Mood (psychology)

Visual Representation of Commonly Experienced Moods

Affective state.

- Mood (psychology)

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Depression (mood)

Lithograph of a person diagnosed with melancholia and strong suicidal tendency in 1892
Allegory on melancholy, from circa 1729–40, etching and engraving, dimensions of the sheet: 42 × 25.7 cm, in the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)

Depression is a mental state of low mood and aversion to activity.

Temperament

In psychology, temperament broadly refers to consistent individual differences in behavior that are biologically based and are relatively independent of learning, system of values and attitudes.

An 18th century engraving by Georg P. Busch.

The specific behaviors are: activity level, regularity of sleeping and eating patterns, initial reaction, adaptability, intensity of emotion, mood, distractibility, persistence and attention span, and sensory sensitivity.

Affect (psychology)

A mother and her child showing affect.

Affect, in psychology, refers to the underlying experience of feeling, emotion or mood.

Bipolar disorder

Mood disorder characterized by periods of depression and periods of abnormally-elevated happiness that last from days to weeks each.

Bipolar disorder is characterized by episodes of depression and mania.
Bipolar mood shifts
An 1892 color lithograph depicting a woman diagnosed with hilarious mania
An 1858 lithograph captioned 'Melancholy passing into mania'
'Melancholy' by William Bagg, after a photograph by Hugh Welch Diamond
Brain imaging studies have revealed differences in the volume of various brain regions between patients with bipolar disorder and healthy control subjects.
Since Emil Kraepelin's distinction between bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in the 19th century, researchers have defined a spectrum of different types of bipolar disorder.
Simplified graphical comparison of bipolar I, bipolar II and cyclothymia
Lithium is the only medication approved by the FDA for treating mania in children.
Lithium is often used to treat bipolar disorder and has the best evidence for reducing suicide.
German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin first distinguished between manic–depressive illness and "dementia praecox" (now known as schizophrenia) in the late 19th century.
Singer Rosemary Clooney's public revelation of bipolar disorder made her an early celebrity spokesperson for mental illness.

During these episodes, people with bipolar disorder exhibit disruptions in normal mood, psychomotor activity (the level of physical activity that is influenced by mood)—e.g. constant fidgeting during mania or slowed movements during depression—circadian rhythm and cognition.

Emotion

Emotions are mental states brought on by neurophysiological changes, variously associated with thoughts, feelings, behavioural responses, and a degree of pleasure or displeasure.

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Examples of basic emotions
The emotion wheel.
Two dimensions of emotions. Made accessible for practical use.
Two dimensions of emotion
Illustration from Charles Darwin's The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (1872)
Simplified graph of James-Lange Theory of Emotion
Timeline of some of the most prominent brain models of emotion in affective neuroscience.

Emotions are often intertwined with mood, temperament, personality, disposition, or creativity.

Hormone

Any member of a class of signaling molecules in multicellular organisms, that are transported by intricate biological processes to distant organs to regulate physiology and behavior.

Left: A hormone feedback loop in a female adult. (1) Follicle-Stimulating Hormone, (2) Luteinizing Hormone, (3) Progesterone, (4) Estradiol. Right: Auxin transport from leaves to roots in Arabidopsis thaliana
The left diagram shows a steroid (lipid) hormone (1) entering a cell and (2) binding to a receptor protein in the nucleus, causing (3) mRNA synthesis which is the first step of protein synthesis. The right side shows protein hormones (1) binding with receptors which (2) begins a transduction pathway. The transduction pathway ends (3) with transcription factors being activated in the nucleus, and protein synthesis beginning. In both diagrams, a is the hormone, b is the cell membrane, c is the cytoplasm, and d is the nucleus.
Blood glucose levels are maintained at a constant level in the body by a negative feedback mechanism. When the blood glucose level is too high, the pancreas secretes insulin and when the level is too low, the pancreas then secretes glucagon. The flat line shown represents the homeostatic set point. The sinusoidal line represents the blood glucose level.

In vertebrates, hormones are responsible for the regulation of many physiological processes and behavioral activities such as digestion, metabolism, respiration, sensory perception, sleep, excretion, lactation, stress induction, growth and development, movement, reproduction, and mood manipulation.

Rumination (psychology)

Focused attention on the symptoms of one's distress, and on its possible causes and consequences, as opposed to its solutions, according to the Response Styles Theory proposed by Nolen-Hoeksema .

Rumination appears closely related to worry.

For example, in the Goal Progress Theory, rumination is conceptualized not as a reaction to a mood state, but as a "response to failure to progress satisfactorily towards a goal".

Psychology

Scientific study of mind and behavior.

Wilhelm Wundt (seated) with colleagues in his psychological laboratory, the first of its kind.
One of the dogs used in Pavlov's experiment with a surgically implanted cannula to measure salivation, preserved in the Pavlov Museum in Ryazan, Russia
False-color representations of cerebral fiber pathways affected, per Van Horn et al.
Skinner's teaching machine, a mechanical invention to automate the task of programmed instruction
Baddeley's model of working memory
The Müller–Lyer illusion. Psychologists make inferences about mental processes from shared phenomena such as optical illusions.
Group photo 1909 in front of Clark University. Front row: Sigmund Freud, G. Stanley Hall, Carl Jung; back row: Abraham A. Brill, Ernest Jones, Sándor Ferenczi.
Psychologist Abraham Maslow in 1943 posited that humans have a hierarchy of needs, and it makes sense to fulfill the basic needs first (food, water etc.) before higher-order needs can be met.
Developmental psychologists would engage a child with a book and then make observations based on how the child interacts with the object.
An example of an item from a cognitive abilities test used in educational psychology.
Flowchart of four phases (enrollment, intervention allocation, follow-up, and data analysis) of a parallel randomized trial of two groups, modified from the CONSORT 2010 Statement
The experimenter (E) orders the teacher (T), the subject of the experiment, to give what the latter believes are painful electric shocks to a learner (L), who is actually an actor and confederate. The subject believes that for each wrong answer, the learner was receiving actual electric shocks, though in reality there were no such punishments. Being separated from the subject, the confederate set up a tape recorder integrated with the electro-shock generator, which played pre-recorded sounds for each shock level etc.
An EEG recording setup
Artificial neural network with two layers, an interconnected group of nodes, akin to the vast network of neurons in the human brain.
A rat undergoing a Morris water navigation test used in behavioral neuroscience to study the role of the hippocampus in spatial learning and memory.
Phineas P. Gage survived an accident in which a large iron rod was driven completely through his head, destroying much of his brain's left frontal lobe, and is remembered for that injury's reported effects on his personality and behavior.

Surveys are used in psychology for the purpose of measuring attitudes and traits, monitoring changes in mood, and checking the validity of experimental manipulations (checking research participants' perception of the condition they were assigned to).

Mood repair strategies

Individual can use to shift their mood from general sadness or clinical depression to a state of greater contentment or happiness.

A cognitive model, as illustrated by Robert Fludd (1619)

A mood repair strategy is a cognitive, behavioral, and interpersonal psychological tool used to affect the mood regulation of an individual.

Psychotherapy

Use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior, increase happiness, and overcome problems.

Freud, seated left of picture with Jung seated at the right of the picture. 1909
Group therapy, Ukraine

It focuses on the links between mood and social circumstances, helping to build social skills and social support.