Monosaccharide

monosaccharidessimple sugarsimple sugarssimple carbohydratessugarsugarsmono-Simple carbohydrateamino-monosaccharidecarbohydrates
Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single, sacchar: sugar), also called simple sugar, are the simplest form of sugar and the most basic units of carbohydrates.wikipedia
339 Related Articles

Sugar

sugarssugar tradesugar cube
Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single, sacchar: sugar), also called simple sugar, are the simplest form of sugar and the most basic units of carbohydrates.
Simple sugars, also called monosaccharides, include glucose, fructose, and galactose.

Carbohydrate

carbohydratessaccharidecomplex carbohydrates
Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single, sacchar: sugar), also called simple sugar, are the simplest form of sugar and the most basic units of carbohydrates.
This formula holds true for monosaccharides.

Fructose

D-fructosefructose metabolism, inborn errors L -fructose
Examples of monosaccharides include glucose (dextrose), fructose (levulose), and galactose.
Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a simple ketonic monosaccharide found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide sucrose.

Galactose

galactose metabolismD-galactoseGal
Examples of monosaccharides include glucose (dextrose), fructose (levulose), and galactose.
Galactose (, galacto- + -ose, "milk sugar") sometimes abbreviated Gal, is a monosaccharide sugar that is about as sweet as glucose, and about 65% as sweet as sucrose.

Disaccharide

disaccharidesbiosidedi-
Monosaccharides are the building blocks of disaccharides (such as sucrose and lactose) and polysaccharides (such as cellulose and starch).
A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or bivose ) is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides (simple sugars) are joined by glycosidic linkage.

Sucrose

cane sugarsugarcaster sugar
Monosaccharides are the building blocks of disaccharides (such as sucrose and lactose) and polysaccharides (such as cellulose and starch).
It is a disaccharide, a molecule composed of two monosaccharides: glucose and fructose.

Polysaccharide

polysaccharidesheteropolysaccharidecomplex carbohydrates
Monosaccharides are the building blocks of disaccharides (such as sucrose and lactose) and polysaccharides (such as cellulose and starch).
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis by amylase enzymes give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.

Deoxyribose

2-deoxyribose-deoxyriboseDeoxyribofuranose
With few exceptions (e.g., deoxyribose), monosaccharides have this chemical formula: (CH 2 O) x, where conventionally x ≥ 3.
Deoxyribose, or more precisely 2-deoxyribose, is a monosaccharide with idealized formula H−(C=O)−(CH 2 )−(CHOH) 3 −H.

Pentose

pentose and glucuronate interconversionsaldopentoseketopentose
Monosaccharides can be classified by the number x of carbon atoms they contain: triose (3), tetrose (4), pentose (5), hexose (6), heptose (7), and so on.
A pentose is a monosaccharide with five carbon atoms.

Triose

trioses
Monosaccharides can be classified by the number x of carbon atoms they contain: triose (3), tetrose (4), pentose (5), hexose (6), heptose (7), and so on.
A triose is a monosaccharide, or simple sugar, containing three carbon atoms.

Tetrose

tetroses
Monosaccharides can be classified by the number x of carbon atoms they contain: triose (3), tetrose (4), pentose (5), hexose (6), heptose (7), and so on.
A tetrose is a monosaccharide with 4 carbon atoms.

Hexose

hexoses6-carbon sugaraldohexose
Monosaccharides can be classified by the number x of carbon atoms they contain: triose (3), tetrose (4), pentose (5), hexose (6), heptose (7), and so on.
In bio-organic chemistry, a hexose is a monosaccharide with six carbon atoms, having the chemical formula C 6 H 12 O 6.

Ketose

ketonicketosesketotriose
Examples of heptoses include the ketoses, mannoheptulose and sedoheptulose.
A ketose is a monosaccharide containing one ketone group per molecule.

Heptose

heptosesketoheptose
Monosaccharides can be classified by the number x of carbon atoms they contain: triose (3), tetrose (4), pentose (5), hexose (6), heptose (7), and so on.
A heptose is a monosaccharide with seven carbon atoms.

Mannoheptulose

Examples of heptoses include the ketoses, mannoheptulose and sedoheptulose.
Mannoheptulose is a heptose, a monosaccharide with seven carbon atoms, and a ketose, with the characteristic carbonyl group of the carbohydrate present on a secondary carbon (functioning as a ketone group).

Hydrolysis

hydrolyzedhydrolysehydrolyze
They cannot be further hydrolyzed to simpler chemical compounds.
Monosaccharides can be linked together by glycosidic bonds, which can be cleaved by hydrolysis.

Sweetness

sweetsweetersweet-tasting
Some monosaccharides have a sweet taste.

Aldose

aldosesaldehyde sugarsaldotrioses
In that case, the compound is termed an aldose.
An aldose is a monosaccharide (a simple sugar) with a carbon backbone chain with a carbonyl group on the endmost carbon atom, making it an aldehyde, and hydroxyl groups connected to all the other carbon atoms.

Sedoheptulose

Examples of heptoses include the ketoses, mannoheptulose and sedoheptulose.
Sedoheptulose or D -altro-heptulose is a ketoheptose—a monosaccharide with seven carbon atoms and a ketone functional group.

Glyceraldehyde

D-glyceraldehyde D -glyceraldehyde-glyceraldehyde
The other triose, the aldose H(C=O)(CHOH) 2 H (glyceraldehyde), has one chiral carbon — the central one, number 2 — which is bonded to groups −H, −OH, −C(OH)H 2, and −(C=O)H.
Glyceraldehyde (glyceral) is a triose monosaccharide with chemical formula C 3 H 6 O 3.

Monosaccharide nomenclature

monosaccharidemonosaccharide namenomenclature of carbohydrates
Therefore, each mirror pair and each non-chiral stereoisomer may be given a specific monosaccharide name.
Monosaccharide nomenclature is a set of conventions used in chemistry to name the compounds known as monosaccharides or "simple sugars" — the basic structural units of carbohydrates, which cannot be hydrolysed into simpler units.

Threose

D -Threose
These specific monosaccharide names have conventional three-letter abbreviations, like "Glu" for glucose and "Thr" for threose.
Threose is a four-carbon monosaccharide with molecular formula C 4 H 8 O 4.

Glucose

dextroseD-glucose D -glucose
Examples of monosaccharides include glucose (dextrose), fructose (levulose), and galactose.
Glucose is the most abundant monosaccharide, a subcategory of carbohydrates.

N-Acetylglucosamine

N''-acetylglucosamineGlcNAcN-acetyl-D-glucosamine
N-Acetylglucosamine an amide derivative of the monosaccharide glucose.

Haworth projection

The stereochemical structure of a cyclic monosaccharide can be represented in a Haworth projection.
A Haworth projection is a common way of writing a structural formula to represent the cyclic structure of monosaccharides with a simple three-dimensional perspective.