Moses Sofer

Original lithography by Josef Kriehuber, circa 1830; now displayed in the Albertina.
Interior of the memorial in Bratislava, Slovakia (the grave of the Chasam Sofer is at the left).
Rabbi Yochanan Sofer

One of the leading Orthodox rabbis of European Jewry in the first half of the nineteenth century.

- Moses Sofer
Original lithography by Josef Kriehuber, circa 1830; now displayed in the Albertina.

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Visitors in the Orthodox Jewish cemetery in Budapest, circa 1920; the word "Orthodox" (ארטאדאקסען) is painted on the wall, second to the left. Traditionalist Jews in Hungary were the first anywhere to use the term "orthodox" in the formation of an independent Orthodox organization in 1871.

Orthodox Judaism

Collective term for the traditionalist and theologically conservative branches of contemporary Judaism.

Collective term for the traditionalist and theologically conservative branches of contemporary Judaism.

Visitors in the Orthodox Jewish cemetery in Budapest, circa 1920; the word "Orthodox" (ארטאדאקסען) is painted on the wall, second to the left. Traditionalist Jews in Hungary were the first anywhere to use the term "orthodox" in the formation of an independent Orthodox organization in 1871.
A Jewish man pilloried in the synagogue, a common punishment in the pre-emancipation Jewish community in Europe.
Moses Sofer of Pressburg, considered the father of Orthodoxy in general and ultra-Orthodoxy in particular.
Isaac Bernays in clerical vestments. The ministerial style of dress seen here was ubiquitous among German and Western European (neo)-Orthodox Jews.
David Zvi Hoffmann, the single most prominent Orthodox theoretician who dealt with the critical-historical method.
Young Samson Raphael Hirsch, the ideologue of Orthodox secession in Germany.
Chaim Sofer, the leading halakhic authority of the Hungarian "zealots" during the Orthodox-Neolog schism.
Beth Medrash Govoha (Hebrew:בית מדרש גבוה), in Lakewood, New Jersey, U.S., the world's largest yeshiva outside Israel
Haredi schoolgirls at the Western Wall.
Ultra-Orthodox demonstrators (over 300,000 took part), protesting for the right of Yeshiva students to avoid conscription to the Israeli Army. Jerusalem, 2 March 2014.

The leader and organizer of the Orthodox camp during the dispute, and the most influential figure in early Orthodoxy, was Rabbi Moses Sofer of Pressburg, Hungary.

Prostějov

City in the Olomouc Region of the Czech Republic.

City in the Olomouc Region of the Czech Republic.

Prostějov Castle
City hall
Museum and Gallery in Prostějov

Moses Sofer (1762–1839), rabbi

Haredi Jewish men during a Torah reading.

Haredi Judaism

Haredi Judaism (יהדות חֲרֵדִית , ; also spelled Charedi in English; plural Haredim or Charedim) consists of groups within Orthodox Judaism that are characterized by their strict adherence to halakha (Jewish law) and traditions, in opposition to modern values and practices.

Haredi Judaism (יהדות חֲרֵדִית , ; also spelled Charedi in English; plural Haredim or Charedim) consists of groups within Orthodox Judaism that are characterized by their strict adherence to halakha (Jewish law) and traditions, in opposition to modern values and practices.

Haredi Jewish men during a Torah reading.
Young Haredi Jews in Jerusalem, 2005
Hasidic boys in Łódź, 1910
Haredi Jews from Galicia at the in Vienna's second district, Leopoldstadt, 1915
Haredi Jewish women and girls in Mea Shearim, Jerusalem, 2013
Styles of Haredi dress
Typical Haredi dress for men and women
Gender-separate beach in Israel. To accommodate Haredi and other Orthodox Jews, many coastal resorts in Israel have a designated area for sex-separate bathing.
The Bais Yaakov graduating class of 1934 in Łódź, Poland
Tziporah Heller, a weekly columnist for Hamodia
photograph of the Warsaw Ghetto
Members of Neturei Karta protest against Israel (Washington, 2005)
Haredi demonstration against the conscription of yeshiva pupils
Hasidim walk to the synagogue, Rehovot, Israel.
Haredi Rabbis and students writing a Torah scroll (Haredi settlement of Beitar Illit, Gush Etzion)
Hasidic family on the street in Borough Park, Brooklyn
Students of Telshe yeshiva, 1936

Moses Sofer was opposed to any philosophical, social, or practical change to customary Orthodox practice.

Shulchan Aruch

Most widely consulted of the various legal codes in Judaism.

Most widely consulted of the various legal codes in Judaism.

A wealth of later works include commentary and exposition by such halachic authorities as the Ketzoth ha-Choshen and Avnei Millu'im, Netivoth ha-Mishpat, the Vilna Gaon, Rabbi Yechezkel Landau (Dagul Mervavah), Rabbis Akiva Eger, Moses Sofer, and Chaim Joseph David Azulai (Birkei Yosef) whose works are widely recognized and cited extensively in later halachic literature.

The main Satmar synagogue in Kiryas Joel, New York

Satmar (Hasidic dynasty)

Hasidic group originating from the city of Satu Mare, Romania, where it was founded in 1905 by Joel Teitelbaum.

Hasidic group originating from the city of Satu Mare, Romania, where it was founded in 1905 by Joel Teitelbaum.

The main Satmar synagogue in Kiryas Joel, New York
Joel Teitelbaum bowing before King Carol II of Romania, 1936
Zalman Teitelbaum
The book Vayoel Moshe, where Teitelbaum lays out his opposition to Zionism.
Rejection of Israel is expressed in a ban of voting or affiliating with the state's institutions. 1955 poster against Israel's Knesset elections.
Entrance of the Satmar Yeshiva in Brooklyn, New York
Moshe Teitelbaum

Faced with rapid acculturation and a decline in religious observance, Lichtenstein preached utter rejection of modernity, widely applying the words of his teacher, Moses Sofer: "All that is new is forbidden by the Torah."

Picture of the Ksav Sofer.

Pressburg Yeshiva (Austria-Hungary)

The largest and most influential Yeshiva in Central Europe in the 19th century.

The largest and most influential Yeshiva in Central Europe in the 19th century.

Picture of the Ksav Sofer.

It was founded in the city of Pressburg, Austrian Empire (today Bratislava, Slovakia) by Rabbi Moshe Sofer (known as the Chasam Sofer or Chatam Sofer ) and was considered the largest Yeshiva since the time of the Babylonian Talmud.

Rabbi instructing children in 2004

Rabbinic literature

Entire spectrum of rabbinic writings throughout Jewish history.

Entire spectrum of rabbinic writings throughout Jewish history.

Rabbi instructing children in 2004

Responsa, e.g. by Moses Sofer, Moshe Feinstein

Bratislava

Capital and largest city of Slovakia.

Capital and largest city of Slovakia.

An original Biatec and its replica on a former 5-koruna coin
Gerulata
Bratislava was bombarded by the United States Army Air Forces, during the Nazi Occupation in 1944
Iron Curtain memorial in Bratislava
Map of Bratislava
Satellite view of Bratislava
Bratislava Castle
Kuchajda lake
High-rise apartments in Bratislava
The building of National Council of the Slovak Republic
Grassalkovich Palace, seat of the president of Slovakia
Episcopal Summer Palace, the seat of the government of Slovakia
Primate's Palace at Primate's Square, the seat of the city's mayor
National Bank of Slovakia
High-rise buildings at Mlynské Nivy, one of Bratislava's business districts
Business and shopping centre in Eurovea
New Danube waterfront
Digital Park administrative complex
Slovak Philharmonic
Universitas Istropolitana building
Paparazzi statue in Bratislava's Old Town
The earliest known depiction of Pressburg Castle, 14th century
Pressburg (Bratislava) in 1588
Pressburg (Bratislava) in the 17th century
Coronation of Maria Theresa in 1741
Bratislava in the 19th century
Bratislava in 1915
Main entrance of the Bratislava Castle
Hviezdoslav Square
Primate's Square
Michael's Gate
Laurinc Gate
Reformed church
Church of Saint Stephen
Trinitarian Church
The Old Town of Bratislava
Streets of the Old Town
Bratislava Old Town
The Rococo-style "House of the Good Shepherd", home to the Museum of Clocks
Laurinská Street
Stará Tržnica Market Hall, the oldest indoor market in Bratislava
Einsteinova street
Danube promenade
Embankment
Danube river and the Slovak National Uprising Bridge
Apollo Bridge
Polus City Shopping Center
Slovak Radio headquarters building
CityShuttle train connects Bratislava with Austria's capital Vienna.
Refinery of Slovnaft in Bratislava
Map of Bratislava in city centre
Manhole cover in Bratislava
Danube embankment

A curiosity is the underground (formerly ground-level) restored portion of the Jewish cemetery where 19th-century Rabbi Moses Sofer is buried, located at the base of the castle hill near the entrance to a tram tunnel.

Boskovice

Town in Blansko District in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic.

Town in Blansko District in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic.

Boskovice Castle
Synagogue
Boskovice Château
Church of Saint James the Great
Entry gate to Boskovice Castle
Town hall on the Masarykovo Square
Boskovice Region Museum
The greenhouse in the château complex
Riding hall
Jewish cemetery
Jewish house
Gate to the Jewish ghetto
View of the eastern part of the town
Bělá River in the Pilské Valley

Moses Sofer (1762–1839), one of the leading Orthodox rabbis of European Jewry

The first page of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a. The center column contains the Talmud text, beginning with a section of Mishnah. The Gemara begins 14 lines down with the abbreviation גמ (gimmel-mem) in larger type. Mishnah and Gemara sections alternate throughout the Talmud. The blocks of text on either side are the Rashi and Tosafot commentaries, printed in Rashi script. Other notes and cross references are in the margins.

Talmud

Central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law (halakha) and Jewish theology.

Central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law (halakha) and Jewish theology.

The first page of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a. The center column contains the Talmud text, beginning with a section of Mishnah. The Gemara begins 14 lines down with the abbreviation גמ (gimmel-mem) in larger type. Mishnah and Gemara sections alternate throughout the Talmud. The blocks of text on either side are the Rashi and Tosafot commentaries, printed in Rashi script. Other notes and cross references are in the margins.
An early printing of the Talmud (Ta'anit 9b); with commentary by Rashi
A page of a medieval Jerusalem Talmud manuscript, from the Cairo Geniza
A full set of the Babylonian Talmud
Talmudic saying on the Divine Presence
Koren Talmud Bavli
The Talmud on display in the Jewish Museum of Switzerland brings together parts from the first two Talmud prints by Daniel Bomberg and Ambrosius Froben.
Jewish Scene I
Jewish Scene II
A Controversy Whatsoever on Talmud<ref>See Schleicher's paintings at MutualArt.</ref>
At the Rabbi's
Jews studying Talmud, París, c. 1880–1905
Samuel Hirszenberg, Talmudic School, c. 1895–1908
Ephraim Moses Lilien, The Talmud Students, engraving, 1915
Maurycy Trębacz, The Dispute, c. 1920–1940
Solomon's Haggadoth, bronze relief from the Knesset Menorah, Jerusalem, by Benno Elkan, 1956
Hilel's Teachings, bronze relief from the Knesset Menorah
Jewish Mysticism: Jochanan ben Sakkai, bronze relief from the Knesset Menorah
Yemenite Jews studying Torah in Sana&#039;a
Oz veHadar edition of the first page of the Babylonian Talmud, with elements numbered in a spiraling rainbowː (1) Joshua Boaz ben Simon Baruch's Mesorat haShas, (2) Joel Sirkis's Hagahot (3) Akiva Eiger's Gilyon haShas, (4) Completion of Solomon ben Isaac's commentary from the Soncino printing, (5) Nissim ben Jacob's commentary, (6) Hananel ben Hushiel's commentary, (7) a survey of the verses quoted, (8) Joshua Boaz ben Simon Baruch's Ein Mishpat/Ner Mitzvah, (9) the folio and page numbers, (10) the tractate title, (11) the chapter number, (12), the chapter heading, (13), Solomon ben Isaac's commentary, (14) the Tosafot, (15) the Mishnah, (16) the Gemara, (17) an editorial footnote.

Some Orthodox leaders such as Moses Sofer (the Chatam Sofer) became exquisitely sensitive to any change and rejected modern critical methods of Talmud study.