Monsanto

American agrochemical and agricultural biotechnology corporation founded in 1901 and headquartered in Creve Coeur, Missouri.

- Monsanto

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U.S. Army Huey helicopter spraying Agent Orange over agricultural land during the Vietnam War in its herbicidal warfare campaign.

Agent Orange

Herbicide and defoliant chemical, one of the "tactical use" Rainbow Herbicides.

Herbicide and defoliant chemical, one of the "tactical use" Rainbow Herbicides.

U.S. Army Huey helicopter spraying Agent Orange over agricultural land during the Vietnam War in its herbicidal warfare campaign.
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)
2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)
2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T)
Map showing locations of U.S. Army aerial herbicide spray missions in South Vietnam taking place from 1965 to 1971.
The Ivon Watkins-Dow factory in New Plymouth, New Zealand
Leaking Agent Orange barrels at Johnston Atoll circa 1973.
Rusting Agent Orange barrels at Johnston Atoll, circa 1976.
A scientific study of the effects military contamination at Johnston Atoll included a statement confirming records of Agent Orange storage in Okinawa.
Excerpt of U.S. Army 1971 Fort Detrick report describes Tactical Herbicide stockpiles of U.S. Government restricted materials on Okinawa at Kadena AFB, in Thailand, and Vietnam.
Stacks of 200 L (55 gallon) drums containing Agent Orange.
Defoliant spray run, part of Operation Ranch Hand, during the Vietnam War by UC-123B Provider aircraft.
U.S. Army armored personnel carrier (APC) spraying Agent Orange over Vietnamese rice fields during the Vietnam War.
A UH-1D helicopter from the 336th Aviation Company sprays a defoliation agent over farmland in the Mekong Delta.
U.S. Army Operations In Vietnam: River bank defoliation
A U.S. Air Force Fairchild C-123 Provider aircraft crop-dusting in Vietnam during Operation Ranch Hand.
A Fairchild C-123 Provider aircraft spraying defoliant in South Vietnam in 1962.
Ranch Hand UC-123 clearing a roadside in central South Vietnam in 1966.
U.S. Air Force aircraft spraying defoliant
Spraying Agent Orange in Mekong Delta near Can Tho, 1969
A person with birth deformities associated with prenatal exposure to Agent Orange
Major Tự Đức Phang was exposed to dioxin-contaminated Agent Orange.
A group of handicapped children in Ho Chi Minh, some of them affected by Agent Orange
Kan Lay, 55 years old, and her son, Ke Van Bec, 14 years old, A Luoi Valley, Vietnam, December 2004.

Nine chemical companies produced it: Dow Chemical Company, Monsanto Company, Diamond Shamrock Corporation, Hercules Inc., Thompson Hayward Chemical Co., United States Rubber Company (Uniroyal), Thompson Chemical Co., Hoffman-Taff Chemicals, Inc., and Agriselect.

The Passaic Agricultural Chemical Works in Newark, New Jersey, 1876

Agrochemical

Chemical product used in agriculture.

Chemical product used in agriculture.

The Passaic Agricultural Chemical Works in Newark, New Jersey, 1876

Syngenta was the Chinese owned worldwide leader in agrochemical sales in 2013 at ~$10.9 billion, followed by Bayer CropScience, BASF, Dow AgroSciences, Monsanto, and then DuPont with ~$3.6 billion.

Commercial product concentrate containing 50% DDT, circa 1960s

DDT

Colorless, tasteless, and almost odorless crystalline chemical compound, an organochloride.

Colorless, tasteless, and almost odorless crystalline chemical compound, an organochloride.

Commercial product concentrate containing 50% DDT, circa 1960s
Commercial product of Ciba-Geigy Néocide (powder box, 50 g) containing 10% DDT, made in France.
An airplane spraying DDT over Baker County, Oregon as part of a spruce budworm control project, 1955
DDT spray log in Bosa (Sardinia)
Degradation of DDT to form DDE (by elimination of HCl, left) and DDD (by reductive dechlorination, right)
A U.S. soldier is demonstrating DDT hand-spraying equipment. DDT was used to control the spread of typhus-carrying lice.
Spraying hospital beds with DDT, PAIGC hospital of Ziguinchor, 1973
Biomagnification is the build up of toxins in a food chain. The DDT concentration is in parts per million. As the trophic level increases in a food chain, the amount of toxic build up also increases. The X's represent the amount of toxic build up accumulating as the trophic level increases. Toxins build up in organism's tissues and fat. Predators accumulate higher toxins than the prey.
p,p{{'}}-DDT
o,p{{'}}-DDT
p,p{{'}}-DDE
p,p{{'}}-DDD

In the United States, it was manufactured by some 15 companies, including Monsanto, Ciba, Montrose Chemical Company, Pennwalt, and Velsicol Chemical Corporation.

rBST is a product allowed only in certain jurisdictions and primarily given to dairy cattle by injection to increase milk production.

Bovine somatotropin

Peptide hormone produced by cows' pituitary glands.

Peptide hormone produced by cows' pituitary glands.

rBST is a product allowed only in certain jurisdictions and primarily given to dairy cattle by injection to increase milk production.
Image of peptide somatotropine.

Four large pharmaceutical companies, Monsanto, American Cyanamid, Eli Lilly, and Upjohn, developed commercial rBST products and submitted them to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for approval.

PCB warning label on a power transformer known to contain PCBs

Polychlorinated biphenyl

Banned by United States federal law in 1978 and by the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants in 2001.

Banned by United States federal law in 1978 and by the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants in 2001.

PCB warning label on a power transformer known to contain PCBs
Structures of the twelve dioxin-like PCBs
Biomagnification is the increasing concentration of a substance, such as a toxic chemical, in the tissues of tolerant organisms at successively higher levels in a food chain.
Labelling transformers containing PCBs
Old power transformers are a major source of PCBs. Even units not originally filled with PCB may be contaminated, since PCB and oil mix freely and any given transformer may have been refilled from hoses or tanks also used with PCBs.

Aroclor xxxx (used by Monsanto Company)

AstroTurf

American subsidiary of SportGroup that produces artificial turf for playing surfaces in sports.

American subsidiary of SportGroup that produces artificial turf for playing surfaces in sports.

Close-up of astroturf
UFCU Disch–Falk Field in Texas, utilizing an older-style AstroTurf surface that has since been replaced
AstroTurf (pictured in the outfield) inside the Houston Astrodome during a June 7, 1969 contest between the Houston Astros and St. Louis Cardinals
AstroTurf installed at Busch Stadium in St. Louis (photo taken in 1975)
Cincinnati Reds shortstop Barry Larkin playing on AstroTurf at Riverfront Stadium, October 1990
The Indianapolis Colts lining up for a play (on AstroTurf) against the Green Bay Packers in 2004 at the RCA Dome

The original AstroTurf product was a short-pile synthetic turf invented in 1965 by Monsanto.

Plants (Solanum chacoense) being transformed using agrobacterium

Genetically modified crops

Genetically modified crops (GM crops) are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been modified using genetic engineering methods.

Genetically modified crops (GM crops) are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been modified using genetic engineering methods.

Plants (Solanum chacoense) being transformed using agrobacterium
Transgenic maize containing a gene from the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis
Genetically modified King Edward potato (right) next to King Edward which has not been genetically modified (left). Research field belonging to the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences in 2019.
Land area used for genetically modified crops by country (1996–2009), in millions of hectares. In 2011, the land area used was 160 million hectares, or 1.6 million square kilometers.

In 1994 Calgene attained approval to commercially release the Flavr Savr tomato, a tomato engineered to have a longer shelf life.

Anniston, Alabama

County seat of Calhoun County in Alabama and is one of two urban centers/principal cities of and included in the Anniston-Oxford Metropolitan Statistical Area.

County seat of Calhoun County in Alabama and is one of two urban centers/principal cities of and included in the Anniston-Oxford Metropolitan Statistical Area.

1887 map
Child laborers at Anniston Yarn Mills, 1910. Photo by Lewis Hine.
Historic marker commemorating the Freedom Riders in downtown Anniston
The one-time world's largest chair in Anniston

In 1935 Monsanto Industrial Chemicals Co. bought the plant and took over production.

Polyurethane synthesis, wherein the urethane groups −NH−(C=O)−O− link the molecular units

Polyurethane

Polyurethane (often abbreviated PUR and PU) refers to a class of polymers composed of organic units joined by carbamate (urethane) links.

Polyurethane (often abbreviated PUR and PU) refers to a class of polymers composed of organic units joined by carbamate (urethane) links.

Polyurethane synthesis, wherein the urethane groups −NH−(C=O)−O− link the molecular units
A kitchen sponge made of polyurethane foam
Prof. Otto Bayer in 1952 demonstrating his creation
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MDI isomers and polymer
Open-flame test. Top: untreated polyurethane foam burns vigorously. Bottom: with fire-retardant treatment.
Polyurethane foam made with an aromatic isocyanate, which has been exposed to UV light. Readily apparent is the discoloration that occurs over time.
A high-pressure polyurethane dispense unit, showing control panel, high-pressure pump, integral day tanks, and hydraulic drive unit
A high-pressure mix head, showing simple controls (front view)
A high-pressure mix head, showing material supply and hydraulic actuator lines (rear view)
A low-pressure mix head with calibration chamber installed, showing material supply and air actuator lines
Low-pressure mix head components, including mix chambers, conical mixers, and mounting plates
5-gallon (20-liter) material day tanks for supplying a low-pressure dispense unit

Union Carbide and Mobay, a U.S. Monsanto/Bayer joint venture, also began making polyurethane chemicals.

Ionic states of glyphosate

Glyphosate

Broad-spectrum systemic herbicide and crop desiccant.

Broad-spectrum systemic herbicide and crop desiccant.

Ionic states of glyphosate
Monsanto's Roundup is the earliest formulation of glyphosate.
frameless
Estimated use of glyphosate in the US in 2013 and estimated total use from 1992 to 2013
Glyphosate used as an alternative to mowing in an apple orchard in Ciardes, Italy
Landscaping company in Oklahoma applying a weed control product that contains glyphosate
Degradation pathway of glyphosate in the ground
Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri)
Horseweed (Conyza canadensis)
Ryegrass (Lolium perenne)

Its herbicidal effectiveness was discovered by Monsanto chemist John E. Franz in 1970.