Portrait by Pach Bros., c. 1904
The Chilean Declaration of Independence on 18 February 1818
Theodore Roosevelt at age 11
Gillam's 1896 political cartoon, Uncle Sam stands with rifle between the Europeans and Latin Americans
The Roosevelt coat of arms as displayed on Theodore Roosevelt's bookplate, featuring three roses in a meadow (in reference to the family name, which means "rose field" in Dutch).
Spain fails to reconquer Mexico at the Battle of Tampico in 1829
6-year-old Theodore and 5-year-old Elliott watch Lincoln's funeral procession from the second-floor window of their grandfather's mansion (at top left, facing the camera), Manhattan, April 25, 1865
French intervention in Mexico, 1861–1867
Roosevelt's taxidermy kit
President Cleveland twisting the tail of the British Lion; cartoon in Puck by J.S. Pughe, 1895
Roosevelt's birthplace at 28 East 20th Street in Manhattan, New York City
Spanish–American War, the result of U.S. intervention in the Cuban War of Independence
Roosevelt as New York State Assemblyman, 1883
American poses with dead Haitian revolutionaries killed by US Marine machine gun fire, 1915.
Theodore Roosevelt as Badlands hunter in 1885. New York studio photo.
1903 cartoon: "Go Away, Little Man, and Don't Bother Me". President Roosevelt intimidating Colombia to acquire the Panama Canal Zone.
NYC Police Commissioner Roosevelt walks the beat with journalist Jacob Riis in 1894—Illustration from Riis's autobiography.
The U.S.-supported Nicaraguan contras
The Asiatic Squadron destroying the Spanish fleet in the Battle of Manila Bay on May 1, 1898
Colonel Theodore Roosevelt
Colonel Roosevelt and the Rough Riders after capturing Kettle Hill in Cuba in July 1898, along with members of the 3rd Volunteers and the regular Army black 10th Cavalry
Bureau of Engraving and Printing engraved portrait of Roosevelt as President
Official White House portrait by John Singer Sargent
Roosevelt driving through a sequoia tree tunnel
The U.S.'s intentions to influence the area (especially the Panama Canal construction and control) led to the separation of Panama from Colombia in 1903
1903 cartoon: "Go Away, Little Man, and Don't Bother Me". Roosevelt intimidating Colombia to acquire the Panama Canal Zone.
1904 election results
Roosevelt family at Oyster Bay, circa 1903
Roosevelt shortly after leaving office, October 1910
Roosevelt standing next to the elephant he shot on safari
Punch depicts no-holds-barred fight between Taft and Roosevelt
Roosevelt campaigning for president, 1912
Theodore Roosevelt's medical x-ray on October 14, 1912, after the assassination attempt, showing the bullet that would remain inside his body for life
The bullet-damaged speech and eyeglass case on display at the Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace in Manhattan, New York City
From left to right (seated): Fr. John Augustine Zahm, Cândido Rondon, Kermit Roosevelt, Cherrie, Miller, four Brazilians, Roosevelt, Fiala. Only Roosevelt, Kermit, Cherrie, Rondon, and the Brazilians traveled down the River of Doubt.
Former President Theodore Roosevelt in Allentown, Pennsylvania, 1914
Theodore and Edith Roosevelt's Grave at Youngs Memorial Cemetery
Part of the Works of Theodore Roosevelt
Sagamore Hill, Roosevelt's Long Island estate
"The Man of the Hour" Roosevelt as Warrior in 1898 and Peacemaker in 1905 settling war between Russia and Japan
1910 cartoon showing Roosevelt's many roles from 1899 to 1910
Theodore Roosevelt and pilot Hoxsey at St. Louis, October 11, 1910.

The intent and effect of the doctrine persisted for over a century, with only small variations, and would be invoked by many U.S. statesmen and several U.S. presidents, including Ulysses S. Grant, Theodore Roosevelt, John F. Kennedy, and Ronald Reagan.

- Monroe Doctrine

The latitude granted to the Europeans by the arbiters was in part responsible for the "Roosevelt Corollary" to the Monroe Doctrine, which the President issued in 1904: "Chronic wrongdoing or an impotence which results in a general loosening of the ties of civilized society, may in America, as elsewhere, ultimately require intervention by some civilized nation, and in the Western Hemisphere, the adherence of the United States to the Monroe doctrine may force the United States, however reluctantly, in flagrant cases of such wrongdoing or impotence, to the exercise of an international police power."

- Theodore Roosevelt
Portrait by Pach Bros., c. 1904

8 related topics with Alpha

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Political cartoon depicting Theodore Roosevelt using the Monroe Doctrine to keep European powers out of the Dominican Republic.

Roosevelt Corollary

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Political cartoon depicting Theodore Roosevelt using the Monroe Doctrine to keep European powers out of the Dominican Republic.

In the history of United States foreign policy, the Roosevelt Corollary was an addition to the Monroe Doctrine articulated by President Theodore Roosevelt in his State of the Union address in 1904 after the Venezuelan crisis of 1902–1903.

(clockwise from top left) Signal Corps extending telegraph lines

USS Iowa (BB-4)

Filipino soldiers wearing Spanish pith helmets outside Manila

The Spanish signing the Treaty of Paris

Roosevelt and his Rough Riders at San Juan Hill

Replacing of the Spanish flag at Fort San Antonio Abad (Fort Malate)

Spanish–American War

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Period of armed conflict between Spain and the United States.

Period of armed conflict between Spain and the United States.

(clockwise from top left) Signal Corps extending telegraph lines

USS Iowa (BB-4)

Filipino soldiers wearing Spanish pith helmets outside Manila

The Spanish signing the Treaty of Paris

Roosevelt and his Rough Riders at San Juan Hill

Replacing of the Spanish flag at Fort San Antonio Abad (Fort Malate)
Cuban War of Independence
A Spanish satirical drawing published in La Campana de Gràcia (1896) criticizing U.S. behavior regarding Cuba by Manuel Moliné. Upper text reads (in old Catalan): "Uncle Sam's craving", and below: "To keep the island so it won't get lost".
An American cartoon published in Judge, February 6, 1897: Columbia (representing the American people) reaches out to the oppressed Cuba (the caption under the chained child reads "Spain's 16th Century methods") while Uncle Sam (representing the U.S. government) sits blindfolded, refusing to see the atrocities or use his guns to intervene (cartoon by Grant E. Hamilton).
Illustrated map published by the Guardia Civil showing the Kingdom of Spain and its remaining colonial possessions in 1895 (Caroline and Mariana Islands, as well as Spanish Sahara, Morocco, Guinea and Guam are not included.)
The American transport ship Seneca, a chartered vessel that carried troops to Puerto Rico and Cuba
Spanish Vessels captured up to evening of May 1, 1898
CHAP. 189. – An Act Declaring that war exists between the United States of America and the Kingdom of Spain on April 25, 1898.
The last stand of the Spanish Garrison in Cuba by Murat Halstead, 1898
The Pacific theatre of the Spanish–American War
Spanish Marines trenched during the Battle of Manila Bay
The Battle of Manila Bay
Spanish artillery regiment during the Philippine Campaign
Group of Tagalog Filipino revolutionaries during the Spanish-American War of 1898
Spanish infantry troops and officers in Manila
The Spanish armored cruiser, which was destroyed during the Battle of Santiago on July 3, 1898
Detail from Charge of the 24th and 25th Colored Infantry and Rescue of Rough Riders at San Juan Hill, July 2, 1898, depicting the Battle of San Juan Hill
Mauser Model 1893 rifle, used by the Spanish infantry and superior to American rifles; the Springfield Model 1892-99 and the Krag-Jørgensen rifle. Because of this superiority the US Army developed the M1903 Springfield.
Charge of the Rough Riders
Receiving the news of the surrender of Santiago
The Santiago Campaign (1898)
Crewmen pose under the gun turrets of USS Iowa (BB-4) in 1898.
Spanish troops before they departed to engage the American forces at Hormigueros, Puerto Rico
A monument in Guánica, Puerto Rico, for the U.S. infantrymen who lost their lives in the Spanish–American War in 1898.
Oil on canvas painted and signed with initials A.A. by Antonio Antón and Antonio Iboleón, around 1897. It is an ideal view of the Spanish Squadron of Instruction in 1896, before the war of 1898, since the ships represented never sailed together. On the left the Battleship Pelayo with insignia, followed by the cruisers Cristóbal Colón, Infanta María Teresa and Alfonso XIII; on the right, the cruiser Carlos V with insignia, Almirante Oquendo and Vizcaya. On the starboard side of the Pelayo sails the torpedo boat Destructor; Two Furor-class destroyer boats sail along the bows of the Carlos V. Stormy sea and partly cloudy skies.
Cámara's squadron in the Suez Canal in July 1898. His flagship, the battleship Pelayo, can be seen in the foreground. The last ship of the line is the armored cruiser Carlos V. Finally this squad would not fight in the war.
Jules Cambon, the French ambassador to the United States, signing the memorandum of ratification on behalf of Spain
US Army "War with Spain" campaign streamer
Cross of Military Merit for Combat in Cuba

In 1823, the fifth American President James Monroe (1758–1831, served 1817–25) enunciated the Monroe Doctrine, which stated that the United States would not tolerate further efforts by European governments to retake or expand their colonial holdings in the Americas or to interfere with the newly independent states in the hemisphere.

Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan was an exceptionally influential theorist; his ideas were much admired by future 26th President Theodore Roosevelt, as the U.S. rapidly built a powerful naval fleet of steel warships in the 1880s and 1890s.

1898 political cartoon: "Ten Thousand Miles From Tip to Tip" meaning the extension of U.S. domination (symbolized by a bald eagle) from Puerto Rico to the Philippines. The cartoon contrasts this with a map of the smaller United States 100 years earlier in 1798.

American imperialism

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American imperialism consists of policies aimed at extending the political, economic, media and cultural influence of the United States over areas beyond its boundaries.

American imperialism consists of policies aimed at extending the political, economic, media and cultural influence of the United States over areas beyond its boundaries.

1898 political cartoon: "Ten Thousand Miles From Tip to Tip" meaning the extension of U.S. domination (symbolized by a bald eagle) from Puerto Rico to the Philippines. The cartoon contrasts this with a map of the smaller United States 100 years earlier in 1798.
U.S. westward expansionportions of each territory were granted statehood since the 18th century.
A New Map of Texas, Oregon, and California, Samuel Augustus Mitchell, 1846
Caricature by Louis Dalrymple showing Uncle Sam lecturing four children labeled Philippines, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and Cuba, in front of children holding books labeled with various U.S. states. A black boy is washing windows, a Native American sits separate from the class, and a Chinese boy is outside the door. The caption reads: "School Begins. Uncle Sam (to his new class in Civilization): Now, children, you've got to learn these lessons whether you want to or not! But just take a look at the class ahead of you, and remember that, in a little while, you will feel as glad to be here as they are!"
This cartoon reflects the view of Judge magazine regarding America's imperial ambitions following McKinley's quick victory in the Spanish–American War of 1898. The American flag flies from the Philippines and Hawaii in the Pacific to Cuba and Puerto Rico in the Caribbean.
One of the New York Journals most infamous cartoons, depicting Philippine–American War General Jacob H. Smith's order "Kill Everyone over Ten," from the front page on May 5, 1902.
A map of "Greater America" c. 1900, including overseas territories.
American troops marching in Vladivostok during the Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War, August 1918
Protest against the deployment of Pershing II missiles in Europe, The Hague, Netherlands, 1983
On the cover of Puck published on April 6, 1901, in the wake of gainful victory in the Spanish–American War, Columbia—the National personification of the U.S.—preens herself with an Easter bonnet in the form of a warship bearing the words "World Power" and the word "Expansion" on the smoke coming out of its stack.
1903 cartoon, "Go Away, Little Man, and Don't Bother Me", depicts President Roosevelt intimidating Colombia to acquire the Panama Canal Zone
In 1899, Uncle Sam balances his new possessions which are depicted as savage children. The figures are Puerto Rico, Hawaii, Cuba, Philippines and "Ladrone Island" (Guam, largest of the Mariana Islands, which were formerly known as the Ladrones Islands).
American occupation of Mexico City in 1847
Ceremonies during the annexation of the Republic of Hawaii, 1898
CIA's Extraordinary Rendition and Detention Program – countries involved in the Program, according to the 2013 Open Society Foundation's report on torture.
A U.S. soldier stands guard duty near a burning oil well in the Rumaila oil field, Iraq, April 2003
Naval Base Guam in the U.S. territory of Guam
Enlargement of NATO
A convoy of U.S. soldiers during the American-led intervention in the Syrian Civil War, December 2018
Map of the United States and directly controlled territories at its greatest extent from 1898 to 1902, after the Spanish–American War
A map of Central America, showing the places affected by Theodore Roosevelt's Big Stick policy
McDonald's in Saint Petersburg, Russia
Combined Air and Space Operations Center (CAOC) at Al Udeid Air Base in Qatar, 2015
Political cartoon depicting Theodore Roosevelt using the Monroe Doctrine to keep European powers out of the Dominican Republic.
U.S. military presence around the world in 2007., the U.S. had many bases and troops stationed globally. Their presence has generated controversy and opposition. 
More than 1,000 U.S. troops
100–1,000 U.S. troops
Use of military facilities

Supporters of the Presidents labelled as imperial including Andrew Jackson, James K. Polk, William McKinley, Theodore Roosevelt, and William Howard Taft justified interventions in or seizure of various countries by citing the need to advance American economic interests (such as trade and repayment of debts), the prevention of European intervention in the Americas (known as the Monroe Doctrine), and the benefits of keeping good order around the world.

Engraving by Willy Stöwer depicting the blockade

Venezuelan crisis of 1902–1903

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Naval blockade imposed against Venezuela by Great Britain, Germany, and Italy from December 1902 to February 1903, after President Cipriano Castro refused to pay foreign debts and damages suffered by European citizens in recent Venezuelan civil wars.

Naval blockade imposed against Venezuela by Great Britain, Germany, and Italy from December 1902 to February 1903, after President Cipriano Castro refused to pay foreign debts and damages suffered by European citizens in recent Venezuelan civil wars.

Engraving by Willy Stöwer depicting the blockade
Cipriano Castro and his war cabinet in 1902
Cartoon published by the Venezuelan press during the crisis. Cipriano Castro, with a machete reading "Venezuela para los venezolanos" (Venezuela for the Venezuelans), with Willhem II in the background.
Caricature of Cipriano Castro, by William Allen Rogers, published in the New York Herald, January, 1903
US President Theodore Roosevelt (1903)
Venezuelan President Cipriano Castro (1903)
Italian cruiser Carlo Alberto
Restaurador in Curaçao
german Crew with Lieutenant Commander Titus Türk (1902)
Restaurador, Olaf Rahardt
SMS Vineta in 1902
SMS Panther
A cover of Le Petit Journal depicting the blockade of La Guaira, 1902
A cover of the "Le Petit Parisien" depicting the bombardment of Castle San Carlos
Cipriano Castro with US Ambassador Herbert W. Bowen who signed the Washington Protocols as representative of Venezuela government, 1903

Castro assumed that the American Monroe Doctrine would see Washington intervene to prevent European military intervention.

However, at the time, United States president Theodore Roosevelt and his Department of State saw the doctrine as applying only to European seizure of territory, rather than intervention per se.

William Allen Rogers's 1904 cartoon recreates an episode in Gulliver's Travels

Big stick ideology

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William Allen Rogers's 1904 cartoon recreates an episode in Gulliver's Travels
The letter in which Roosevelt first used his now-famous phrase
Some American uses of the "big stick" in Middle America, 1900–1906

Big stick ideology, big stick diplomacy, or big stick policy refers to President Theodore Roosevelt's foreign policy: "speak softly and carry a big stick; you will go far".

Although used before his presidency, Roosevelt used military muscle several times throughout his two terms with a more subtle touch to complement his diplomatic policies and enforcing the Monroe Doctrine throughout multiple interventions in Latin America.

Grover Cleveland

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American lawyer and politician who served as the 22nd and 24th president of the United States from 1885 to 1889 and from 1893 to 1897.

American lawyer and politician who served as the 22nd and 24th president of the United States from 1885 to 1889 and from 1893 to 1897.

Caldwell Presbyterian parsonage, birthplace of Grover Cleveland in Caldwell, New Jersey
An early, undated photograph of Grover Cleveland
Statue of Grover Cleveland outside City Hall in Buffalo, New York
Gubernatorial portrait of Grover Cleveland
An anti-Blaine cartoon presents him as the "tattooed man", with many indelible scandals.
An anti-Cleveland cartoon highlights the Halpin scandal.
Results of the 1884 election
Cleveland portrayed as a tariff reformer
Henry L. Dawes wrote the Dawes Act, which Cleveland signed into law.
Frances Folsom Cleveland circa 1886
Cleveland's first Cabinet.
Front row, left to right: Thomas F. Bayard, Cleveland, Daniel Manning, Lucius Q. C. Lamar
Back row, left to right: William F. Vilas, William C. Whitney, William C. Endicott, Augustus H. Garland
Chief Justice Melville Fuller
Poster President Cleveland and Vice-President of the United States, Allen G. Thurman of Ohio (1888).
Results of the 1888 Election
Results of the 1892 election
Caricature of Cleveland as anti-silver.
Cleveland's humiliation by Gorman and the sugar trust
John T. Morgan, Senator from Alabama, opposed Cleveland on Free Silver, the tariff, and the Hawaii treaty, saying of Cleveland that "I hate the ground that man walks on."
His Little Hawaiian Game Checkmated, 1894
Official portrait of President Cleveland by Eastman Johnson, c. 1891
Cleveland's last Cabinet.
Front row, left to right: Daniel S. Lamont, Richard Olney, Cleveland, John G. Carlisle, Judson Harmon
Back row, left to right: David R. Francis, William Lyne Wilson, Hilary A. Herbert, Julius S. Morton
Cleveland in 1903 at age 66 by Frederick Gutekunst
Outgoing President Grover Cleveland, at right, stands nearby as William McKinley is sworn in as president by Chief Justice Melville Fuller.
$1000 Gold Certificate (1934) depicting Grover Cleveland
Cleveland postage stamp issued in 1923

Theodore Roosevelt, then a member of the Assembly, had reluctantly voted for the bill to which Cleveland objected, in a desire to punish the unscrupulous railroad barons.

Closer to home, Cleveland adopted a broad interpretation of the Monroe Doctrine that not only prohibited new European colonies, but also declared an American national interest in any matter of substance within the hemisphere.

Benjamin Harrison c. undefined 1895–1900

Benjamin Harrison

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American lawyer and politician who served as the 23rd president of the United States from 1889 to 1893.

American lawyer and politician who served as the 23rd president of the United States from 1889 to 1893.

Benjamin Harrison c. undefined 1895–1900
John Scott Harrison
Birthplace marker in North Bend, Ohio
Benjamin Harrison c. 1850
Harrison during the Battle of Resaca leading the 70th Indiana, May 1864; Harrison was a colonel at the time.
Brigadier General Harrison (left) with other commanders of the XX Corps, 1865
Battle of Resaca, in Georgia, where Harrison served under General Sherman
Benjamin Harrison Home in Indianapolis, Indiana
Walter Q. Gresham, Harrison's rival within the Indiana Republican Party
Harrison–Morton campaign poster
Results of the 1888 election
Inauguration of Benjamin Harrison, March 4, 1889. Cleveland held Harrison's umbrella.
Harrison hounded by office seekers at the beginning of his term, May 1889, from Puck
Eastman Johnson's portrait of Benjamin Harrison, c. 1890–1900
Political football
Harrison and the Billion-Dollar Congress are portrayed as wasting the surplus in this cartoon from Puck.
Senator John Sherman worked closely with Harrison, writing bills regulating monopolies and monetary policy.
Harrison with Secretary Blaine and Representative Henry Cabot Lodge off the coast of Maine, 1889
USS Texas (1892), America's first battleship, built in 1892
Attack on sailors from USS Baltimore (C-3) spawned the 1891 Chilean crisis.
Harrison's cabinet in 1889
Front row, left to right: Harrison, William Windom, John Wanamaker, Redfield Proctor, James G. Blaine
Back row, left to right: William H. H. Miller, John Willock Noble, Jeremiah M. Rusk, Benjamin F. Tracy
Harrison appointed four Supreme Court justices, including David Josiah Brewer.
Official White House portrait of Benjamin Harrison, painted by Eastman Johnson
Grave of President Harrison and his two wives in Indianapolis, Indiana
Presbyterian General Assembly special committee on creed revision, including Benjamin Harrison and Judge Edward William Cornelius Humphrey
Benjamin Harrison Statue, Indianapolis, Indiana
Victory Portraits of Benjamin Harrison and Levi P. Morton for the 1888 election, from Judge

In foreign affairs, Harrison reaffirmed the Monroe Doctrine as a mainstay of foreign policy, while urging modernization of the Navy and a merchant marine force.

Harrison appointed Theodore Roosevelt and Hugh Smith Thompson, both reformers, to the Civil Service Commission, but otherwise did little to further the reform cause.

Official campaign portrait, 1944

Franklin D. Roosevelt

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American politician and attorney who served as the 32nd president of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.

American politician and attorney who served as the 32nd president of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.

Official campaign portrait, 1944
Eleanor and Franklin with their first two children, 1908
Roosevelt in 1944
Roosevelt supported Governor Woodrow Wilson in the 1912 presidential election.
Theodore Roosevelt was Franklin Roosevelt's distant cousin and an important influence on his career.
Roosevelt as Assistant Secretary of the Navy, 1913
Cox and Roosevelt in Ohio, 1920
Rare photograph of Roosevelt in a wheelchair, with Fala and Ruthie Bie, the daughter of caretakers at his Hyde Park estate. Photo taken by his cousin Margaret Suckley (February 1941).
Gov. Roosevelt with his predecessor Al Smith, 1930
Results of the 1930 gubernatorial election in New York
Roosevelt in the early 1930s
1932 electoral vote results
Roosevelt signs the Social Security Act into law, August 14, 1935
1936 re-election handbill for Roosevelt promoting his economic policy
1936 electoral vote results
Roosevelt with Brazilian President Getúlio Vargas and other dignitaries in Brazil, 1936
The Roosevelts with King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, sailing from Washington, D.C., to Mount Vernon, Virginia, on the USS Potomac during the first U.S. visit of a reigning British monarch (June 9, 1939)
Foreign trips of Roosevelt during his presidency
1940 electoral vote results
Roosevelt and Winston Churchill aboard HMS Prince of Wales for 1941 Atlantic Charter meeting
Territory controlled by the Allies (blue and red) and the Axis Powers (black) in June 1942
The Allies (blue and red) and the Axis Powers (black) in December 1944
1944 electoral vote results
Official portrait of President Roosevelt by Frank O. Salisbury, c. 1947
200x200px

The following year, Roosevelt's fifth cousin Theodore Roosevelt became President of the United States.

The United States frequently intervened in Latin America following the promulgation of the Monroe Doctrine in 1823, and the United States occupied several Latin American nations in the Banana Wars that occurred following the Spanish–American War of 1898.