Morpheme

morphemesmorphemicderivationalmonomorphemicinflectionalderivational meaningsderivational morphemedirectional morphemeselementendings
A morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit in a language.wikipedia
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Word

wordsverballexical
A morpheme is not identical to a word.
This contrasts deeply with a morpheme, which is the smallest unit of meaning but will not necessarily stand on its own.

Affix

suffixaffixesaffixation
When it depends on another morpheme to express an idea, it is an affix because it has a grammatical function (such as the –s in cats to indicate that it is plural).
In linguistics, an affix is a morpheme that is attached to a word stem to form a new word or word form.

Bound and free morphemes

bound morphemefree morphemebound
The main difference between them is that a morpheme sometimes does not stand alone, but a word, by definition, always stands alone.
In general linguistics, a bound morpheme is a morpheme (the elementary unit of morphosyntax) that can appear only as part of a larger expression; a free morpheme (or unbound morpheme) is one that can stand alone.

Root (linguistics)

rootrootsroot word
When a morpheme stands by itself, it is considered as a root because it has a meaning of its own (such as the morpheme cat).
Content words in nearly all languages contain, and may consist only of root morphemes.

Morphology (linguistics)

morphologymorphologicalmorphologically
The linguistics field of study dedicated to morphemes is called morphology.
For example, English speakers recognize that the words dog and dogs are closely related, differentiated only by the plurality morpheme "-s", only found bound to noun phrases.

Linguistics

linguistlinguisticlinguists
The linguistics field of study dedicated to morphemes is called morphology.

Allomorph

allomorphyallomorphsallomorphic variation
Allomorphs are variants of a morpheme that differ in pronunciation but are semantically identical.
In linguistics, an allomorph is a variant form of a morpheme, that is, when a unit of meaning varies in sound without changing the meaning.

Marker (linguistics)

markermarkerscase marker
For example, the English plural marker -(e)s of regular nouns can be pronounced (bats), (bugs), or, (buses), depending on the final sound of the noun's plural form.
In linguistics, a marker is a free or bound morpheme that indicates the grammatical function of the marked word, phrase, or sentence.

English plurals

English pluralpluralplurals
For example, the English plural marker -(e)s of regular nouns can be pronounced (bats), (bugs), or, (buses), depending on the final sound of the noun's plural form.
The plural morpheme in English is suffixed to the end of most nouns.

Inflection

inflectedinflectional morphologyinflectional
* Inflectional morphemes modify the tense, aspect, mood, person, or number of a verb, or the number, gender, or case of a noun, adjective, or pronoun, without affecting the word's meaning or class (part of speech).
Inflection is the process of adding inflectional morphemes that modify a verb's tense, mood, aspect, voice, person, or number or a noun's case, gender, or number, rarely affecting the word's meaning or class.

Content morpheme

Content morphemes express a concrete meaning or content, and function morphemes have more of a grammatical role.
Content morphemes have lexical denotations that are not dependent on the context or on other morphemes.

Morphological derivation

derivationderivationalderived
* Derivational morphemes, when combined with a root, change the semantic meaning or the part of speech of the affected word.
However, it is important to note that derivations and inflections can share homonyms, that being, morphemes that have the same sound, but not the same meaning.

Preposition and postposition

prepositionpostpositionprepositions
Examples of ambiguous situations are the preposition over and the determiner your, which seem to have concrete meanings but are considered function morphemes since their role is to connect ideas grammatically.

Grammatical gender

genderfemininemasculine
* Inflectional morphemes modify the tense, aspect, mood, person, or number of a verb, or the number, gender, or case of a noun, adjective, or pronoun, without affecting the word's meaning or class (part of speech).
A classifier, or measure word, is a word or morpheme used in some languages together with a noun, principally to enable numbers and certain other determiners to be applied to the noun.

Grammatical number

numbersingularnumbers
* Inflectional morphemes modify the tense, aspect, mood, person, or number of a verb, or the number, gender, or case of a noun, adjective, or pronoun, without affecting the word's meaning or class (part of speech).
Below are some examples of number affixes for nouns (where the inflecting morphemes are underlined):

Adverb

adverbsadv.abstract noun
Many other adverbs, however, are not related to adjectives in this way; they may be derived from other words or phrases, or may be single morphemes.

Null morpheme

zero morphemenullzero
In morphology, a null morpheme or zero morpheme is a morpheme that has no phonetic form.

Natural language processing

NLPnatural languagenatural-language processing
In natural language processing for Korean, Japanese, Chinese, and other languages, morphological analysis is the process of segmenting a sentence into a row of morphemes.

Alternation (linguistics)

alternationalternationsalternate
In linguistics, an alternation is the phenomenon of a morpheme exhibiting variation in its phonological realization.

List of Greek morphemes used in English

-cracyGreek morphemes
Greek morphemes are parts of words originating from the Greek language.

Distributed morphology

The Formative List in Distributed Morphology differs, thus, from the Lexicon in traditional generative grammar, which includes the lexical items (such as words and morphemes) in a language.

Floating tone

floating low tonesfloating tones
A floating tone is a morpheme or element of a morpheme that contains neither consonants nor vowels, but only tone.

Chinese language

ChineseChinese:Regional dialect
In natural language processing for Korean, Japanese, Chinese, and other languages, morphological analysis is the process of segmenting a sentence into a row of morphemes.
In the modern varieties, it is usually the case that a morpheme (unit of meaning) is a single syllable; In contrast, English has plenty of multi-syllable morphemes, both bound and free, such as "seven", "elephant", "para-" and "-able".

Nanosyntax

Nanosyntax is an approach to syntax in which the terminal nodes of syntactic parse trees may be reduced to units smaller than a morpheme.