Monophyly

monophyleticmonophyletic groupnon-monophyleticmonophyletic clademonophyletic groupingnatural groupmonophyletic groupsmonophyletic taxonmonophyleticallymonophylic
In cladistics, a monophyletic group, or clade, is a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor (or more precisely ancestral population).wikipedia
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Paraphyly

paraphyleticembedded*
Monophyly is contrasted with paraphyly and polyphyly as shown in the second diagram.
In taxonomy, a group is paraphyletic if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a few—typically only one or two—monophyletic subgroups.

Clade

cladesgroupcladistic
In cladistics, a monophyletic group, or clade, is a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor (or more precisely ancestral population).
Clades are termed monophyletic (Greek: "one clan") groups.

Synapomorphy and apomorphy

derivedsynapomorphiessynapomorphy
Monophyletic groups are typically characterised by shared derived characteristics (synapomorphies), which distinguish organisms in the clade from other organisms. * Willi Hennig (1966:148) defined monophyly as groups based on synapomorphy (in contrast to paraphyletic groups, based on symplesiomorphy, and polyphyletic groups, based on convergence).
In other words, it is an apomorphy shared by members of a monophyletic group, and thus assumed to be present in their most recent common ancestor.

Cladistics

cladisticcladistic analysisclade
In cladistics, a monophyletic group, or clade, is a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor (or more precisely ancestral population).

Polyphyly

polyphyleticdiphyleticpolyphyletic group
Monophyly is contrasted with paraphyly and polyphyly as shown in the second diagram. A polyphyletic group is characterized by convergent features or habits of scientific interest (for example, night-active primates, fruit trees, aquatic insects).
. In recent research, the concepts of monophyly, paraphyly, and polyphyly have been used in deducing key genes for barcoding of diverse group of species.

Taxon

taxagrouppolytypic
Further, any group may (or may not) be considered a taxon by modern systematics, depending upon the selection of its members in relation to their common ancestor(s); see second and third diagrams.
Many modern systematists, such as advocates of phylogenetic nomenclature, use cladistic methods that require taxa to be monophyletic (all descendants of some ancestor).

Monotypic taxon

monotypicmonotypic genusonly member

Convergent evolution

convergentconvergenceanalogous
A polyphyletic group is characterized by convergent features or habits of scientific interest (for example, night-active primates, fruit trees, aquatic insects). * Willi Hennig (1966:148) defined monophyly as groups based on synapomorphy (in contrast to paraphyletic groups, based on symplesiomorphy, and polyphyletic groups, based on convergence).

Taxonomy (biology)

taxonomictaxonomytaxonomist
Indeed, taxonomists sometimes used terms without defining them, leading to confusion in the early literature, a confusion which persists.

Phylogenetic tree

phylogenyphylogeneticevolutionary tree
The first diagram shows a phylogenetic tree with two monophyletic groups.

Ancient Greek

GreekClassical GreekGr.
The term monophyly, or monophyletic, derives from the two Ancient Greek words, meaning "alone, only, unique", and, meaning "genus, species", and refers to the fact that a monophyletic group includes organisms (e.g., genera, species) consisting of all the descendants of a unique common ancestor.

Willi Hennig

HennigE. H. W. HennigEmil Hans Willi Hennig
* Willi Hennig (1966:148) defined monophyly as groups based on synapomorphy (in contrast to paraphyletic groups, based on symplesiomorphy, and polyphyletic groups, based on convergence).

Plesiomorphy and symplesiomorphy

plesiomorphicplesiomorphsymplesiomorphy
* Willi Hennig (1966:148) defined monophyly as groups based on synapomorphy (in contrast to paraphyletic groups, based on symplesiomorphy, and polyphyletic groups, based on convergence).

Hybrid speciation

hybrid specieshybridHomoploid hybrid speciation

List of Acacia species

List of ''Acacia'' speciesList of ''Acacia''' speciesSix-nerve Spine-bush
Several cladistic analyses have shown that the genus Acacia is not monophyletic.

List of Astragalus species

List of ''Astragalus'' species
Phylogenetic analyses have determined that many of these subgenera, phalanxes, and sections are not monophyletic.

Physiology of dinosaurs

air sacsdinosaur endothermydinosaur physiology
However preliminary note: In this article "dinosaur" means "non-avian dinosaur," since birds are a monophyletic taxon within the clade Dinosauria and most experts regard birds as dinosaurs.''

List of Pleurothallis species

Pleurothallis nivalisList of ''Pleurothallis'' speciesPleurothallis
New genetic insight has broken up this huge genus and made it more consistent with the principles of monophyletic genera and evolutionary relationships.

Memecylon

Memecylon sphaerocarpumbáyan plantMemecylon tinctorium
Memecylon is a monophyletic group basal to the Melastomataceae clade.

Nemastomatidae

Unlike some related currently recognized families, the Nemastomatidae are monophyletic.

Mangeliidae

Mangeliinaemangeliid
Mangeliidae is a monophyletic family of small to medium-sized, predatory sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the superfamily Conoidea.

List of Orchidaceae genera

List of natural Orchidaceae generaAcerasGastrodiae Rhizoma
From a cladistic point of view, the orchid family is considered to be monophyletic, i.e. the group incorporates all the taxa derived from an ancestral group.