Monsoon

southwest monsoonmonsoonsnortheast monsoonSouth-west monsoonNorth-east monsoonmonsoonalmonsoon seasonWest African Monsoonsouth west monsoonrainy season
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.wikipedia
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Wind

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Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.
Within the tropics, thermal low circulations over terrain and high plateaus can drive monsoon circulations.

North American Monsoon

monsoonmonsoonalmonsoon season
The inclusion of the North and South American monsoons with incomplete wind reversal has been debated.
The North American monsoon, variously known as the Southwest monsoon, the Mexican monsoon, the New Mexican monsoon, or the Arizona monsoon, is a pattern of pronounced increase in thunderstorms and rainfall over large areas of the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico, typically occurring between July and mid September.

Wet season

rainy seasonmonsoon seasonwet
Usually, the term monsoon is used to refer to the rainy phase of a seasonally changing pattern, although technically there is also a dry phase.
In contrast to areas with savanna climates and monsoon regimes, Mediterranean climates have wet winters and dry summers.

Rain

rainfallrainwaterrainstorm
The term was first used in English in British India and neighbouring countries to refer to the big seasonal winds blowing from the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea in the southwest bringing heavy rainfall to the area.
Savanna climates and areas with monsoon regimes have wet summers and dry winters.

Intertropical Convergence Zone

doldrumsITCZInter-Tropical Convergence Zone
The monsoon of western Sub-Saharan Africa is the result of the seasonal shifts of the Intertropical Convergence Zone and the great seasonal temperature and humidity differences between the Sahara and the equatorial Atlantic Ocean. The dry, northeasterly trade winds, and their more extreme form, the harmattan, are interrupted by the northern shift in the ITCZ and resultant southerly, rain-bearing winds during the summer.
Where the ITCZ is drawn into and merges with a monsoonal circulation, it is sometimes referred to as a monsoon trough, a usage more common in Australia and parts of Asia.

Sahara

Sahara DesertSaharanSaharan Desert
The monsoon of western Sub-Saharan Africa is the result of the seasonal shifts of the Intertropical Convergence Zone and the great seasonal temperature and humidity differences between the Sahara and the equatorial Atlantic Ocean.
For several hundred thousand years, the Sahara has alternated between desert and savanna grassland in a 20,000 year cycle caused by the precession of the Earth's axis as it rotates around the Sun, which changes the location of the North African Monsoon.

Precipitation

rainfallhydrometeorannual precipitation
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.
Savanna climates and areas with monsoon regimes have wet summers and dry winters.

Thermal low

heat lowAsiatic lowlow pressure
As the land's surface becomes warmer, the air above it expands and an area of low pressure develops.
Thermal lows over the western and southern portions of North America, northern Africa, and southeast Asia are strong enough to lead to summer monsoon conditions.

Thar Desert

TharRajasthan Desertagriculture
The Thar Desert and adjoining areas of the northern and central Indian subcontinent heat up considerably during the hot summers.
The sand is highly mobile due to strong winds occurring before the onset of the monsoon.

Glossary of the British Raj

used in English in British India
The term was first used in English in British India and neighbouring countries to refer to the big seasonal winds blowing from the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea in the southwest bringing heavy rainfall to the area.

El Niño

El NinoEl Nino-Southern OscillationEl Niño Southern Oscillation
Thus a better understanding of the possible links between El Niño, Western Pacific Warm Pool, Indonesian Throughflow, wind pattern off western Australia, and ice volume expansion and contraction can be obtained by studying the behaviour of the LC during Quaternary at close stratigraphic intervals.
Cases of El Niño-type events in both oceans simultaneously have been linked to severe famines related to the extended failure of monsoon rains.

Indonesian Throughflow

Thus a better understanding of the possible links between El Niño, Western Pacific Warm Pool, Indonesian Throughflow, wind pattern off western Australia, and ice volume expansion and contraction can be obtained by studying the behaviour of the LC during Quaternary at close stratigraphic intervals.
During June to August, southeasterlies of the southwest monsoon predominate over Indonesia and drive strong Ekman divergence (southwestward flow in the Southern Hemisphere thus increasing ITF to 15 Sv) whereas from December to February, Northwest Monsoon westerlies serve to directly reduce the ITF.

Utah

UTState of UtahUtah, U.S.
It affects Mexico along the Sierra Madre Occidental as well as Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, West Texas and California.
In summer, the state, especially southern and eastern Utah, lies in the path of monsoon moisture from the Gulf of California.

Western Ghats

SahyadriWestern GhatSahyadris
The Arabian Sea Branch of the Southwest Monsoon first hits the Western Ghats of the coastal state of Kerala, India, thus making this area the first state in India to receive rain from the Southwest Monsoon.
The Western Ghats block southwest monsoon winds from reaching the Deccan Plateau.

Bengal

Bengal regionBengal, IndiaBengali
The Bay of Bengal Branch of Southwest Monsoon flows over the Bay of Bengal heading towards North-East India and Bengal, picking up more moisture from the Bay of Bengal.
The region has a monsoon climate, which the Bengali calendar divides into six seasons.

Geology of Indonesia

Indonesian SeawaySummaryThe Geology of Indonesia: Wikibook Edition (online)
Then, during ice periods, the sea level fell and the Indonesian Seaway closed.
Tectonic uplift of the region, exacerbated by lowered sea levels during recent glaciation, is hypothesized to have altered the regional climate, especially with respect to monsoons, beginning ~4 million years ago.

Indian Ocean

IndianIndoSouthern Indian Ocean
To fill this void, the moisture-laden winds from the Indian Ocean rush into the subcontinent.
That continent also drives the Indian Ocean monsoon, the strongest on Earth, which causes large-scale seasonal variations in ocean currents, including the reversal of the Somali Current and Indian Monsoon Current.

Orography

orographicorographicallyorographic precipitation
As the clouds rise, their temperature drops, and precipitation occurs.
For instance, the elevated areas of East Africa substantially determines the strength of the Indian monsoon.

Tibetan Plateau

Qinghai-Tibet PlateauQinghai-Tibetan PlateauQinghai–Tibet Plateau
Strengthening of the Asian monsoon has been linked to the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau after the collision of the Indian sub-continent and Asia around 50 million years ago.
Without the thermal low pressure caused by the heating, there was no monsoon over the Indian subcontinent.

Northeast India

North-East IndiaNorth East IndiaNortheastern India
The Bay of Bengal Branch of Southwest Monsoon flows over the Bay of Bengal heading towards North-East India and Bengal, picking up more moisture from the Bay of Bengal.
Northeast India has a subtropical climate that is influenced by its relief and influences from the southwest and northeast monsoons.

China

People's Republic of ChinaChineseCHN
Because of studies of records from the Arabian Sea and that of the wind-blown dust in the Loess Plateau of China, many geologists believe the monsoon first became strong around 8 million years ago.
China's climate is mainly dominated by dry seasons and wet monsoons, which lead to pronounced temperature differences between winter and summer.

Kerala

Kerala stateKerala, Indiastate of Kerala
The Arabian Sea Branch of the Southwest Monsoon first hits the Western Ghats of the coastal state of Kerala, India, thus making this area the first state in India to receive rain from the Southwest Monsoon.
With around 120–140 rainy days per year, Kerala has a wet and maritime tropical climate influenced by the seasonal heavy rains of the southwest summer monsoon and northeast winter monsoon.

Sierra Madre Occidental

Sierra MadreSierra Madre MountainsSierra Madres
It affects Mexico along the Sierra Madre Occidental as well as Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, West Texas and California.
This region undergoes a seasonal variety with two wet seasons, including a summer monsoon, and two dry seasons each year.

Trade winds

trade windtradewindseasterlies
The dry, northeasterly trade winds, and their more extreme form, the harmattan, are interrupted by the northern shift in the ITCZ and resultant southerly, rain-bearing winds during the summer.
When located within a monsoon region, this zone of low pressure and wind convergence is also known as the monsoon trough.

Flood

floodingfloodsflood control
Bangladesh and certain regions of India like Assam and West Bengal, also frequently experience heavy floods during this season.
The increase in flow may be the result of sustained rainfall, rapid snow melt, monsoons, or tropical cyclones.