Monolithic kernel

MonolithicDynamic Extendablekernelmono-kernelmonokernelmonolithic kernelsmonolithic operating system
A monolithic kernel is an operating system architecture where the entire operating system is working in kernel space.wikipedia
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Linux kernel

LinuxLinux kernel mainlinekernel
Modular operating systems such as OS-9 and most modern monolithic operating systems such as OpenVMS, Linux, BSD, SunOS, AIX, and MULTICS can dynamically load (and unload) executable modules at runtime.
The Linux kernel is a free and open-source, monolithic, Unix-like operating system kernel.

Hybrid kernel

Hybridhybrid architecture
Modular monolithic operating systems are not to be confused with the architectural level of modularity inherent in server-client operating systems (and its derivatives sometimes marketed as hybrid kernel) which use microkernels and servers (not to be mistaken for modules or daemons).
A hybrid kernel is an operating system kernel architecture that attempts to combine aspects and benefits of microkernel and monolithic kernel architectures used in computer operating systems.

NetBSD

BSDCryptographic Device DriverNetBSD Foundation
This anykernel architecture allows adding support of NetBSD drivers to other kernel architectures, ranging from exokernels to monolithic kernels.

FreeBSD

TrustedBSDFreeBSD kernel*BSD
FreeBSD has a monolithic kernel, with a modular design.

OpenVMS

VMSVAX/VMSDECwindows
Modular operating systems such as OS-9 and most modern monolithic operating systems such as OpenVMS, Linux, BSD, SunOS, AIX, and MULTICS can dynamically load (and unload) executable modules at runtime.

SunOS

Sun OSSunits operating system
Modular operating systems such as OS-9 and most modern monolithic operating systems such as OpenVMS, Linux, BSD, SunOS, AIX, and MULTICS can dynamically load (and unload) executable modules at runtime.

Berkeley Software Distribution

BSDBSD Unix*BSD
Modular operating systems such as OS-9 and most modern monolithic operating systems such as OpenVMS, Linux, BSD, SunOS, AIX, and MULTICS can dynamically load (and unload) executable modules at runtime.
Like AT&T Unix, the BSD kernel is monolithic, meaning that device drivers in the kernel run in privileged mode, as part of the core of the operating system.

Multics

Multics operating systemMultics project
Modular operating systems such as OS-9 and most modern monolithic operating systems such as OpenVMS, Linux, BSD, SunOS, AIX, and MULTICS can dynamically load (and unload) executable modules at runtime.

Kernel (operating system)

kerneloperating system kernelkernels
A monolithic kernel runs all the operating system instructions in the same address space for speed.

Exokernel

ExOS
Exokernels are tiny, since functionality is limited to ensuring protection and multiplexing of resources, which is considerably simpler than conventional microkernels' implementation of message passing and monolithic kernels' implementation of high-level abstractions.

Microkernel

nanokernelMicroPicokernel
Modular monolithic operating systems are not to be confused with the architectural level of modularity inherent in server-client operating systems (and its derivatives sometimes marketed as hybrid kernel) which use microkernels and servers (not to be mistaken for modules or daemons). The monolithic model differs from other operating system architectures (such as the microkernel architecture) in that it alone defines a high-level virtual interface over computer hardware.
In terms of the source code size, microkernels are often smaller than monolithic kernels.

Tanenbaum–Torvalds debate

Tanenbaum-Torvalds debatehad generally believedongoing discussion
Tanenbaum began the debate in 1992 on the Usenet discussion group comp.os.minix, arguing that microkernels are superior to monolithic kernels and therefore Linux was, even in 1992, obsolete.

IBM AIX

AIXAIX operating systemObject Data Manager
Modular operating systems such as OS-9 and most modern monolithic operating systems such as OpenVMS, Linux, BSD, SunOS, AIX, and MULTICS can dynamically load (and unload) executable modules at runtime.

Windows 9x

9xWindows 95/98Microsoft Windows 9x
Other monolithic and hybrid kernels, like Linux and Windows NT, are also susceptible to malfunctioning drivers impeding the kernel's operation.

XTS-400

STOPSecure Trusted Operating ProgramSTOP 6, XTS-400
STOP is a monolithic kernel operating system (as is Linux).