Morphological typology

morphologicalmorphological typetypologicallyfusional or agglutinatinglinguistic typologymorphologytypology
Morphological typology is a way of classifying the languages of the world (see linguistic typology) that groups languages according to their common morphological structures.wikipedia
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Morphology (linguistics)

morphologymorphologicalmorphologically
Morphological typology is a way of classifying the languages of the world (see linguistic typology) that groups languages according to their common morphological structures.
Morphology differs from morphological typology, which is the classification of languages based on their use of words, and lexicology, which is the study of words and how they make up a language's vocabulary.

Polysynthetic language

polysyntheticpolysynthesispolysynthetic languages
A further subcategory of agglutinative languages are polysynthetic languages, which take agglutination to a higher level by constructing entire sentences, including nouns, as one word.
In linguistic typology, polysynthetic languages are highly synthetic languages, i.e. languages in which words are composed of many morphemes (word parts that have independent meaning but may or may not be able to stand alone).

Friedrich Schlegel

Karl Wilhelm Friedrich SchlegelFriedrich von SchlegelSchlegel
The field was first developed by brothers Friedrich von Schlegel and August von Schlegel.
The first to notice what became known as Grimm's law, Schlegel was a pioneer in Indo-European studies, comparative linguistics, and morphological typology.

Finnish language

FinnishFinnish-languagefi
Agglutinative languages include Finnish, Hungarian, Turkish, Mongolian, Korean, Japanese, and Indonesian.
Finnish is a member of the Finnic language family and is typologically between fusional and agglutinative languages.

Navajo language

NavajoNavajo alphabetMode and Aspect
For example, Navajo is sometimes categorized as a fusional language because its complex system of verbal affixes has become condensed and irregular enough that discerning individual morphemes is rarely possible.
Navajo is difficult to classify in terms of broad morphological typology: it relies heavily on affixes—mainly prefixes—like agglutinative languages, but these affixes are joined in unpredictable, overlapping ways that make them difficult to segment, a trait of fusional languages.

Polypersonal agreement

polypersonalismpolypersonalagreement morphemes
(The term polysynthesis was first used in linguistics by Peter Stephen DuPonceau who borrowed it from chemistry.) These languages have a high morpheme-to-word ratio, a highly regular morphology, and a tendency for verb forms to include morphemes that refer to several arguments besides the subject (polypersonalism).

Linguistic typology

typologicaltypologytypologically
Morphological typology is a way of classifying the languages of the world (see linguistic typology) that groups languages according to their common morphological structures.

Analytic language

analyticanalytic languagesanalytical
Analytic languages contain very little inflection, instead relying on features like word order and auxiliary words to convey meaning.

Inflection

inflectedinflectional morphologyinflectional
Analytic languages contain very little inflection, instead relying on features like word order and auxiliary words to convey meaning.

Word order

free word orderConstituent orderbasic word order
Analytic languages contain very little inflection, instead relying on features like word order and auxiliary words to convey meaning.

Synthetic language

syntheticsyntheticallysynthesis
Synthetic languages, ones that are not analytic, are divided into two categories: agglutinative and fusional languages.

Agglutinative language

agglutinativeagglutinatingagglutinating language
Synthetic languages, ones that are not analytic, are divided into two categories: agglutinative and fusional languages.

Fusional language

fusionalinflected languageinflected
Synthetic languages, ones that are not analytic, are divided into two categories: agglutinative and fusional languages.

Prefix

prefixesprefixationquasi-
Agglutinative languages rely primarily on discrete particles (prefixes, suffixes, and infixes) for inflection, while fusional languages "fuse" inflectional categories together, often allowing one word ending to contain several categories, such that the original root can be difficult to extract.

Suffix

suffixesendingsuffixation
Agglutinative languages rely primarily on discrete particles (prefixes, suffixes, and infixes) for inflection, while fusional languages "fuse" inflectional categories together, often allowing one word ending to contain several categories, such that the original root can be difficult to extract.

Infix

infixesinfixationinfixed
Agglutinative languages rely primarily on discrete particles (prefixes, suffixes, and infixes) for inflection, while fusional languages "fuse" inflectional categories together, often allowing one word ending to contain several categories, such that the original root can be difficult to extract.

Agglutination

agglutinativeagglutinatedagglutinate
A further subcategory of agglutinative languages are polysynthetic languages, which take agglutination to a higher level by constructing entire sentences, including nouns, as one word.

Noun

nounssubstantiveabstract noun
A further subcategory of agglutinative languages are polysynthetic languages, which take agglutination to a higher level by constructing entire sentences, including nouns, as one word.

Sino-Tibetan languages

Sino-TibetanSino-Tibetan languageSino-Tibetan language family
Analytic languages encompass the Sino-Tibetan family, including Chinese, many languages in Southeast Asia, the Pacific, and West Africa, and a few of the Germanic languages.

Chinese language

ChineseChinese:Regional dialect
Analytic languages encompass the Sino-Tibetan family, including Chinese, many languages in Southeast Asia, the Pacific, and West Africa, and a few of the Germanic languages.

Germanic languages

GermanicGermanic languageGerman
Analytic languages encompass the Sino-Tibetan family, including Chinese, many languages in Southeast Asia, the Pacific, and West Africa, and a few of the Germanic languages.

Indo-European languages

Indo-EuropeanIndo-European languageIndo-European language family
Fusional languages encompass most of the Indo-European family—for example, French, Russian, and Hindi—as well as the Semitic family and a few members of the Uralic family.

French language

FrenchfrancophoneFrench-language
Fusional languages encompass most of the Indo-European family—for example, French, Russian, and Hindi—as well as the Semitic family and a few members of the Uralic family.

Russian language

RussianRussian-languageRussian:
Fusional languages encompass most of the Indo-European family—for example, French, Russian, and Hindi—as well as the Semitic family and a few members of the Uralic family.

Hindi

Hindi languageHindi-languageStandard Hindi
Fusional languages encompass most of the Indo-European family—for example, French, Russian, and Hindi—as well as the Semitic family and a few members of the Uralic family.