A report on Montana

Early Indian treaty territories in Montana
Assiniboine family, Montana, 1890–91
Montana Territory in 1865
Chief Joseph and Col. John Gibbon met again on the Big Hole Battlefield site in 1889.
Buffalo Soldiers, Ft. Keogh, Montana, 1890. The nickname was given to the "Black Cavalry" by the Native American tribes they fought.
Mennonite family in Montana, c. 1937
Map of Montana
Relief map of Montana
Saint Mary Lake in Glacier National Park
Belly River in Waterton Lakes National Park
Missouri Breaks region in central Montana
Pompeys Pillar National Monument
Quake Lake was created by a landslide during the 1959 Hebgen Lake earthquake.
Temperature and precipitation for Montana's capital city, Helena
Köppen climate types of Montana, using 1991-2020 climate normals.
Clark Fork River, Missoula, in autumn
Missoula, the second-largest city in Montana
Montana population density map
Population of Montana 1870–2018
Indian reservations in Montana. Borders are not exact.
Montana ranks 2nd nationally in craft breweries per capita.
First Interstate Center, in downtown Billings, is the tallest building in Montana.
Dancers at Crow Fair in 1941
Montana State Bobcats football at Bobcat Stadium (Montana State University), Bozeman
Lone Mountain at Big Sky Ski Resort
The Big Sky Resort
The Palisades area on the north end of the ski area at Red Lodge Mountain Resort
Guided snowmobile tours in Yellowstone Park
Yellowstone Airport, West Yellowstone, Montana
Treemap of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election

State in the Mountain West subregion of the Western United States.

- Montana

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Missouri River

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Longest river in the United States.

Longest river in the United States.

Holter Lake, a reservoir on the upper Missouri River
The Missouri in North Dakota, which was the furthest upstream that French explorers traveled on the river
The Yellowstone River, the fifth longest tributary of the Missouri, which it joins in North Dakota
Nebraska's Fort Calhoun Nuclear Generating Station was inundated when the Missouri River flooded in 2011
High silt content makes the Missouri River (left) noticeably lighter than the Mississippi River (right) at their confluence north of St. Louis.
Karl Bodmer, A Mandan Village, c. 1840–1843
Massacre of the Villasur Expedition, painted c. 1720
Map of western North America drawn by Lewis and Clark
Fur Traders on Missouri River, painted by George Caleb Bingham c. 1845
Fort Clark on the Missouri in February 1834, painted by Karl Bodmer
Boatmen on the Missouri c. 1846
Karl Bodmer, Fort Pierre and the Adjacent Prairie, c. 1833, -- the river, river bluffs and floodplain are depicted around the fort settlement
Holter Dam, a run-of-the-river structure on the upper Missouri, shortly after completion in 1918
Black Eagle Dam is dynamited in 1908 to save Great Falls from the floodwave caused by the failure of Hauser Dam
Map showing major features of the Pick–Sloan Plan; other dams and their reservoirs are denoted by triangles
Fort Peck Dam, the uppermost dam of the Missouri River Mainstem System
Painting of the steamboat Yellowstone, one of the earliest commercial vessels to run on the river, circa 1833. The dangerous currents in the river caused the ship to run aground on a sandbar in this illustration.
The Far West is typical of the shallow-draft steamboats used to navigate the Missouri River. Famed captain and pilot Grant Marsh set several speed records, including one taking wounded soldiers from the surviving segments of the George Armstrong Custer expedition to get medical attention.
A barge travels North on the Missouri River at Highway 364 in Saint Charles, Missouri.
Gavins Point Dam at Yankton, South Dakota is the uppermost obstacle to navigation from the mouth on the Missouri today.
The Missouri River near New Haven, Missouri, looking upstream – note the riprap wing dam protruding into the river from the left to direct its flow into a narrower channel
The Missouri River at the confluence with the Floyd River in Sioux City, IA, near the upper most navigable reach of the river today
Freshwater ecoregions of the Missouri basin
Missouri River as it flows through Great Falls, Montana
Agricultural fields dominate most of the former floodplain, including this area around the Missouri's confluence with the Nishnabotna River in western Missouri.
Part of the Missouri National Recreational River, a 98 mi preserved stretch of the Missouri on the border of South Dakota and Nebraska

Rising in the Rocky Mountains of the Eastern Centennial Mountains of Southwestern Montana, the Missouri flows east and south for 2341 mi before entering the Mississippi River north of St. Louis, Missouri.


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State in the Mountain West subregion of the Western United States.

State in the Mountain West subregion of the Western United States.

The first Fort Laramie as it looked before 1840 (painting from memory by Alfred Jacob Miller)
A backcountry road in the Sierra Madre Range of southeastern Wyoming, near Bridger Peak
Köppen climate types of Wyoming, using 1991-2020 climate normals.
On Interstate 80, leaving Utah
Autumn in the Bighorn Mountains
Teton Range
Green River valley
An enlargeable map of the 23 counties of Wyoming
Since 2016, Wyoming license plates feature Squaretop Mountain in the background
Cheyenne, Wyoming
Casper, Wyoming
Rock Springs, Wyoming
Evanston, Wyoming
Rawlins, Wyoming
Wyoming is home to 12 ski resorts, including Grand Targhee and Jackson Hole.
Wind farm in Uinta County
North Antelope Rochelle Mine, the largest estimated coal mine reserve in the world, as of 2013
A natural gas rig west of the Wind River Range
Major highways of Wyoming
Wind River Canyon
Wyoming terrain map
National Park Service sites map
The largest population centers are Cheyenne (southeast) and Casper.
Wyoming State Capitol building, Cheyenne
State flower of Wyoming: Indian paintbrush
The Rocky Mountain Herbarium at the University of Wyoming
Yellowstone National Park
Devils Tower National Monument
Thunder Basin National Grassland
Seedskadee National Wildlife Refuge

Wyoming is bordered by Montana to the north and northwest, South Dakota and Nebraska to the east, Idaho to the west, Utah to the southwest, and Colorado to the south.

Pauline Small on horseback. She carries the flag of the Crow Tribe of Montana. As a tribal official, she is entitled to carry the flag during the Crow Fair parade.

Crow people

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Apsáalooke, also spelled Absaroka, are Native Americans living primarily in southern Montana.

Apsáalooke, also spelled Absaroka, are Native Americans living primarily in southern Montana.

Pauline Small on horseback. She carries the flag of the Crow Tribe of Montana. As a tribal official, she is entitled to carry the flag during the Crow Fair parade.
Crow Indians, c. 1878–1883
Landscape on the Crow Indian Reservation, Montana
Ledger drawing of a Cheyenne war chief and warriors (left) coming to a truce with a Crow war chief and warriors (right)
A scout on a horse, 1908 by Edward S. Curtis
Crow Indian territory (areas 517, 619 and 635) as described in Fort Laramie treaty (1851), present Montana and Wyoming
"Eight Crow prisoners under guard at Crow agency, Montana, 1887"
The trading posts built for trade with the Crows
De Smet map of the 1851 Fort Laramie Indian territories (the light area). Jesuit missionary De Smet drew this map with the tribal borders agreed upon at Fort Laramie in 1851. Although the map itself is wrong in certain ways, it has the Crow territory west of the Sioux territory as written in the treaty, and the Bighorn area as the heart of the Crow country.
Crow Indian Chief Big Shadow (Big Robber), signer of the Fort Laramie treaty (1851). Painting by Jesuit missionary De Smet.
Lone Dog's Sioux winter count, 1870. Thirty Crows killed in battle.
Crooks army before battle of the Rosebud. The Crow and Shoshone scouts and the Army are crossing Goose River on the way to the Rosebud in 1876. The equestrian woman may be either the Crow berdache Finds-them-and-kills-them or the Crow amazon The-other-magpie.
Buffalo Jump
The Oath Apsaroke by Edward S. Curtis depicting Crow men giving a symbolic oath with a bison meat offering on an arrow
Crow Lodge of Twenty-five Buffalo Skins, 1832–33 by George Catlin
Crow men trading on horseback
Three Crow men on their horses, Edward S. Curtis, 1908
Crow flag seen from Interstate 90 at the Crow Indian Reservation, Big Horn County, Montana
Crow Tribal Chairperson Carl Venne and Barack Obama on the Crow Indian Reservation in Montana on 19 May 2008. Obama was the first presidential candidate to visit the Crow Tribe.
Delegation of important Crow chiefs, 1880. From left to right: Old Crow, Medicine Crow, Long Elk, Plenty Coups, and Pretty Eagle.
Painting of Holds The Enemy, a Crow warrior with split horn headdress and beaded wool leggings by E. A. Burbank
Hó-ra-tó-a, a Crow warrior with headdress, bison robe, and hair reaching the ground. Painted by George Catlin, Fort Union 1832.
Crow moccasins
Crow moccasins, {{circa|1940}}

In historical times, the Crow lived in the Yellowstone River valley, which extends from present-day Wyoming, through Montana and into North Dakota, where it joins the Missouri River.

North Dakota

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U.S. state in the Upper Midwest, named after the indigenous Dakota Sioux.

U.S. state in the Upper Midwest, named after the indigenous Dakota Sioux.

Fort Union Trading Post National Historic Site
North Dakota State Capitol, featuring an Art Deco tower
View of western North Dakota
Köppen climate types of North Dakota
North Dakota population density
Vang Evangelical Lutheran Church in Manfred
Sunflowers in Traill County, North Dakota
North Dakota Mill and Elevator postcard, ca. 1922
Oil well in western North Dakota
Paul Kane witnessed and participated in the annual bison hunt of the Métis in June 1846 on the prairies in Dakota.
Norwegian settlers in front of their sod house in North Dakota in 1898
Interstate 94 in North Dakota, near Gladstone
Building in Bismarck that houses a variety of state agencies: Workforce Safety & Insurance; Retirement & Investment; Parks & Recreation; PERS; Child Support; Commerce; and OBM Risk Management.
Administrative building for the Standing Rock Indian Reservation
Treemap of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election.

North Dakota is bordered by the Canadian provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba to the north and by the U.S. states of Minnesota to the east, South Dakota to the south, and Montana to the west.

The summits of the Teton Range in Wyoming

Rocky Mountains

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The Rocky Mountains, also known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range and the largest mountain system in North America.

The Rocky Mountains, also known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range and the largest mountain system in North America.

The summits of the Teton Range in Wyoming
Mount Robson in British Columbia
Glaciers, such as Jackson Glacier in Glacier National Park, Montana, as shown here, have dramatically shaped the Rocky Mountains.
Tilted slabs of sedimentary rock in Roxborough State Park near Denver
Great Sand Dunes of Colorado
Bighorn sheep (such as this lamb in Alberta) have declined dramatically since European-American settlement of the mountains
Mesa Verde ruins in Colorado
Cherokee Trail near Fort Collins, Colorado, from a sketch taken June 7, 1859
Sir Alexander MacKenzie in 1800
Aspen, Colorado silver mining in 1898
The Saltair Pavilion on the Great Salt Lake in 1900
Drilling rig for natural gas near the Wind River Range
Castle Geyser in Yellowstone National Park
Icefields Parkway

Of the 100 highest major peaks of the Rocky Mountains, 78 (including the 30 highest) are located in Colorado, ten in Wyoming, six in New Mexico, three in Montana, and one each in Utah, British Columbia, and Idaho.

Detailed pictorial map from 1904

Yellowstone National Park

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Detailed pictorial map from 1904
Ferdinand V. Hayden (1829–1887), American geologist who convinced Congress to make Yellowstone a national park in 1872
Ferdinand V. Hayden's map of Yellowstone National Park, 1871
Portrait of Nathaniel P. Langford (1870), the first superintendent of the park
Great Falls of the Yellowstone, U.S. Geological and Geographic Survey of the Territories (1874–1879), photographer William Henry Jackson
Fort Yellowstone (circa 1910), formerly a U.S. Army post, now serves as park headquarters.
Superintendent Horace M. Albright and black bears (1922). Tourists often fed black bears in the park's early years, with 527 injuries reported from 1931 to 1939.
The Roosevelt Arch in Gardiner, Montana, at the north entrance
Pictorial map by Heinrich C. Berann (1991); scale exaggerated
Official park map c. undefined 2006 (click on map to enlarge)
Satellite image of Yellowstone National Park in 2020
Columnar basalt near Tower Fall; large floods of basalt and other lava types preceded mega-eruptions of superheated ash and pumice.
Boardwalks allow visitors to safely approach the thermal features, such as Grand Prismatic Spring.
Infrastructure damage at Hebgen Lake due to the 7.2 magnitude earthquake of 1959
Meadow in Yellowstone National Park
Yellowstone sand verbena are endemic to Yellowstone's lakeshores.
American bison
Elk mother nursing her calf
A reintroduced wolf in Yellowstone National Park
Black bear and cub near Tower Fall
Elk in Hayden Valley
Pronghorn are commonly found on the grasslands in the park.
Fire in Yellowstone National Park
Wildfire in Yellowstone National Park produces a pyrocumulus cloud.
A crown fire approaches the Old Faithful complex on September 7, 1988.
Winter scene in Yellowstone
Geyser at Yellowstone Lake
Union Pacific Railroad brochure promoting travel to the park (1921)
Tourists watch Old Faithful erupt, 2019.
Vintage photo of human-habituated bears seeking food from visitors
Idaho portion of park highlighted in southwest corner (click to enlarge)
Official park map c. undefined 2020 (click on map to enlarge)

Yellowstone National Park is an American national park located in the western United States, largely in the northwest corner of Wyoming and extending into Montana and Idaho.


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One of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada.

One of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada.

A topographic map of Alberta, showing cities, towns, municipal district (county) and rural municipality borders, and natural features
Moraine Lake at Banff National Park. The Alberta Mountain forests makes up the southwestern boundary of Alberta.
Köppen climate types in Alberta
Southeastern Alberta features a semi-arid steppe climate.
The wild rose is the provincial flower of Alberta.
A bighorn sheep in Kananaskis Country. The bighorn sheep is the provincial mammal of Alberta.
Specimens at the Royal Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology, located in the Horseshoe Canyon Formation at Dinosaur Provincial Park. Some of the specimens, from left to right, are Hypacrosaurus, Edmontosaurus, Lambeosaurus, Gorgosaurus (both in the background), Tyrannosaurus, and Triceratops.
Blackfoot Confederacy warriors in Macleod in 1907
Fort Chipewyan, a trading post and regional headquarters for the Hudson's Bay Company in 1820
Downtown Calgary was one of several areas afflicted during the 2013 Alberta floods.
Population density of Alberta
Petroleum resources in Alberta
Cows in Rocky View. Nearly one-half of Canadian beef is produced in Alberta.
A canola field in Alberta
The Three Sisters at Bow Valley Provincial Park in Canmore
Bronco riding at the Calgary Stampede. The event is one of the world's largest rodeos
Distribution of Alberta's 6 specialized municipalities (red) and 74 rural municipalities, which include municipal districts (often named as counties) (orange), improvement districts (dark green) and special areas (light green) (2020)
The Alberta Legislative Building serves as the meeting place for the Legislative Assembly of Alberta.
Royal Canadian Mounted Police officers in St. Albert. The RCMP provides municipal policing throughout most of Alberta.
The University of Alberta in 2005. The institution is the oldest, and largest university in Alberta.
Foothills Medical Centre in Calgary is the largest hospital in Alberta.
Calgary International Airport, the province's largest airport by passenger traffic.
A Via Rail passenger train passing by freight trains in the background, at Jasper station
Highway 1 (the Trans-Canada Highway) at Alberta Highway 22 (Cowboy Trail).

Alberta is bordered by British Columbia to the west, Saskatchewan to the east, the Northwest Territories (NWT) to the north, and the U.S. state of Montana to the south.

Great Falls, Montana

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Downtown Great Falls
1891 bird's-eye illustration of Great Falls
Map of Montana showing Glacial Lake Great Falls
The smelter and dam at Great Falls c. 1910
Montana Flour Mills in Great Falls in 1920
Malmstrom Air Force Base in 1995
Warden Bridge
Great Falls, Montana products treemap, 2020
Gibson Park
Mermaids swimming in the pool of the Sip 'n' Dip lounge in Great Falls
Charles M. Russell High School

Great Falls is the third most populous city in the U.S. state of Montana and the county seat of Cascade County.

South Dakota

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U.S. state in the North Central region of the United States.

U.S. state in the North Central region of the United States.

Deadwood, like many other Black Hills towns, was founded after the discovery of gold.
A harvest in South Dakota, 1898
A South Dakota farm during the Dust Bowl, 1936. Normal tilling practices turn South Dakota's fragile soil into a fine, loose powder that blows away, and sometimes covered vehicles, equipment, and buildings with dust during the Dust Bowl.
Terrain and primary geographic features of South Dakota
Badlands National Park
The Black Hills, a low mountain range, is located in Southwestern South Dakota.
Much of western South Dakota is covered by buttes.
Köppen climate types in South Dakota
Mount Rushmore in the Black Hills
South Dakota population density map
Indian reservations in South Dakota
East Side Lutheran Church, Sioux Falls
A B-1B Lancer lifts off from Ellsworth Air Force Base, one of South Dakota's largest employers
Ethanol plant in Turner County
Beaver Creek Bridge in Wind Cave National Park
The South Dakota State Capitol in Pierre
Congressional delegation in 2015: (from left) Senator Mike Rounds, Senator John Thune, and Representative Kristi Noem.
Nicholas Black Elk with his family, circa 1910
Sioux Falls, with a population of around 180,000, is the largest city in South Dakota.
The Coughlin Campanile, a landmark on the campus of South Dakota State University in Brookings
A tunnel along the George S. Mickelson Trail in the Black Hills

South Dakota is bordered by the states of North Dakota (to the north), Minnesota (to the east), Iowa (to the southeast), Nebraska (to the south), Wyoming (to the west), and Montana (to the northwest).

Cheyenne hide dress, c. 1920, Gilcrease Museum


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Indigenous people of the Great Plains.

Indigenous people of the Great Plains.

Cheyenne hide dress, c. 1920, Gilcrease Museum
Cheyenne beaded hide shirt, Woolaroc
Cheyenne model tipi, buffalo hide, 1860
W. Richard West Jr., former director and cofounder of the Smithsonian's National Museum of the American Indian
Cheyenne woman photograph by Edward S. Curtis, 1930
Portrait of Cheyenne chief Wolf-on-the-Hill by George Catlin, 1832. A band of Cheyenne visited Fort Pierre, South Dakota in 1832 where some were painted by Catlin during a westward expedition.
Painting of chief Chief Killer, a Southern Cheyenne war chief, wearing society headdress. Painted by E.A Burbank, 1899.
Ledger drawing by Hubble Big Horse showing a battle between Cheyenne warriors and Mexican lancers.
Ledger drawing showing a battle between a Cheyenne warrior (right) and an Osage or Pawnee warrior (left).
Ledger drawing of a mounted Cheyenne warrior counting coup with lance on a dismounted Crow warrior.
Ledger drawing of a Cheyenne warrior with pronghorn horned headdress, symbol of the Crazy Dog Society.
Arapaho and Cheyenne 1851 treaty territory. (Area 426 and 477). Area 477 is the reserve established by treaty of Fort Wise, February 18, 1861.
Cheyenne warrior Alights on the Cloud in his armor. He was neutralized during an attack on a Pawnee hunting camp in 1852
Dull Knife (Cheyenne: Vóóhéhéve or Lakota: Tamílapéšni), Chief of Northern Cheyenne at Battle of Little Bighorn
Chief Black Kettle of the Southern Cheyenne, an advocate of peace among his people.
Little Coyote (Little Wolf) and Morning Star (Dull Knife), chiefs of the Northern Cheyenne
Cheyenne prisoners in Kansas involved in escape northward. From left to right: Tangle Hair, Wild Hog, Strong Left Hand, George Reynolds (interpreter), Old Crow, Noisy Walker, Porcupine, and Blacksmith. All prisoners were released free from charges.
Northern Cheyenne flag
White Buffalo, a Northern Cheyenne chief who received the rank of sergeant in the United States Army.
Map of Indian Reservations in the state of Montana including the Northern Cheyenne Reservation.
Cheyenne courting scenes, by Big Back, before 1882

Today, the Cheyenne people are split into two federally recognized nations: the Southern Cheyenne, who are enrolled in the Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes in Oklahoma, and the Northern Cheyenne, who are enrolled in the Northern Cheyenne Tribe of the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation in Montana.