Montgomery Academy

The Montgomery Academy is a non-sectarian independent day school located in Montgomery, Alabama.wikipedia
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Segregation academy

segregation academieswave of private schoolsacademies
The Montgomery Academy was founded in 1959 as a segregation academy. It was against this backdrop that the Montgomery Academy was founded in 1959 as a segregation academy by Robert Schoenhof Weil, Montgomery physician Hugh MacGuire, and a "group of white social leaders" for "boys and girls of white parentage."
In the 21st century, Archie Douglas, the headmaster of Montgomery Academy (founded as a segregation academy), said that he is sure "that those who resented the Civil Rights Movement or sought to get away from it took refuge in the academy".

Saint James School (Montgomery, Alabama)

Saint James SchoolSaint JamesSt. James
However, the city of Montgomery allowed the school and three other segregation academies (the Saint James School, the Stephens-Spears School, and the Central Alabama Academy) to use athletic facilities at the city's public schools. Montgomery Academy has 2 primary athletic rivals in the city of Montgomery: Trinity Presbyterian School and St. James School.
In 1976 the Saint James School, along with the Montgomery Academy, was named in a suit filed against United States Secretary of the Treasury William Simon and Commissioner of Internal Revenue Donald C. Alexander by five black women from Montgomery charging that the two men had encouraged the development of segregated schools by allowing them tax-deductible status.

Robert Schoenhof Weil

It was against this backdrop that the Montgomery Academy was founded in 1959 as a segregation academy by Robert Schoenhof Weil, Montgomery physician Hugh MacGuire, and a "group of white social leaders" for "boys and girls of white parentage."
He is a founder of the Montgomery Academy.

Central Alabama Academy

However, the city of Montgomery allowed the school and three other segregation academies (the Saint James School, the Stephens-Spears School, and the Central Alabama Academy) to use athletic facilities at the city's public schools.
Four private schools in Montgomery would use city parks for football, basketball and baseball: Stephens-Spears (which had a published segregation policy), Central Alabama Academy (which had no published segregation policy), and Montgomery Academy and St. James which had "declared" open enrollment policies.

Allen v. Wright

The school was identified as a discriminatory institution by the plaintiffs in Allen v. Wright, a lawsuit by black parents that was decided in 1984 by the U.S. Supreme Court.
* Montgomery Academy One of the southern private schools named in the lawsuit and ruling.

Trinity Presbyterian School

Trinity PresbyterianTrinity Presbyterian ChurchTrinity Presbyterian High School
Montgomery Academy has 2 primary athletic rivals in the city of Montgomery: Trinity Presbyterian School and St. James School.
In addition to Trinity School, there are two other primary private schools in Montgomery: The Montgomery Academy and Saint James.

Jason Sanford

He attended the Montgomery Academy and Auburn University, where he studied anthropology and archaeology.

Independent school

independentindependent schoolsprivate
The Montgomery Academy is a non-sectarian independent day school located in Montgomery, Alabama.

Day school

dayday studentsday schools
The Montgomery Academy is a non-sectarian independent day school located in Montgomery, Alabama.

Montgomery, Alabama

MontgomeryMontgomery, ALAlabama (Montgomery)
The Montgomery Academy is a non-sectarian independent day school located in Montgomery, Alabama.

Montgomery Improvement Association

In December 1958 the Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA) sued the city of Montgomery to force an end to racial segregation in the city's public parks.

Montgomery Zoo

Mann Wildlife Learning Museum
Rather than accede to this demand the city closed down all of its parks, including the Montgomery Zoo, effective on January 1, 1959.

Martin Luther King Jr.

Martin Luther King, Jr.Martin Luther KingDr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
In response to this, Martin Luther King on behalf of the MIA, announced that the Association would attempt to end racial segregation in Montgomery public schools by having large numbers of black children apply for admission to white schools in order to provide test cases which might allow a judge to declare the Alabama Pupil Placement Act unconstitutional.

Test case (law)

test casetest caseslead cases
In response to this, Martin Luther King on behalf of the MIA, announced that the Association would attempt to end racial segregation in Montgomery public schools by having large numbers of black children apply for admission to white schools in order to provide test cases which might allow a judge to declare the Alabama Pupil Placement Act unconstitutional.

John Malcolm Patterson

John PattersonJohn M. PattersonGovernor Patterson
Governor John Patterson threatened to shut down the public schools to prevent their integration and the Ku Klux Klan leader Robert Shelton promised that the Klan was prepared to prevent integration by violent means if necessary.

Ku Klux Klan

KKKKlansmanKlansmen
Governor John Patterson threatened to shut down the public schools to prevent their integration and the Ku Klux Klan leader Robert Shelton promised that the Klan was prepared to prevent integration by violent means if necessary.

Robert Shelton (Ku Klux Klan)

Robert Shelton
Governor John Patterson threatened to shut down the public schools to prevent their integration and the Ku Klux Klan leader Robert Shelton promised that the Klan was prepared to prevent integration by violent means if necessary.

American Association of Teachers of French

The French ReviewNational French ContestAATF
For instance, already by 1961 the Montgomery Academy's René Lévêque was chairman of the examination committee for the French I section of the National French Contest, sponsored since 1936 by the American Association of Teachers of French.

African Americans

African AmericanAfrican-Americanblack
For the first two decades of its existence The Montgomery Academy did not admit any African American students.

Internal Revenue Service

IRSinternal revenueBureau of Internal Revenue
In 1970 the Academy adopted an explicit policy stating that race would not be considered in admissions as required by Internal Revenue Service regulations.

Frank Minis Johnson

Frank M. JohnsonFrank M. Johnson, Jr.Frank M. Johnson Jr.
In 1972, federal Judge Frank M. Johnson, whose son John was a student at the Montgomery Academy, enjoined the city from continuing this practice, writing that "In allowing private academies to use city facilities, Montgomery is providing aid to private, segregated schools, thus facilitating their establishment and operation as an alternative for white students who in most instances are seeking to avoid desegregated public schools."

United States Secretary of the Treasury

Secretary of the TreasuryTreasury SecretaryU.S. Secretary of the Treasury
In 1976 the Academy, along with the Saint James School, was named in a suit filed against United States Secretary of the Treasury William Simon and Commissioner of Internal Revenue Donald C. Alexander by five women from Montgomery charging that the two men had encouraged the development of segregated schools by allowing them tax-deductible status.

William E. Simon

William SimonWilliam E. Simon FoundationBill Simon
In 1976 the Academy, along with the Saint James School, was named in a suit filed against United States Secretary of the Treasury William Simon and Commissioner of Internal Revenue Donald C. Alexander by five women from Montgomery charging that the two men had encouraged the development of segregated schools by allowing them tax-deductible status.

Commissioner of Internal Revenue

IRS CommissionerCommissionerCommissioner of the Internal Revenue Service
In 1976 the Academy, along with the Saint James School, was named in a suit filed against United States Secretary of the Treasury William Simon and Commissioner of Internal Revenue Donald C. Alexander by five women from Montgomery charging that the two men had encouraged the development of segregated schools by allowing them tax-deductible status.