Morphology (linguistics)

morphologymorphologicalmorphologicallymorphosyntacticlinguistic morphologymorphological analysisword formformmorpho-syntaxmorphologic
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.wikipedia
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Linguistics

linguistlinguisticlinguists
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.
These rules apply to sound as well as meaning, and include componential subsets of rules, such as those pertaining to phonology (the organisation of phonetic sound systems), morphology (the formation and composition of words), and syntax (the formation and composition of phrases and sentences).

Part of speech

parts of speechclosed classword class
Morphology also looks at parts of speech, intonation and stress, and the ways context can change a word's pronunciation and meaning.
Words that are assigned to the same part of speech generally display similar syntactic behavior—they play similar roles within the grammatical structure of sentences—and sometimes similar morphology in that they undergo inflection for similar properties.

Morphological typology

morphologicalmorphological typetypologically
Morphology differs from morphological typology, which is the classification of languages based on their use of words, and lexicology, which is the study of words and how they make up a language's vocabulary.
Morphological typology is a way of classifying the languages of the world (see linguistic typology) that groups languages according to their common morphological structures.

Clitic

encliticprocliticenclitics
While words, along with clitics, are generally accepted as being the smallest units of syntax, in most languages, if not all, many words can be related to other words by rules that collectively describe the grammar for that language.
A clitic (, backformed from Greek ἐγκλιτικός "leaning" or "enclitic") is a morpheme in morphology and syntax that has syntactic characteristics of a word, but depends phonologically on another word or phrase.

Grammar

grammaticalgrammaticallyrules of language
While words, along with clitics, are generally accepted as being the smallest units of syntax, in most languages, if not all, many words can be related to other words by rules that collectively describe the grammar for that language.
The term refers also to the study of such rules and this field includes phonology, morphology and syntax, often complemented by phonetics, semantics and pragmatics.

English language

EnglishEnglish-languageen
For example, English speakers recognize that the words dog and dogs are closely related, differentiated only by the plurality morpheme "-s", only found bound to noun phrases.
Modern English grammar is the result of a gradual change from a typical Indo-European dependent marking pattern, with a rich inflectional morphology and relatively free word order, to a mostly analytic pattern with little inflection, a fairly fixed SVO word order and a complex syntax.

Literacy

literacy rategender disparityilliterate
Phonological and orthographic modifications between a base word and its origin may be partial to literacy skills.
Reading development involves a range of complex language-underpinnings including awareness of speech sounds (phonology), spelling patterns (orthography), word meaning (semantics), grammar (syntax) and patterns of word formation (morphology), all of which provide a necessary platform for reading fluency and comprehension.

Phonology

phonologicalphonologicallyphonologist
Phonological and orthographic modifications between a base word and its origin may be partial to literacy skills.
This is one of the fundamental systems which a language is considered to comprise, like its syntax, its morphology and its vocabulary.

Morpheme

morphemesmorphemicderivational
For example, English speakers recognize that the words dog and dogs are closely related, differentiated only by the plurality morpheme "-s", only found bound to noun phrases.
The linguistics field of study dedicated to morphemes is called morphology.

Morphophonology

morphophonemicmorphophonologicalmorphophonemics
The discipline that deals specifically with the sound changes occurring within morphemes is morphophonology.
Morphophonology (also morphophonemics or morphonology) is the branch of linguistics that studies the interaction between morphological and phonological or phonetic processes.

Lemma (morphology)

lemmacitation formdictionary form
Generally, a lexeme is a set of inflected word-forms that is often represented with the citation form in small capitals.
In morphology and lexicography, a lemma (plural lemmas or lemmata) is the canonical form, dictionary form, or citation form of a set of words (headword).

Lexeme

lexemeslexicallexical root
Instead, two related terms are used in morphology: lexeme and word-form.
It is a basic abstract unit of meaning, a unit of morphological analysis in linguistics that roughly corresponds to a set of forms taken by a single root word.

Pāṇini

PaniniAshtadhyayiAṣṭādhyāyī
The history of morphological analysis dates back to the ancient Indian linguist Pāṇini, who formulated the 3,959 rules of Sanskrit morphology in the text Aṣṭādhyāyī by using a constituency grammar.
Pāṇini's theory of morphological analysis was more advanced than any equivalent Western theory before the 20th century.

Inflection

inflectedinflectional morphologyinflectional
Rules of the first kind are inflectional rules, while those of the second kind are rules of word formation.
In linguistic morphology, inflection (or inflexion) is a process of word formation, in which a word is modified to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, mood, animacy, and definiteness.

Word stem

stemstemsverb stem
It analyzes the structure of words and parts of words, such as stems, root words, prefixes, and suffixes.

Root (linguistics)

rootrootsroot word
It analyzes the structure of words and parts of words, such as stems, root words, prefixes, and suffixes.

Grammatical gender

genderfemininemasculine
Also, arranging the word forms of a lexeme into tables, by classifying them according to shared inflectional categories such as tense, aspect, mood, number, gender or case, organizes such.
In this case, the gender assignment can also be influenced by the morphology or phonology of the noun, or in some cases can be apparently arbitrary.

Grammatical number

numbersingularnumbers
Also, arranging the word forms of a lexeme into tables, by classifying them according to shared inflectional categories such as tense, aspect, mood, number, gender or case, organizes such.
Grammatical number is expressed by morphological or syntactic means.

Morphological derivation

derivationderivationalderived
There is a further distinction between two primary kinds of morphological word formation: derivation and compounding.
Derivational morphology often involves the addition of a derivational suffix or other affix.

Grammatical aspect

aspectaspectualaspects
Also, arranging the word forms of a lexeme into tables, by classifying them according to shared inflectional categories such as tense, aspect, mood, number, gender or case, organizes such.
Even languages that do not mark aspect morphologically or through auxiliary verbs, however, can convey such distinctions by the use of adverbs or other syntactic constructions.

Small caps

small capitalssmall capital
Generally, a lexeme is a set of inflected word-forms that is often represented with the citation form in small capitals.

Comparison (grammar)

superlativecomparativecomparison
Application of a pattern different from the one that has been used historically can give rise to a new word, such as older replacing elder (where older follows the normal pattern of adjectival superlatives) and cows replacing kine (where cows fits the regular pattern of plural formation).
Comparison is a feature in the morphology or syntax of some languages, whereby adjectives and adverbs are inflected or modified to indicate the relative degree of the property defined by the adjective or adverb.

Grammatical case

casecasescase marking
Also, arranging the word forms of a lexeme into tables, by classifying them according to shared inflectional categories such as tense, aspect, mood, number, gender or case, organizes such.
They are often closely related, and in languages such as Latin, several thematic roles have an associated case, but cases are a morphological notion, and thematic roles a semantic one.

Word order

free word orderConstituent orderbasic word order
By contrast, Classical Chinese has very little morphology, using almost exclusively unbound morphemes ("free" morphemes) and depending on word order to convey meaning.

Distributed morphology

More recent and sophisticated approaches, such as distributed morphology, seek to maintain the idea of the morpheme while accommodating non-concatenated, analogical, and other processes that have proven problematic for item-and-arrangement theories and similar approaches.
The basic principle of Distributed Morphology is that there is a single generative engine for the formation of both complex words and complex phrases; there is no division between syntax and morphology and there is no Lexicon in the sense it has in traditional generative grammar.