Morphine

morphiamorphine addictionmorphine sulfatemorphine sulphatemorphine basemorphine hydrochloridemorphine overdosemorphinismMorphiumOramorph
Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate family which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals.wikipedia
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Opiate

opiatesOpiate drugOpiate pathway
Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate family which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals.
The psychoactive compounds found in the opium plant include morphine, codeine, and thebaine.

Opioid use disorder

heroin addictionopioid addictionheroin addict
If the dose is reduced after long-term use, opioid withdrawal symptoms may occur.
Opioids include substances such as heroin, morphine, fentanyl, codeine, oxycodone, and hydrocodone.

Heroin

diamorphinediacetylmorphinesmack
About 70 percent of morphine is used to make other opioids such as hydromorphone, oxymorphone, and heroin.
When given by injection into a vein, heroin has two to three times the effect of a similar dose of morphine.

WHO Model List of Essential Medicines

World Health Organization's List of Essential MedicinesList of Essential MedicinesModel List of Essential Medicines
It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.

Merck Group

MerckMerck KGaABritish Drug Houses
Merck began marketing it commercially in 1827.
Merck pioneered the commercial manufacture of morphine in the 19th century and for a time held a virtual monopoly on cocaine.

Poppy straw

Poppy straw concentratepoppy-strawstraw
The primary source of morphine is isolation from poppy straw of the opium poppy.
This changed in 1927 when János Kabay developed a chemical process to extract morphine from the crushed capsule.

Hydromorphone

DilaudidPalladonedihydromorphinone
About 70 percent of morphine is used to make other opioids such as hydromorphone, oxymorphone, and heroin. When compared to the opioids hydromorphone, fentanyl, oxycodone, and pethidine/meperidine, former addicts showed a strong preference for heroin and morphine, suggesting that heroin and morphine are particularly susceptible to abuse and addiction. Morphine may also be metabolized into small amounts of normorphine, codeine, and hydromorphone.
Hydromorphone 2 mg by mouth is equivalent to approximately 10 mg morphine by mouth.

Friedrich Sertürner

Friedrich Wilhelm Adam SertürnerFriedrich SerturnerSertorner, Friedrich Wilhelm Adamferdinand
Morphine was first isolated between 1803 and 1805 by Friedrich Sertürner.
He is best known for his discovery of morphine in 1804.

Pain

physical painacute painnociceptive pain
It can be taken for both acute pain and chronic pain.
Although unpleasantness is an essential part of the IASP definition of pain, it is possible to induce a state described as intense pain devoid of unpleasantness in some patients, with morphine injection or psychosurgery.

Intramuscular injection

intramuscularinjection into a muscleinjection into muscle
It can be given by mouth, by injection into a muscle, by injection under the skin, intravenously, injection into the space around the spinal cord, or rectally.

Subcutaneous injection

subcutaneousinjection under the skinunder the skin
It can be given by mouth, by injection into a muscle, by injection under the skin, intravenously, injection into the space around the spinal cord, or rectally.
Subcutaneous injections are highly effective in administering medications such as insulin, morphine, diacetylmorphine and goserelin.

Oxycodone

OxyContinEukodalRoxicodone
When compared to the opioids hydromorphone, fentanyl, oxycodone, and pethidine/meperidine, former addicts showed a strong preference for heroin and morphine, suggesting that heroin and morphine are particularly susceptible to abuse and addiction.
When taken by mouth, it has roughly 1.5 times the effect of the equivalent amount of morphine.

Opium

opium tradeopium addictionraw opium
Morphine has classically been divided in two classes, where class I (also known as "Morphine base") is a brown non-water-soluble powder made of concentrated opium and class II, after a chemical process, becomes a white water-soluble powder.
Approximately 12 percent of opium is made up of the analgesic alkaloid morphine, which is processed chemically to produce heroin and other synthetic opioids for medicinal use and for illegal drug trade.

Fentanyl

ActiqDuragesicfentanyl citrate
When compared to the opioids hydromorphone, fentanyl, oxycodone, and pethidine/meperidine, former addicts showed a strong preference for heroin and morphine, suggesting that heroin and morphine are particularly susceptible to abuse and addiction.
It is around 100 times stronger than morphine, and some analogues such as carfentanil are around 10,000 times stronger.

Prodrug

pro-drugprodrugsinactive prodrug
The choice of heroin and morphine over other opioids by former drug addicts may also be because heroin (also known as morphine diacetate, diamorphine, or diacetyl morphine) is an ester of morphine and a morphine prodrug, essentially meaning they are identical drugs in vivo.
However, in other cases, such as codeine and morphine, the administered drug is enzymatically activated to form sugar derivatives (morphine-glucuronides) that are more active than the parent compound.

Pethidine

meperidineDemerolPethidine/meperidine
When compared to the opioids hydromorphone, fentanyl, oxycodone, and pethidine/meperidine, former addicts showed a strong preference for heroin and morphine, suggesting that heroin and morphine are particularly susceptible to abuse and addiction.
Compared with morphine, pethidine was thought to be safer, carry a lower risk of addiction, and to be superior in treating the pain associated with biliary spasm or renal colic due to its putative anticholinergic effects.

Oxymorphone

oxymorphone hydrochlorideOpanaNumorphan
About 70 percent of morphine is used to make other opioids such as hydromorphone, oxymorphone, and heroin.
German patents from the mid-1930s indicate that oxymorphone as well as hydromorphone, hydrocodone, oxycodone, and acetylmorphone can be prepared—without the need for hydrogen gas—from solutions of codeine, morphine, and dionine by refluxing an acidic aqueous solution, or the precursor drug dissolved in ethanol, in the presence of certain metals, namely palladium and platinum in fine powder or colloidal form or platinum black.

Ketamine

K-holeSpecial KCalypsol
The effects of morphine can be countered with opioid receptor antagonists such as naloxone and naltrexone; the development of tolerance to morphine may be inhibited by NMDA receptor antagonists such as ketamine or dextromethorphan.
Low doses of ketamine may reduce morphine use, nausea, and vomiting after surgery.

Analgesic

analgesiaanalgesicspainkillers
Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate family which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals.
Analgesics include paracetamol (known in North America as acetaminophen or simply APAP), the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as the salicylates, and opioid drugs such as morphine and oxycodone.

Ketobemidone

Cetobemidone
The rotation of morphine with chemically dissimilar opioids in the long-term treatment of pain will slow down the growth of tolerance in the longer run, particularly agents known to have significantly incomplete cross-tolerance with morphine such as levorphanol, ketobemidone, piritramide, and methadone and its derivatives; all of these drugs also have NMDA antagonist properties.
Its effectiveness against pain is in the same range as morphine, and it also has some NMDA-antagonist properties imparted, in part, by its metabolite norketobemidone.

Μ-opioid receptor

μ-opioidmu opioid receptorμ-
The gastrointestinal effects of morphine are mediated primarily by μ-opioid receptors in the bowel.
The prototypical μ-opioid receptor agonist is morphine, the primary psychoactive alkaloid in opium.

Codeine

codeine phosphatecodeine hydrochlorideCod'ine
Morphine may also be metabolized into small amounts of normorphine, codeine, and hydromorphone.
Codeine works following being broken down by the liver into morphine; how quickly this occurs depends on a person's genetics.

Euphoria

euphoriceuphorianthigh
Activation of the MOR is associated with analgesia, sedation, euphoria, physical dependence, and respiratory depression.
A decade later, finding ordinary feelings of well being difficult to evaluate, American addiction researcher Harris Isbell redefined euphoria as behavioral changes and objective signs typical of morphine.

Sigma receptor

sigmaσσ receptor
Although morphine does not bind to the σ receptor, it has been shown that σ receptor agonists, such as -pentazocine, inhibit morphine analgesia, and σ receptor antagonists enhance morphine analgesia, suggesting downstream involvement of the σ receptor in the actions of morphine.
Drugs known to be σ–agonists include cocaine, morphine/diacetylmorphine, opipramol, PCP, fluvoxamine, methamphetamine, dextromethorphan, and the herbal antidepressant berberine.

Miosis

mioticconstricted pupilsmiotics
Activation of the KOR is associated with spinal analgesia, miosis (pinpoint pupils), and psychotomimetic effects.