Monsanto

American agrochemical and agricultural biotechnology corporation founded in 1901 and headquartered in Creve Coeur, Missouri.

- Monsanto

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Polyurethane synthesis, wherein the urethane groups −NH−(C=O)−O− link the molecular units

Polyurethane

Polyurethane (often abbreviated PUR and PU) refers to a class of polymers composed of organic units joined by carbamate (urethane) links.

Polyurethane (often abbreviated PUR and PU) refers to a class of polymers composed of organic units joined by carbamate (urethane) links.

Polyurethane synthesis, wherein the urethane groups −NH−(C=O)−O− link the molecular units
A kitchen sponge made of polyurethane foam
Prof. Otto Bayer in 1952 demonstrating his creation
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MDI isomers and polymer
Open-flame test. Top: untreated polyurethane foam burns vigorously. Bottom: with fire-retardant treatment.
Polyurethane foam made with an aromatic isocyanate, which has been exposed to UV light. Readily apparent is the discoloration that occurs over time.
A high-pressure polyurethane dispense unit, showing control panel, high-pressure pump, integral day tanks, and hydraulic drive unit
A high-pressure mix head, showing simple controls (front view)
A high-pressure mix head, showing material supply and hydraulic actuator lines (rear view)
A low-pressure mix head with calibration chamber installed, showing material supply and air actuator lines
Low-pressure mix head components, including mix chambers, conical mixers, and mounting plates
5-gallon (20-liter) material day tanks for supplying a low-pressure dispense unit

Union Carbide and Mobay, a U.S. Monsanto/Bayer joint venture, also began making polyurethane chemicals.

Pfizer

American multinational pharmaceutical and biotechnology corporation headquartered on 42nd Street in Manhattan, New York City.

American multinational pharmaceutical and biotechnology corporation headquartered on 42nd Street in Manhattan, New York City.

The headquarters of Pfizer In Tokyo, Japan
Charles Pfizer (1824–1906)
Bottles of Zoloft (sertraline), an antidepressant

Monsanto (Merged 2000, divested 2002)

Dow Chemical Company

American multinational chemical corporation headquartered in Midland, Michigan, United States and is a subsidiary of Dow Inc. The company is among the three largest chemical producers in the world.

American multinational chemical corporation headquartered in Midland, Michigan, United States and is a subsidiary of Dow Inc. The company is among the three largest chemical producers in the world.

Former Dow Chemical Corporate headquarters in Midland, Michigan.
Founder Herbert Henry Dow
Bromine
U.S. Army helicopter spraying Agent Orange over agricultural land during the Vietnam War
Dow Chemical banner in Bhopal, India, 2010
Andrew N. Liveris
Watershed of the Tittabawassee River, including Midland, site of the Dow Chemical works.
Superfund site in Uravan

In 2005, a lawsuit was filed by Vietnamese victims of Agent Orange against Dow and Monsanto Co., which also supplied Agent Orange to the military.

United States Environmental Protection Agency

Independent executive agency of the United States federal government tasked with environmental protection matters.

Independent executive agency of the United States federal government tasked with environmental protection matters.

Stacks emitting smoke from burning discarded automobile batteries, photo taken in Houston in 1972 by Marc St. Gil, official photographer of recently founded EPA
Same smokestacks in 1975 after the plant was closed in a push for greater environmental protection
Ruckelshaus sworn in as first EPA Administrator.
Headquarters of the EPA at the William Jefferson Clinton Federal Building
The Andrew W. Breidenbach Environmental Research Center in Cincinnati is EPA's second-largest R&D center.
The administrative regions of the United States Environmental Protection Agency
EPA scientists conducting a stream survey on the Merrimack River in Massachusetts
Testing automobile emissions at an EPA laboratory in Ann Arbor, Michigan
OSV Bold docked at Port Canaveral, Florida

In 2015 the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), a branch of the World Health Organization, cited research linking glyphosate, an ingredient of the weed killer Roundup manufactured by the chemical company Monsanto, to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

Syngenta

Provider of agricultural science and technology, in particular seeds and pesticides, with its management headquarters in Basel, Switzerland, and further locations in Chicago, Tel Aviv, and Shanghai.

Provider of agricultural science and technology, in particular seeds and pesticides, with its management headquarters in Basel, Switzerland, and further locations in Chicago, Tel Aviv, and Shanghai.

Syngenta's main competitors were Monsanto Company, BASF, Dow AgroSciences, Bayer CropScience and DuPont Pioneer.

Buildings at Unit III, seen in 2012

Dayton Project

Research and development project to produce polonium during World War II, as part of the larger Manhattan Project to build the first atomic bombs.

Research and development project to produce polonium during World War II, as part of the larger Manhattan Project to build the first atomic bombs.

Buildings at Unit III, seen in 2012
Dayton Project – Unit III in September 1943
Dayton Project – Unit IV in October 1947
Dayton Project – Unit III in October 1947
View looking southeast over the Mound Laboratories

The Dayton Project began in 1943 when Monsanto's Charles Allen Thomas was recruited by the Manhattan Project to coordinate the plutonium purification and production work being carried out at various sites.

Weeds controlled with herbicide

Dicamba

Broad-spectrum herbicide first registered in 1967.

Broad-spectrum herbicide first registered in 1967.

Weeds controlled with herbicide

Increasing use of dicamba has been reported with the release of dicamba-resistant genetically modified plants by Monsanto.

Genetically modified soybean

Soybean that has had DNA introduced into it using genetic engineering techniques.

Soybean that has had DNA introduced into it using genetic engineering techniques.

In 1996 the first genetically modified soybean was introduced to the U.S. market, by Monsanto.

U.S. Army Huey helicopter spraying Agent Orange over agricultural land during the Vietnam War in its herbicidal warfare campaign.

Agent Orange

Herbicide and defoliant chemical, one of the "tactical use" Rainbow Herbicides.

Herbicide and defoliant chemical, one of the "tactical use" Rainbow Herbicides.

U.S. Army Huey helicopter spraying Agent Orange over agricultural land during the Vietnam War in its herbicidal warfare campaign.
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)
2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)
2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T)
Map showing locations of U.S. Army aerial herbicide spray missions in South Vietnam taking place from 1965 to 1971.
The Ivon Watkins-Dow factory in New Plymouth, New Zealand
Leaking Agent Orange barrels at Johnston Atoll circa 1973.
Rusting Agent Orange barrels at Johnston Atoll, circa 1976.
A scientific study of the effects military contamination at Johnston Atoll included a statement confirming records of Agent Orange storage in Okinawa.
Excerpt of U.S. Army 1971 Fort Detrick report describes Tactical Herbicide stockpiles of U.S. Government restricted materials on Okinawa at Kadena AFB, in Thailand, and Vietnam.
Stacks of 200 L (55 gallon) drums containing Agent Orange.
Defoliant spray run, part of Operation Ranch Hand, during the Vietnam War by UC-123B Provider aircraft.
U.S. Army armored personnel carrier (APC) spraying Agent Orange over Vietnamese rice fields during the Vietnam War.
A UH-1D helicopter from the 336th Aviation Company sprays a defoliation agent over farmland in the Mekong Delta.
U.S. Army Operations In Vietnam: River bank defoliation
A U.S. Air Force Fairchild C-123 Provider aircraft crop-dusting in Vietnam during Operation Ranch Hand.
A Fairchild C-123 Provider aircraft spraying defoliant in South Vietnam in 1962.
Ranch Hand UC-123 clearing a roadside in central South Vietnam in 1966.
U.S. Air Force aircraft spraying defoliant
Spraying Agent Orange in Mekong Delta near Can Tho, 1969
A person with birth deformities associated with prenatal exposure to Agent Orange
Major Tự Đức Phang was exposed to dioxin-contaminated Agent Orange.
A group of handicapped children in Ho Chi Minh, some of them affected by Agent Orange
Kan Lay, 55 years old, and her son, Ke Van Bec, 14 years old, A Luoi Valley, Vietnam, December 2004.

Nine chemical companies produced it: Dow Chemical Company, Monsanto Company, Diamond Shamrock Corporation, Hercules Inc., Thompson Hayward Chemical Co., United States Rubber Company (Uniroyal), Thompson Chemical Co., Hoffman-Taff Chemicals, Inc., and Agriselect.

The Trinity test of the Manhattan Project on 16 July 1945 was the first detonation of a nuclear weapon.

Manhattan Project

Research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons.

Research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons.

The Trinity test of the Manhattan Project on 16 July 1945 was the first detonation of a nuclear weapon.
Enrico Fermi, John R. Dunning, and Dana P. Mitchell in front of the cyclotron in the basement of Pupin Hall at Columbia University
March 1940 meeting at Berkeley, California: Ernest O. Lawrence, Arthur H. Compton, Vannevar Bush, James B. Conant, Karl T. Compton, and Alfred L. Loomis
Different fission bomb assembly methods explored during the July 1942 conference
Manhattan Project Organization Chart, 1 May 1946
Oppenheimer and Groves at the remains of the Trinity test in September 1945, two months after the test blast and just after the end of World War II. The white overshoes prevented fallout from sticking to the soles of their shoes.
Groves confers with James Chadwick, the head of the British Mission.
Shift change at the Y-12 uranium enrichment facility at the Clinton Engineer Works in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, on 11 August 1945. By May 1945, 82,000 people were employed at the Clinton Engineer Works. Photograph by the Manhattan District photographer Ed Westcott.
Physicists at a Manhattan District-sponsored colloquium at the Los Alamos Laboratory on the Super in April 1946. In the front row are Norris Bradbury, John Manley, Enrico Fermi and J. (Jerome) M. B. Kellogg (1905-1981). Robert Oppenheimer, in dark coat, is behind Manley; to Oppenheimer's left is Richard Feynman. The Army officer on the left is Colonel Oliver Haywood.
Map of Los Alamos site, New Mexico, 1943–45
Hanford workers collect their paychecks at the Western Union office.
The majority of the uranium used in the Manhattan Project came from the Shinkolobwe mine in Belgian Congo.
Oak Ridge hosted several uranium separation technologies. The Y-12 electromagnetic separation plant is in the upper right. The K-25 and K-27 gaseous diffusion plants are in the lower left, near the S-50 thermal diffusion plant. The X-10 was for plutonium production.
Alpha I racetrack at Y-12
Calutron Girls were young women who monitored calutron control panels at Y-12. Gladys Owens, seated in the foreground, was unaware of what she had been involved in.
Oak Ridge K-25 plant
The S-50 plant is the dark building to the upper left behind the Oak Ridge powerhouse (with smoke stacks).
Workers load uranium slugs into the X-10 Graphite Reactor.
Aerial view of Hanford B-Reactor site, June 1944
Map of the Hanford Site. Railroads flank the plants to the north and south. Reactors are the three northernmost red squares, along the Columbia River. The separation plants are the lower two red squares from the grouping south of the reactors. The bottom red square is the 300 area.
A row of Thin Man casings. Fat Man casings are visible in the background.
An implosion-type nuclear bomb
Remote handling of a kilocurie source of radiolanthanum for a RaLa Experiment at Los Alamos
The explosives of "the gadget" were raised to the top of the tower for the final assembly.
The Trinity test of the Manhattan Project was the first detonation of a nuclear weapon.
Major General Leslie R. Groves, Jr., speaks to service personnel Oak Ridge Tennessee in August 1945.
A billboard encouraging secrecy among Oak Ridge workers
Security poster, warning office workers to close drawers and put documents in safes when not being used
Allied soldiers dismantle the German experimental nuclear reactor at Haigerloch.
Silverplate B-29 Straight Flush. The tail code of the 444th Bombardment Group is painted on for security reasons.
Little Boy explodes over Hiroshima, Japan, 6 August 1945 (left);
Fat Man explodes over Nagasaki, Japan, 9 August 1945 (right).
Presentation of the Army–Navy "E" Award at Los Alamos on 16 October 1945. Standing, left to right: J. Robert Oppenheimer, unidentified, unidentified, Kenneth Nichols, Leslie Groves, Robert Gordon Sproul, William Sterling Parsons.
President Harry S. Truman signs the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, establishing the United States Atomic Energy Commission.
The Lake Ontario Ordnance Works (LOOW) near Niagara Falls became a principal repository for Manhattan Project waste for the Eastern United States. All of the radioactive materials stored at the LOOW site—including thorium, uranium, and the world's largest concentration of radium-226—were buried in an "Interim Waste Containment Structure" (in the foreground) in 1991.
A "bomb" (pressure vessel) containing uranium halide and sacrificial metal, probably magnesium, being lowered into a furnace
After the reaction, the interior of a bomb coated with remnant slag
A uranium metal "biscuit" from the reduction reaction

This work with the chemistry and metallurgy of radioactive polonium was directed by Charles Allen Thomas of the Monsanto Company and became known as the Dayton Project.