A report on Moses

Moses with the Tables of the Law (1624), by Guido Reni (Galleria Borghese)
The Finding of Moses, painting by Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema, 1904
Moses striking the rock, 1630 by Pieter de Grebber
Moses before the Pharaoh, a 6th-century miniature from the Syriac Bible of Paris
Victory O Lord!, 1871 painting by John Everett Millais, depicts Moses holding his staff, assisted by Aaron and Hur, holding up his arms during the battle against Amalek.
Moses Breaking the Tablets of the Law by Rembrandt, 1659
Memorial of Moses, Mount Nebo, Jordan
Depiction of Moses on the Knesset Menorah raising his arms during the battle against the Amalekites
Moses Defends Jethro's Daughters by Rosso Fiorentino, c.1523-1524
Moses lifts up the brass serpent, curing the Israelites from poisonous snake bites in a painting by Benjamin West.
Moses, to the left of Jesus, at the Transfiguration of Jesus, by Giovanni Bellini, c. 1480
Maqam El-Nabi Musa, Jericho
Statue of Moses at the Library of Congress
Pilgrims John Carver, William Bradford, and Miles Standish, at prayer during their voyage to North America. 1844 painting by Robert Walter Weir
First proposed seal of the United States, 1776
Moses, with horns, by Michelangelo, 1513–1515, in Basilica San Pietro in Vincoli, Rome
Sculpture in the U.S. House of Representatives
Charlton Heston in The Ten Commandments, 1956
The Women of Midian Led Captive by the Hebrews, James Tissot c.1900

Considered the most important prophet in Judaism and one of the most important prophets in Christianity, Islam, the Druze faith, the Baháʼí Faith and other Abrahamic religions.

- Moses
Moses with the Tables of the Law (1624), by Guido Reni (Galleria Borghese)

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Departure of the Israelites (David Roberts, 1829)

The Exodus

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Founding myth of the Israelites whose narrative is spread over four books of the Torah or Pentateuch, namely Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy.

Founding myth of the Israelites whose narrative is spread over four books of the Torah or Pentateuch, namely Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy.

Departure of the Israelites (David Roberts, 1829)
Israel in Egypt (Edward Poynter, 1867)
Lamentations over the Death of the First-Born of Egypt by Charles Sprague Pearce (1877)
Illustration of the Exodus from Egypt by the Providence Lithograph Company, 1907
Ramesses II, one of several suggested pharaohs in the Exodus narrative
Ezra Reads the Law to the People (Gustave Doré's illustrations for La Grande Bible de Tours, 1866)
A Seder table setting, commemorating the Passover and Exodus

He is found and adopted by Pharaoh's daughter, who names him Moses.

The Merneptah Stele, widely believed to comprise the earliest known appearance of the name Israel

Israelites

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The Israelites were a confederation of Semitic-speaking tribes in the ancient Near East who, during the Iron Age, inhabited a part of Canaan.

The Israelites were a confederation of Semitic-speaking tribes in the ancient Near East who, during the Iron Age, inhabited a part of Canaan.

The Merneptah Stele, widely believed to comprise the earliest known appearance of the name Israel
Mid-20th century mosaic of the 12 Tribes of Israel, from the Etz Yosef synagogue wall in Givat Mordechai, 
Jerusalem
Map of the Holy Land, Pietro Vesconte, 1321, showing the allotments of the tribes of Israel. Described by Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld as "the first non-Ptolemaic map of a definite country"
Map of the twelve tribes of Israel (before the move of Dan to the north), based on the Book of Joshua
Model of the Tabernacle constructed under the auspices of Moses, in Timna Park, Israel
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The Mount Ebal structure, seen by many archeologists as an early Israelite cultic site
Series of depictions of the historical Israelites between the 13th and 7th century BCE
Part of the gift-bearing Israelite delegation of King Jehu, Black Obelisk, 841-840 BCE.
"To Hezekiah, son of Ahaz, king of Judah" - royal seal found at the Ophel excavations in Jerusalem
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Moses led the Israelites out of slavery in Egypt and into the Land of Canaan, which was eventually conquered under the leadership of Joshua.

Torah scroll at old Glockengasse Synagogue (reconstruction), Cologne

Torah

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Compilation of the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, namely the books of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy.

Compilation of the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, namely the books of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy.

Torah scroll at old Glockengasse Synagogue (reconstruction), Cologne
Silver Torah case, Ottoman Empire, displayed in the Museum of Jewish Art and History
Reading of the Torah
One common formulation of the documentary hypothesis
The supplementary hypothesis, one potential successor to the documentary hypothesis
Presentation of The Torah, by Édouard Moyse, 1860, Museum of Jewish Art and History
Torahs in Ashkenazi Synagogue (Istanbul, Turkey)
Page pointers, or yad, for reading of the Torah
Open Torah case with scroll.

Rabbinic tradition's understanding is that all of the teachings found in the Torah (both written and oral) were given by God through the prophet Moses, some at Mount Sinai and others at the Tabernacle, and all the teachings were written down by Moses, which resulted in the Torah that exists today.

Crossing of the Red Sea, Nicolas Poussin

Book of Exodus

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Second book of the Bible.

Second book of the Bible.

Crossing of the Red Sea, Nicolas Poussin
Children of Israel in Egypt (1867 painting by Edward Poynter)
Finding of Moses in the Dura-Europos synagogue, c. 244
Geography of the Book of Exodus, with the Nile River and its delta, left, Red Sea and Sinai desert, center, and the land of Israel, upper right
Worship of the Golden Calf, Gerrit de Wet, 17th century
Departure of the Israelites by David Roberts, 1829
Moses with the Ten Commandments, by Rembrandt (1659)

The Israelites then journey with the prophet Moses to Mount Sinai, where Yahweh gives the 10 commandments and they enter into a covenant with Yahweh, who promises to make them a "holy nation, and a kingdom of priests" on condition of their faithfulness.

Judaica (clockwise from top): Shabbat candlesticks, handwashing cup, Chumash and Tanakh, Torah pointer, shofar and etrog box

Judaism

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Abrahamic, monotheistic, and ethnic religion comprising the collective religious, cultural, and legal tradition and civilization of the Jewish people.

Abrahamic, monotheistic, and ethnic religion comprising the collective religious, cultural, and legal tradition and civilization of the Jewish people.

Judaica (clockwise from top): Shabbat candlesticks, handwashing cup, Chumash and Tanakh, Torah pointer, shofar and etrog box
Maccabees by Wojciech Stattler (1842)
A painting of Moses decorates the Dura-Europos synagogue dating from 244 CE
The Western Wall in Jerusalem is a remnant of the wall encircling the Second Temple. The Temple Mount is the holiest site in Judaism.
Kennicott Bible, a 1476 Spanish Tanakh
Aleppo Codex, a Tanakh produced in Tiberias in the 10th century
A man holds up a Sephardi-style torah at the Western Wall, Jerusalem
Statue of Maimonides in Córdoba, Spain
Conservative women rabbis, Israel
El Ghriba synagogue in Djerba, Tunisia
Beta Israeli Kahen at the Western Wall
A Yemenite Jew at morning prayers, wearing a kippah skullcap, prayer shawl and tefillin
An Israeli female soldier prays at the Western Wall
Jewish boys wearing tzitzit and kippot play soccer in Jerusalem
Men wearing tallitot pray at the Western Wall
Two braided Shabbat challahs placed under an embroidered challah cover at the start of the Shabbat meal
Jews in Mumbai break the Yom Kippur fast with roti and samosas
Purim street scene in Jerusalem
Jewish personnel of the US Navy light candles on Hanukkah
A man reads a torah using a yad
The Sarajevo Synagogue in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Great Synagogue (Jerusalem)
Congregation Emanu-El of New York
18th-century circumcision chair Museum of Jewish Art and History
Two boys wearing tallit at a bar mitzvah. The torah is visible in the foreground.
The Bereavement (Yahrtzeit) Hasidic tish, Bnei Brak, Israel
Jewish students with their teacher in Samarkand, Uzbekistan c. 1910.
Magen David Synagogue in Kolkata, India
A Yemeni sofer writing a torah in the 1930s
Judaism is practiced around the world. This is an 1889 siddur published in Hebrew and Marathi for use by the Bene Israel community
The 12th century Synagogue of Santa María la Blanca in Toledo, Spain was converted to a church shortly after anti-Jewish pogroms in 1391
Muslim women in the mellah of Essaouira
The bimah of the Ben Ezra Synagogue in Cairo, Egypt

Within Judaism, there are a variety of religious movements, most of which emerged from Rabbinic Judaism, which holds that God revealed his laws and commandments to Moses on Mount Sinai in the form of both the Written and Oral Torah.

This 1768 parchment (612×502 mm) by Jekuthiel Sofer emulated the 1675 Ten Commandments at the Amsterdam Esnoga synagogue

Ten Commandments

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The Ten Commandments (עֲשֶׂרֶת הַדִּבְּרוֹת, Aseret ha'Dibrot), also known as the Decalogue, are a set of biblical principles relating to ethics and worship that play a fundamental role in Judaism and Christianity.

The Ten Commandments (עֲשֶׂרֶת הַדִּבְּרוֹת, Aseret ha'Dibrot), also known as the Decalogue, are a set of biblical principles relating to ethics and worship that play a fundamental role in Judaism and Christianity.

This 1768 parchment (612×502 mm) by Jekuthiel Sofer emulated the 1675 Ten Commandments at the Amsterdam Esnoga synagogue
Part of the All Souls Deuteronomy, containing the oldest extant copy of the Decalogue. It is dated to the early Herodian period, between 30 and 1 BC
1896 illustration depicting Moses receiving the commandments
Moses Breaking the Tablets of the Law (1659) by Rembrandt
The Ten Commandments on a glass plate
Moses and Aaron with the Ten Commandments (painting circa 1675 by Aron de Chavez)
A Christian school in India displays the Ten Commandments.
Moses receives the Ten Commandments in this 1860 woodcut by Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld, a Lutheran.
The Sixth Commandment, as translated by the Book of Common Prayer (1549).
The image is from the altar screen of the Temple Church near the Law Courts in London.
18th-century depiction of Moses receiving the tablets (Monheim Town Hall)
Print of Moses showing the Ten Commandments. Made at the end of the sixteenth century
Ten Commandments display at the Texas State Capitol in Austin
Ten Commandments Monument at the Arkansas State Capitol
The Ten Commandments by Lucas Cranach the Elder in the townhall of Wittenberg (detail)

According to the Book of Exodus in the Torah, the Ten Commandments were revealed to Moses at Mount Sinai and inscribed by the finger of God on two tablets of stone kept in the Ark of the Covenant.

Russian icon of Aaron from the 17th century

Aaron

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Russian icon of Aaron from the 17th century
Moses and Aaron before Paraoh
Aaron depicted by Jacques Bergé
The Blossoming of Aaron's Rod, etching by Augustin Hirschvogel
Russian icon of Aaron (18th century, Iconostasis of Kizhi monastery, Karelia, Russia).
Hārūn's name in Arabic calligraphy

According to the Abrahamic religions, Aaron ( or ; אַהֲרֹן ’Ahărōn) was a prophet, high priest, and the elder brother of Moses.

Mount Sinai, showing the approach to Mount Sinai, 1839 painting by David Roberts, in The Holy Land, Syria, Idumea, Arabia, Egypt, and Nubia

Mount Sinai (Bible)

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Mount Sinai, showing the approach to Mount Sinai, 1839 painting by David Roberts, in The Holy Land, Syria, Idumea, Arabia, Egypt, and Nubia
View down to the Saint Catherine's Monastery from the trail to the summit
A mosque at the top
Saint Catherine's Monastery
The Siq, facing Petra's Treasury, at the foot of Jebel al-Madhbah
Midian
1723
Moses on Mount Sinai, by Jean-Léon Gérôme, 1895-1900
Mass-revelation at Mount Sinai in an illustration from a Bible card published by the Providence Lithograph Company, 1907
God Appears to Elijah on Mount Horeb, 1860 woodcut by Julius Schnorr von Karolsfeld
Mount Sinai depicted on late medieval Georgian manuscript
Published by French cartographer Alain Manesson Mallet, 1719
16th century
Mount Sinai, by El Greco, 1570-1572

In the Bible, Mount Sinai (הַר סִינַי, Har Sinai) is the mountain at which the Ten Commandments were given to Moses by God.

The Creation of Man by Ephraim Moses Lilien, 1903.

Book of Genesis

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First book of the Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old Testament.

First book of the Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old Testament.

The Creation of Man by Ephraim Moses Lilien, 1903.
The Creation of Adam by Michelangelo, 1512.
Abram's Journey from Ur to Canaan (József Molnár, 1850)
The Angel Hinders the Offering of Isaac (Rembrandt, 1635)
Jacob flees Laban by Charles Foster, 1897.
Joseph Recognized by His Brothers (Léon Pierre Urban Bourgeois, 1863)

Tradition credits Moses as the author of Genesis, as well as the books of Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and most of Deuteronomy; however, modern scholars, especially from the 19th century onward, place the books' authorship in the 6th and 5th centuries BC, hundreds of years after Moses is supposed to have lived.

Priest, Levite, and furnishings of the Tabernacle

Book of Numbers

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Fourth book of the Hebrew Bible, and the fourth of five books of the Jewish Torah.

Fourth book of the Hebrew Bible, and the fourth of five books of the Jewish Torah.

Priest, Levite, and furnishings of the Tabernacle
Balaam and the Angel (illustration from the 1493 Nuremberg Chronicle)
A Plague Inflicted on Israel While Eating the Quail (illustration from the 1728 Figures de la Bible)

The Israelites begin the journey, but they "grumble" at the hardships along the way, and about the authority of Moses and Aaron.