Monsoon trough

monsoon depressionmonsoonmonsoonal troughequatorial beltmonsoon flowmonsoonal flowwind surgemonsoonal characteristicsmonsoonal depressionmonsoonal low
The monsoon trough is a portion of the Intertropical Convergence Zone in the Western Pacific, as depicted by a line on a weather map showing the locations of minimum sea level pressure, and as such, is a convergence zone between the wind patterns of the southern and northern hemispheres.wikipedia
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Intertropical Convergence Zone

doldrumsITCZInter-Tropical Convergence Zone
The monsoon trough is a portion of the Intertropical Convergence Zone in the Western Pacific, as depicted by a line on a weather map showing the locations of minimum sea level pressure, and as such, is a convergence zone between the wind patterns of the southern and northern hemispheres.
Where the ITCZ is drawn into and merges with a monsoonal circulation, it is sometimes referred to as a monsoon trough, a usage more common in Australia and parts of Asia.

Rainforest

rain forestrainforestsemergent
The monsoon trough plays a role in creating many of the world's rainforests.
The monsoon trough, alternatively known as the intertropical convergence zone, plays a significant role in creating the climatic conditions necessary for the Earth's tropical rainforests: which are distinct from monsoonal areas of seasonal tropical forest.

Wet season

rainy seasonmonsoon seasonwet
Right along its axis, heavy rains can be found which usher in the peak of a location's respective rainy season.
Some areas with pronounced rainy seasons will see a break in rainfall mid-season, when the intertropical convergence zone or monsoon trough moves to higher latitudes in the middle of the warm season.

Tropical cyclone

hurricanetropical stormhurricanes
Depressions and tropical cyclones often form in the vicinity of the monsoon trough, with each capable of producing a year's worth of rainfall in a matter of days.
Most tropical cyclones form in a worldwide band of thunderstorm activity near the equator, referred to as the Intertropical Front (ITF), the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), or the monsoon trough.

Trade winds

trade windtradewindseasterlies
Westerly monsoon winds lie in its equatorward portion while easterly trade winds exist poleward of the trough.
When located within a monsoon region, this zone of low pressure and wind convergence is also known as the monsoon trough.

Monsoon

southwest monsoonmonsoonsnortheast monsoon
Westerly monsoon winds lie in its equatorward portion while easterly trade winds exist poleward of the trough.
Meanwhile, a low pressure system known as a monsoon trough develops over South-East Asia and Australasia and winds are directed toward Australia.

Tropics

tropicaltropictropical zone
As fronts move through the subtropics and tropics of one hemisphere during their winter, normally as shear lines when their temperature gradient becomes minimal, wind surges can cross the equator in oceanic regions and enhance a monsoon trough in the other hemisphere's summer.
Some areas with pronounced rainy seasons see a break in rainfall during mid-season when the intertropical convergence zone or monsoon trough moves poleward of their location during the middle of the warm season; typical vegetation in these areas ranges from moist seasonal tropical forests to savannahs.

Horse latitudes

subtropical ridgesubtropical anticyclonesubtropical high
A strengthening or equatorward movement in the subtropical ridge can cause a strengthening of a monsoon trough as a wind surge moves towards the location of the monsoon trough.
Heating of the earth near the equator leads to large amounts of convection along the monsoon trough or Intertropical convergence zone.

Subtropics

subtropicalsub-tropicalsubtropical climate
As fronts move through the subtropics and tropics of one hemisphere during their winter, normally as shear lines when their temperature gradient becomes minimal, wind surges can cross the equator in oceanic regions and enhance a monsoon trough in the other hemisphere's summer.
Heating of the earth near the equator leads to large amounts of upward motion and convection along the monsoon trough or intertropical convergence zone.

South Pacific convergence zone

convergence zoneSouth Pacific convergence zone (SPCZ)
The South Pacific convergence zone and South American convergence zones are generally reverse oriented.
The South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ), a reverse-oriented monsoon trough, is a band of low-level convergence, cloudiness and precipitation extending from the Western Pacific Warm Pool at the maritime continent south-eastwards towards French Polynesia and as far as the Cook Islands (160W, 20S).

Thunderstorm

thunderstormssevere thunderstormelectrical storm
Since the monsoon trough is an area of convergence in the wind pattern, and an elongated area of low pressure at the surface, the trough focuses low level moisture and is defined by one or more elongated bands of thunderstorms when viewing satellite imagery.
Forms of MCS that develop in the tropics are found in use either the Intertropical Convergence Zone or monsoon troughs, generally within the warm season between spring and fall.

Tropical cyclogenesis

developmentdevelopeddevelop
This is because a pre-existing near-surface disturbance with sufficient spin and convergence is one of the six requirements for tropical cyclogenesis.

Weather map

weather chart850 mb pressure surfacemap
The monsoon trough is a portion of the Intertropical Convergence Zone in the Western Pacific, as depicted by a line on a weather map showing the locations of minimum sea level pressure, and as such, is a convergence zone between the wind patterns of the southern and northern hemispheres.

Convergence zone

convergenceconvergence of breezesconvergences
The monsoon trough is a portion of the Intertropical Convergence Zone in the Western Pacific, as depicted by a line on a weather map showing the locations of minimum sea level pressure, and as such, is a convergence zone between the wind patterns of the southern and northern hemispheres. Increases in the relative vorticity, or spin, with the monsoon trough are normally a product of increased wind convergence within the convergence zone of the monsoon trough.

Latitude

latitudesSouthlatitudinal
Monsoon troughing in the western Pacific reaches its zenith in latitude during the late summer when the wintertime surface ridge in the opposite hemisphere is the strongest.

40th parallel north

40th parallel40°N40° N
It can reach as far as the 40th parallel in East Asia during August and the 20th parallel in Australia during February.

20th parallel south

2020° south20°S
It can reach as far as the 40th parallel in East Asia during August and the 20th parallel in Australia during February.

Southern Hemisphere

SouthernaustralS. Hemisphere
In the Southern Hemisphere, the monsoon trough associated with the Australian monsoon reaches its most southerly latitude in February, oriented along a west-northwest/east-southeast axis.

Vorticity

vortex dynamicsvortex lineVORTEX LINES
Increases in the relative vorticity, or spin, with the monsoon trough are normally a product of increased wind convergence within the convergence zone of the monsoon trough.

Hemispheres of Earth

hemispherehemisphereshemisphere of Earth
As fronts move through the subtropics and tropics of one hemisphere during their winter, normally as shear lines when their temperature gradient becomes minimal, wind surges can cross the equator in oceanic regions and enhance a monsoon trough in the other hemisphere's summer.

Surface weather analysis

cold frontsurface analysissurface
As fronts move through the subtropics and tropics of one hemisphere during their winter, normally as shear lines when their temperature gradient becomes minimal, wind surges can cross the equator in oceanic regions and enhance a monsoon trough in the other hemisphere's summer.

Thermal low

heat lowAsiatic lowlow pressure
If a circulation forms within the monsoon trough, it is able to compete with the neighboring thermal low over the continent, and a wind surge will occur at its periphery.

Jet stream

jetstreampolar jet streamsubtropical jet stream
The presence of an upper level jet stream poleward and west of the system can enhance its development by leading to increased diverging air aloft over the monsoon depression, which leads to a corresponding drop in surface pressure.

Bay of Bengal

Gulf of BengalHarkandBay of Bangal
In India, for example, 6 to 7 monsoon depressions move across the country yearly, and their numbers within the Bay of Bengal increase during July and August of El Niño events.

El Niño

El NinoEl Nino-Southern OscillationEl Niño Southern Oscillation
In India, for example, 6 to 7 monsoon depressions move across the country yearly, and their numbers within the Bay of Bengal increase during July and August of El Niño events.