Mormonism and polygamy

plural marriagepolygamyplural wifeplural wivesMormon polygamypolygamistpolygamistspolygamousMormon polygamistsMormon practice of polygamy
Polygamy (called plural marriage by Mormons in the 19th century or the Principle by modern fundamentalist practitioners of polygamy) was practiced by leaders of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) for more than half of the 19th century, and practiced publicly from 1852 to 1890 by between 20 and 30 percent of Latter-day Saint families.wikipedia
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Mormon fundamentalism

Mormon fundamentalistfundamentalist MormonMormon fundamentalists
Polygamy (called plural marriage by Mormons in the 19th century or the Principle by modern fundamentalist practitioners of polygamy) was practiced by leaders of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) for more than half of the 19th century, and practiced publicly from 1852 to 1890 by between 20 and 30 percent of Latter-day Saint families.
The principle most often associated with Mormon fundamentalism is plural marriage, a form of polygyny first taught in the Latter Day Saint movement by the movement's founder, Smith.

Mormons

MormonLDSMormon community
Polygamy (called plural marriage by Mormons in the 19th century or the Principle by modern fundamentalist practitioners of polygamy) was practiced by leaders of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) for more than half of the 19th century, and practiced publicly from 1852 to 1890 by between 20 and 30 percent of Latter-day Saint families.
During the 19th century, Mormon converts tended to gather to a central geographic location, and between 1852 and 1890 a minority of Mormons openly practiced plural marriage, a form of religious polygamy.

Brigham Young

BrighamYoungBrigham Young Company
The public practice of plural marriage by the church was announced and defended in 1852 by a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, Orson Pratt, by the request of church president Brigham Young.
A polygamist, Young had 55 wives.

1890 Manifesto

Manifestoofficially abandonedThe Manifesto
In 1890, when it became clear that Utah would not be admitted to the Union while polygamy was still the practice, church president Wilford Woodruff issued a Manifesto that officially terminated the practice of polygamy.
The 1890 Manifesto (also known as the Woodruff Manifesto or the Anti-polygamy Manifesto) is a statement which officially advised against any future plural marriage in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church).

Wilford Woodruff

Woodruff, WilfordLDS President WoodruffPhebe C. Woodruff
In 1890, when it became clear that Utah would not be admitted to the Union while polygamy was still the practice, church president Wilford Woodruff issued a Manifesto that officially terminated the practice of polygamy.
He formally ended the practice of plural marriage among the members of the LDS Church in 1890.

Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints

Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day SaintsFLDSFLDS Church
Several small "fundamentalist" groups, seeking to continue the practice, split from the LDS Church, including the Apostolic United Brethren (AUB) and the Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (FLDS Church).
The fundamentalist Mormon movement emerged in the early 20th century when its founding members were excommunicated from The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), largely because of their refusal to abandon the practice of plural marriage after it was renounced in the "Second Manifesto" (1904).

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

LDS ChurchLatter-day SaintChurch of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
Polygamy (called plural marriage by Mormons in the 19th century or the Principle by modern fundamentalist practitioners of polygamy) was practiced by leaders of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) for more than half of the 19th century, and practiced publicly from 1852 to 1890 by between 20 and 30 percent of Latter-day Saint families.
He also publicized the practice of plural marriage, a form of polygamy.

Utah War

Utah ExpeditionJohnston's ArmyMormon War
Polygamy was probably a significant factor in the Utah War of 1857 and 1858, given Republican attempts to paint Democratic President James Buchanan as weak in his opposition to both polygamy and slavery.
At this time, the leadership of the LDS Church supported polygamy or "plural marriage" as it was called by the Mormons.

List of Joseph Smith's wives

Louisa BeamanSarah Ann WhitneyAgnes Coolbrith Smith
William Clayton, Smith's scribe, recorded early polygamous marriages in 1843: "On the 1st day of May, 1843, I officiated in the office of an Elder by marrying Lucy Walker to the Prophet Joseph Smith, at his own residence. During this period the Prophet Joseph took several other wives. Amongst the number I well remember Eliza Partridge, Emily Partridge, Sarah Ann Whitney, Helen Kimball and Flora Woodworth. These all, he acknowledged to me, were his lawful, wedded wives, according to the celestial order. His wife Emma was cognizant of the fact of some, if not all, of these being his wives, and she generally treated them very kindly."
Joseph Smith (1805–1844), the founder of the Latter Day Saint movement, secretly taught and practiced polygamy during his ministry, and married multiple women during his lifetime.

Orson Pratt

OrsonPratt, Orson
The public practice of plural marriage by the church was announced and defended in 1852 by a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, Orson Pratt, by the request of church president Brigham Young. Emma Smith claimed that the very first time she ever became aware of the 1843 polygamy revelation was when she read about it in Orson Pratt's publication The Seer in 1853.
Rumors and gossip were rife in Nauvoo, Illinois, and Pratt found the religious principle of plural marriage difficult to accept.

Second Manifesto

19041904 renunciations1904 Second Manifesto
After the Manifesto, some Mormons continued to enter into polygamous marriages, but these eventually stopped in 1904 when church president Joseph F. Smith disavowed polygamy before Congress and issued a "Second Manifesto", calling for all plural marriages in the church to cease and established excommunication as the consequence for those who disobeyed.
The "Second Manifesto" was a 1904 declaration made by Joseph F. Smith, the president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), in which Smith stated the church was no longer sanctioning marriages that violated the laws of the land and set down the principle that those entering into or solemnizing polygamous marriages would be excommunicated from the church.

Morrill Anti-Bigamy Act

Morrill Anti-Bigamy Act of 1862Morrill bill
In 1862, the United States Congress passed the Morrill Anti-Bigamy Act, which prohibited plural marriage in the territories.
The act targeted the Mormon practice of plural marriage and the property dominance of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) in the Utah Territory.

Doctrine and Covenants

D&CDoctrine & CovenantsThe Doctrine and Covenants
The 1835 and 1844 versions of the church's Doctrine and Covenants (D&C) prohibited polygamy and declared that monogamy was the only acceptable form of marriage:
During the 1880s, five foreign editions contained two revelations to John Taylor that were received in 1882 and 1883; these revelations "set in order" the priesthood, gave more clarification about the roles of priesthood offices—especially the seventy—and required "men who ... preside over my priesthood" to live plural marriage in order to qualify to hold their church positions.

Joseph Smith

Joseph Smith, Jr.Joseph Smith Jr.Joseph
The private practice of polygamy was instituted in the 1830s by founder Joseph Smith.
In 1841, Smith began revealing the doctrine of plural marriage to a few of his closest male associates, including Bennett, who used it as an excuse to seduce numerous women wed and unwed.

Polygamy

polygamouspolygamistpolygamous unions
Polygamy (called plural marriage by Mormons in the 19th century or the Principle by modern fundamentalist practitioners of polygamy) was practiced by leaders of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) for more than half of the 19th century, and practiced publicly from 1852 to 1890 by between 20 and 30 percent of Latter-day Saint families.
Joseph Smith III, the first Prophet-President of the RLDS Church following the Reorganized of the church, was an ardent opponent of the practice of plural marriage throughout his life.

William Clayton (Mormon)

William ClaytonClayton, WilliamWilliam Clayton (Latter Day Saints)
William Clayton, Smith's scribe, recorded early polygamous marriages in 1843: "On the 1st day of May, 1843, I officiated in the office of an Elder by marrying Lucy Walker to the Prophet Joseph Smith, at his own residence. During this period the Prophet Joseph took several other wives. Amongst the number I well remember Eliza Partridge, Emily Partridge, Sarah Ann Whitney, Helen Kimball and Flora Woodworth. These all, he acknowledged to me, were his lawful, wedded wives, according to the celestial order. His wife Emma was cognizant of the fact of some, if not all, of these being his wives, and she generally treated them very kindly."
In 1843, Smith dictated a revelation on plural marriage to Clayton.

Jacob Cochran

As early as 1832, Mormon missionaries worked successfully to convert followers in Maine of polygamist religious leader Jacob Cochran, who went into hiding in 1830 to escape imprisonment due to his practice of polygamy.
Cochranism may have influenced the Mormon doctrines of plural marriage and the United Order, as well as the free love practice called complex marriage once favored by the Oneida Community.

Origin of Latter Day Saint polygamy

1843 polygamy revelation1831 polygamy revelation1831 revelation
The 1843 polygamy revelation, published posthumously, counseled Smith's wife Emma to accept all of Smith's plural wives, and warns of destruction if the new covenant is not observed.
Polygamy, or plural marriage, in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints is generally believed to have originated with the founder of Mormonism, Joseph Smith.

Joseph F. Smith

Joseph F.Joseph Fielding SmithJoseph Fielding Smith, Sr.
After the Manifesto, some Mormons continued to enter into polygamous marriages, but these eventually stopped in 1904 when church president Joseph F. Smith disavowed polygamy before Congress and issued a "Second Manifesto", calling for all plural marriages in the church to cease and established excommunication as the consequence for those who disobeyed.
Seven years later (1866), Brigham Young directed Smith to take a plural wife.

The Seer (periodical)

The SeerThe Seer'' (periodical)
Emma Smith claimed that the very first time she ever became aware of the 1843 polygamy revelation was when she read about it in Orson Pratt's publication The Seer in 1853.
After the LDS Church publicly acknowledged that it was teaching and practicing plural marriage at its September 1852 conference, LDS Church president Brigham Young dispatched Apostle Orson Pratt to Washington, D.C., where he was asked to publish an apologetic magazine targeted at non-Mormons.

Community of Christ

Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day SaintsRLDS ChurchReorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
Emma publicly denied that her husband had ever preached or practiced polygamy, which later became a defining difference between the LDS Church under Brigham Young and the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (RLDS Church; now known as the Community of Christ), led by Joseph Smith III.
The church was founded to repudiate the doctrine of plural marriage, and also as a less-theocratic and more mainstream alternative to the Strangites and the larger LDS church led by Brigham Young.

Reynolds v. United States

judicial rulingsReynoldsReynolds v. U.S.
In 1879, in Reynolds v. United States, the Supreme Court of the United States upheld the Morrill Act, stating: "Laws are made for the government of actions, and while they cannot interfere with mere religious belief and opinion, they may with practices."
Before the Supreme Court, Reynolds argued that his conviction for bigamy should be overturned on four issues: that it was his religious duty to marry multiple times and the First Amendment protected his practice of his religion; that his grand jury had not been legally constituted; that challenges of certain jurors were improperly overruled; that testimony was not admissible as it was under another indictment.

D. Michael Quinn

Quinn, D. MichaelMichael QuinnThe Mormon Hierarchy: Extensions of Power
Even among those who accept the views of conventional historians, there is disagreement as to the precise number of wives Smith had: Fawn M. Brodie lists 48, D. Michael Quinn 46, and George D. Smith 38.
At the time, his work concerned church involvement with plural marriage after the 1890 Manifesto, when new polygamous marriages were officially prohibited.

Apostolic United Brethren

President of the Priesthooda groupAUB Church
Several small "fundamentalist" groups, seeking to continue the practice, split from the LDS Church, including the Apostolic United Brethren (AUB) and the Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (FLDS Church).
Members of the AUB are known for their belief in plural marriage.

List of denominations in the Latter Day Saint movement

Latter Day SaintLatter Day SaintsLDS
, there are at least twelve early Latter Day Saints who, based on historical documents and circumstantial evidence, have been identified as potential Smith offspring stemming from plural marriages.
Denominations opposed to the use of the term consider it to be connected to the polygamy once practiced by the Utah church.