Moro conflict

Islamic insurgency in the PhilippinesMoro insurgency in the PhilippinesFilipinosIslamic Insurgenciesconflict in MindanaoMoro insurgencyconflictIslamic InsurgencyMoro conflict in the Philippinessouthern Philippines
The Moro conflict was an insurgency in the Mindanao region of the Philippines, which lasted between 1969 and 2019.wikipedia
356 Related Articles

Moro people

MoroMorosMoro Muslims
Due to marginalisation produced by continuous Resettlement Policy sustained at start of Mindanao and Sulu inclusion to the Philippine Commonwealth territory of 1935, by 1969, political tensions and open hostilities developed between the Government of the Philippines and Moro Muslim rebel groups.
Some have emigrated to Malaysia, Indonesia and Brunei in the late 20th century due to the Moro conflict in Mindanao.

Jabidah massacre

Operation Merdekaalleged massacre of Moro soldiersJabidah'' massacre
The developing Moro Insurgency was ultimately triggered by the Jabidah massacre, which saw the killing of 60 Filipino Muslim commandos on a planned operation to reclaim the eastern part of the Malaysian state of Sabah.
The Jabidah massacre was a disputed massacre of Moro army recruits by members of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) on 18 March 1968, which is acknowledged as a major flashpoint that ignited the Moro insurgency in the Philippines.

Moro Rebellion

MoroAmericansMoro Uprising
The Moro Insurgency is rooted in a long history of resistance by the Bangsamoro people against foreign rule, dating back to the American annexation of the Philippines in 1898 even as they are not part of Spain's Act of War.
The violent armed struggle against the Filipinos, Americans, Japanese and Spanish is considered by current Moro (Muslim) leaders as part of the four centuries-long "national liberation movement" of the Bangsamoro (Moro Nation).

Moro National Liberation Front

MNLFMoro National Liberation Front (MNLF)Flag of the Bangsamoro Republik
In response, the University of the Philippines professor Nur Misuari established the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF), an armed insurgent group that was committed to establishing an independent entity composed of Mindanao, Sulu, and Palawan. Casualty statistics vary for the conflict; however, the conservative estimates of the Uppsala Conflict Data Program indicate that at least 6,015 people were killed in armed conflict between the Government of Philippines and ASG, BIFM, MILF, and MNLF factions between 1989 and 2012.
The Homestead Program is one of the root-causes of the Moro conflict.

Philippines

FilipinoPhilippinePhilippine Islands
The Moro conflict was an insurgency in the Mindanao region of the Philippines, which lasted between 1969 and 2019. The agreement provided that Mindanao would remain a part of the Philippines, but 13 of its provinces would be under the autonomous government for the Bangsamoro people.
The return of democracy and government reforms beginning in 1986 were hampered by national debt, government corruption, coup attempts, disasters, a persistent communist insurgency, and a military conflict with Moro separatists.

Mindanao

Mindanao IslandSouthern PhilippinesRegion X
In response, the University of the Philippines professor Nur Misuari established the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF), an armed insurgent group that was committed to establishing an independent entity composed of Mindanao, Sulu, and Palawan. The Moro conflict was an insurgency in the Mindanao region of the Philippines, which lasted between 1969 and 2019. Norway also joined the International Monitoring Team (IMT) in January 2011, overseeing the ceasefire agreement between the government and MILF on Mindanao. The agreement provided that Mindanao would remain a part of the Philippines, but 13 of its provinces would be under the autonomous government for the Bangsamoro people.
Under President Ferdinand Marcos's administration, the government was said to have encouraged Christian settlers in Mindanao, causing many locals to be displaced.

Sabah

Sabah, MalaysiaBritish BorneoNorth Borneo
The developing Moro Insurgency was ultimately triggered by the Jabidah massacre, which saw the killing of 60 Filipino Muslim commandos on a planned operation to reclaim the eastern part of the Malaysian state of Sabah.
Slum is almost non-existent in Malaysia but due to the high number of refugees arriving from the troubling southern Philippines, Sabah has since saw a significant rise on its numbers.

Corazon Aquino

Corazon C. AquinoCory AquinoCorazón Aquino
Earlier in her term, President Corazon Aquino arranged a meeting with MNLF chairman Nur Misuari and several MNLF rebel groups in Sulu, which paved the way for a series of negotiations.
Her administration provided strong emphasis on and concern for civil liberties and human rights, and on peace talks to resolve the ongoing Communist insurgency and Islamist secession movements.

Islam in the Philippines

IslamMuslimFilipino Muslim
The developing Moro Insurgency was ultimately triggered by the Jabidah massacre, which saw the killing of 60 Filipino Muslim commandos on a planned operation to reclaim the eastern part of the Malaysian state of Sabah.
The violent armed struggle against the Spanish, Americans, Japanese and Filipinos is considered by current Moro (Muslim) leaders as part of the four centuries long "national liberation movement" of the Bangsamoro (Muslim Nation).

Battle of Jolo (1974)

Battle of Joloextensively damaged
During one of the fierce battles of the insurgency in 1974, Jolo, Sulu was extensively damaged and news of the tragedy galvanized other Muslims around the world to pay greater attention to the conflict.
It is considered one of the key early incidents of the Moro insurgency in the Philippines, and led numerous moro leaders to resist Martial law under Ferdinand Marcos.

Ilaga

The Philippine government allegedly encouraged Christian settlers in Mindanao to form a militia called the Ilaga to fight the Moros.
The group complemented the Philippine Constabulary as a militia force during the 1970s in southern Mindanao while fighting against Moro guerrillas during the Moro insurgency in the Philippines.

Terrorism in the Philippines

terrorismJihadist groupsanother in March 2003 against the Davao airport
This violated the ceasefire agreement between the government and MILF, which caused outrage in the government and led to the continuation of the war against terrorism in the country.
Terrorism is a major social issue in the Philippines and is linked to the Moro conflict and CPP-NPA-NDF rebellion.

International Monitoring Team

Norway also joined the International Monitoring Team (IMT) in January 2011, overseeing the ceasefire agreement between the government and MILF on Mindanao.
The International Monitoring Team (IMT) is a monitoring team composed of 60 members headquartered in Cotabato City, Mindanao of the Philippines to monitor the implementation of peace between the Government of the Philippines (GPH) and one of the largest rebels in the region, the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) in the Moro conflict.

Malaysia

Federation of MalaysiaMalaysianMalaya
The MILF suffered heavy losses and the head of the MILF, Sheikh Salamat Hashim, fled the country and sought refuge in Malaysia.
Previously there were fears that extremist militants activities in the Muslim areas of the southern Philippines and southern Thailand would spill over into Malaysia.

Abu Sayyaf

Abu Sayyaf GroupWarren RodwellASG
Casualty statistics vary for the conflict; however, the conservative estimates of the Uppsala Conflict Data Program indicate that at least 6,015 people were killed in armed conflict between the Government of Philippines and ASG, BIFM, MILF, and MNLF factions between 1989 and 2012. In 2018, two bombing incidents involving the Abu Sayyaf and the BIFF occurred, one in Lamitan, Basilan and two separate incidents in Isulan, Sultan Kudarat.

Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao

ARMMAutonomous Region of Muslim MindanaoMuslim Mindanao
The agreement provided that Mindanao would remain a part of the Philippines, but 13 of its provinces would be under the autonomous government for the Bangsamoro people.
The violent armed struggle against the Japanese, Filipinos, Spanish, and Americans is considered by current Moro Muslim leaders as part of the four centuries long "national liberation movement" of the Bangsamoro (Moro Nation).

Manili massacre

1971 Manili Massacre
The Ilaga engaged in killings and human rights abuses and were responsible for the Manili massacre of 65 Moro Muslim civilians in a mosque in June 1971, including women and children.

Lumad

ManoboBagoboMandaya
This policy allowed Christian Filipinos to outnumber both the Moro and Lumad populations by the 1970s, which was a contributing factor in aggravating grievances between the Moro and Filipino Christian settlers as disputes over land increased.
These areas are also the location sites of armed conflict between the New People's Army (NPA) and the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP).

Refugees of the Philippines

Filipino refugeesSouthern Filipino refugeesa large Filipino refugee settlement
Following the Moro conflict and subsequent major military operation in the islands of Mindanao during the administration of President Ferdinand Marcos in 1970s, thousands of Filipinos mainly from the Moro ancestry have sought refuge in neighbouring countries of Malaysia, Indonesia and Brunei, with majority of them mostly heading to the state of Sabah in Malaysia.

Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters

BIFFBangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters (BIFF)
In 2018, two bombing incidents involving the Abu Sayyaf and the BIFF occurred, one in Lamitan, Basilan and two separate incidents in Isulan, Sultan Kudarat.
It is a smaller player in the overall Moro insurgency in the Philippines and is mostly active in Maguindanao and other places in central Mindanao.

Spanish–Moro conflict

Spanish–Moro WarsSpanish-Moro ConflictSpanish
During the Spanish–Moro conflict, Spain repeatedly tried to conquer the Moro Sultanate of Sulu, Sultanate of Maguindanao, and the Confederation of sultanates in Lanao.
The violent armed struggle against the Japanese, Filipinos, Spanish, and Americans is considered by current Moro(Muslim) leaders as part of the four-century-long "national liberation movement" of the Bangsamoro (Moro Nation).

Malisbong massacre

Malisbong (Palimbang) massacre
On 24 September 1974, the Philippine Army killed at least 1,000 Moro civilians who were praying in a mosque in what is known as the Malisbong massacre.

Bangsamoro

Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim MindanaoBangsamoro Autonomous RegionBARMM
The violent armed struggle against the Japanese, Filipinos, Spanish, and Americans is considered by modern Moro Muslim leaders as part of the four centuries long "national liberation movement" of the Bangsamoro (Moro Nation), although the term is only used in mainland Mindanao as those in the Sulu archipelago had a much distinct culture.

Cross border attacks in Sabah

Moro attacks on Sabahattacks by militants in the southern Philippinesattacks from militant groups
Since the massacre especially with the starting of Moro insurgency in the Philippines, Mustapha is believed to have supplied the Moro rebels with financial and weapon supports to fight for their freedom and to take a revenge for their fallen comrades.