles include: replenishing resident macrophages under normal conditions; migration within approximately 8–12 hours in response to inflammation signals from sites of infection in the tissues; and differentiation into macrophages or dendritic cells to effect an immune response.
In general, acute inflammation is mediated by granulocytes, whereas chronic inflammation is mediated by mononuclear cells such as monocytes and lymphocytes.

CCR2

C-C chemokine receptor 2CD192Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2
Inflammatory monocytes (CX3CR1 low, CCR2 pos, Ly6C high, PD-L1 neg ), which are equivalent to human classical CD14 ++ CD16 − monocytes and resident monocytes (CX3CR1 high, CCR2 neg, Ly6C low, PD-L1 pos ), which are equivalent to human non-classical CD14 low CD16 + monocytes.
This gene encodes two isoforms of a receptor for monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (CCL2), a chemokine which specifically mediates monocyte chemotaxis.

Hematopoietic stem cell

hematopoietic stem cellsPluripotential hemopoietic stem cellhaematopoietic stem cell
Monocytes are produced by the bone marrow from precursors called monoblasts, bipotent cells that differentiated from hematopoietic stem cells.
Myeloid cells include monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, erythrocytes, and megakaryocytes to platelets.

CD16

CD16bCD16aCD16*
CD16, also known as FcγRIII, is a cluster of differentiation molecule found on the surface of natural killer cells, neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages.

White blood cell

leukocyteleukocyteswhite blood cells
Monocytes are a type of leukocyte, or white blood cell.
These broadest categories can be further divided into the five main types: neutrophils, eosinophils (acidophiles), basophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes.

Phagocytosis

phagocyticphagocytosedphagocytose
These are phagocytosis, antigen presentation, and cytokine production.
Neutrophils, macrophages, monocytes, dendritic cells, osteoclasts and eosinophils can be classified as professional phagocytes.

Bone marrow

marrowred bone marrowbone marrow stroma
Monocytes are produced by the bone marrow from precursors called monoblasts, bipotent cells that differentiated from hematopoietic stem cells.

CCL2

MCP-1monocyte chemotactic protein-1monocyte chemoattractant protein-1
These factors include most particularly chemokines such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (CCL2) and monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (CCL7); certain arachidonic acid metabolites such as Leukotriene B4 and members of the 5-Hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid and 5-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid family of OXE1 receptor agonists (e.g., 5-HETE and 5-oxo-ETE); and N-Formylmethionine leucyl-phenylalanine and other N-formylated oligopeptides which are made by bacteria and activate the formyl peptide receptor 1.
CCL2 recruits monocytes, memory T cells, and dendritic cells to the sites of inflammation produced by either tissue injury or infection.

Monoblast

monoblastsCFU-M
Monocytes are produced by the bone marrow from precursors called monoblasts, bipotent cells that differentiated from hematopoietic stem cells.
They mature into monocytes which, in turn, develop into macrophages.

Chemokine

chemokinesCC chemokineCC chemokines
These factors include most particularly chemokines such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (CCL2) and monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (CCL7); certain arachidonic acid metabolites such as Leukotriene B4 and members of the 5-Hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid and 5-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid family of OXE1 receptor agonists (e.g., 5-HETE and 5-oxo-ETE); and N-Formylmethionine leucyl-phenylalanine and other N-formylated oligopeptides which are made by bacteria and activate the formyl peptide receptor 1.
Inflammatory chemokines function mainly as chemoattractants for leukocytes, recruiting monocytes, neutrophils and other effector cells from the blood to sites of infection or tissue damage.

Dendritic cell

dendritic cellsmyeloid dendritic cellsdendritic
They are the largest type of leukocyte and can differentiate into macrophages and myeloid lineage dendritic cells. Such roles include: replenishing resident macrophages under normal conditions; migration within approximately 8–12 hours in response to inflammation signals from sites of infection in the tissues; and differentiation into macrophages or dendritic cells to effect an immune response. In vitro, monocytes can differentiate into dendritic cells by adding the cytokines granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin 4.
As mentioned above, mDC probably arise from monocytes, white blood cells which circulate in the body and, depending on the right signal, can turn into either dendritic cells or macrophages.

Cords of Billroth

Billroth's cordssplenic cords
About half of the body's monocytes are stored as a reserve in the spleen in clusters in the red pulp's Cords of Billroth.
The Cords of Billroth (also known as splenic cords or red pulp cords) are found in the red pulp of the spleen between the sinusoids, consisting of fibrils and connective tissue cells with a large population of monocytes and macrophages.

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor

GM-CSFgranulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factorgranulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor
In vitro, monocytes can differentiate into dendritic cells by adding the cytokines granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin 4.
GM-CSF stimulates stem cells to produce granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils) and monocytes.

Monocytosis

Monocytosis is an increase in the number of monocytes circulating in the blood.

Complement system

complementcomplement cascadecomplement activation
Monocytes can perform phagocytosis using intermediary (opsonising) proteins such as antibodies or complement that coat the pathogen, as well as by binding to the microbe directly via pattern-recognition receptors that recognize pathogens.
But significant amounts are also produced by tissue macrophages, blood monocytes, and epithelial cells of the genitourinary system and gastrointestinal tract.

Red pulp

Red Pulp Macrophagesplenic pulpSplenic red pulp
About half of the body's monocytes are stored as a reserve in the spleen in clusters in the red pulp's Cords of Billroth.
The red pulp also acts as a large reservoir for monocytes.

PD-L1

CD274PD-1 ligand 1programmed death-ligand 1
Inflammatory monocytes (CX3CR1 low, CCR2 pos, Ly6C high, PD-L1 neg ), which are equivalent to human classical CD14 ++ CD16 − monocytes and resident monocytes (CX3CR1 high, CCR2 neg, Ly6C low, PD-L1 pos ), which are equivalent to human non-classical CD14 low CD16 + monocytes.
It was also shown that PD-L1 is constituvely expressed on mouse Ly6C lo nonclassical monocytes in steady state.

CCL7

17qll.2monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (CCL7)
These factors include most particularly chemokines such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (CCL2) and monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (CCL7); certain arachidonic acid metabolites such as Leukotriene B4 and members of the 5-Hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid and 5-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid family of OXE1 receptor agonists (e.g., 5-HETE and 5-oxo-ETE); and N-Formylmethionine leucyl-phenylalanine and other N-formylated oligopeptides which are made by bacteria and activate the formyl peptide receptor 1.
CCL7 specifically attracts monocytes, and regulates macrophage function.

5-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid

5-HETE5-Hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid5-Hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid and 5-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid
These factors include most particularly chemokines such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (CCL2) and monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (CCL7); certain arachidonic acid metabolites such as Leukotriene B4 and members of the 5-Hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid and 5-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid family of OXE1 receptor agonists (e.g., 5-HETE and 5-oxo-ETE); and N-Formylmethionine leucyl-phenylalanine and other N-formylated oligopeptides which are made by bacteria and activate the formyl peptide receptor 1.
Examples of such cells include neutrophils, eosinophils, B lymphocytes, monocytes, macrophages, mast cells, dendritic cells, and the monocyte-derived foam cells of atherosclerosis tissues.