Motherboard

motherboardsmainboardlogic boardsystem boardPC motherboardmain boardlogicboardmainboardsboardscomputer motherboard
A motherboard (sometimes alternatively known as the mainboard, main circuit board, system board, baseboard, planar board or logic board, or colloquially, a mobo) is the main printed circuit board (PCB) found in general purpose computers and other expandable systems.wikipedia
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Sound card

soundcardsound cardssound
Motherboard specifically refers to a PCB with expansion capability and as the name suggests, this board is often referred to as the "mother" of all components attached to it, which often include peripherals, interface cards, and daughtercards: sound cards, video cards, network cards, hard drives, or other forms of persistent storage; TV tuner cards, cards providing extra USB or FireWire slots and a variety of other custom components.
Sound functionality can also be integrated onto the motherboard, using components similar to those found on plug-in cards.

Network interface controller

network cardnetwork interface cardnetwork adapter
Motherboard specifically refers to a PCB with expansion capability and as the name suggests, this board is often referred to as the "mother" of all components attached to it, which often include peripherals, interface cards, and daughtercards: sound cards, video cards, network cards, hard drives, or other forms of persistent storage; TV tuner cards, cards providing extra USB or FireWire slots and a variety of other custom components.
The low cost and ubiquity of the Ethernet standard means that most newer computers have a network interface built into the motherboard.

Backplane

backplanesmidplaneback plane
Unlike a backplane, a motherboard usually contains significant sub-systems such as the central processor, the chipset's input/output and memory controllers, interface connectors, and other components integrated for general purpose use and applications.
A backplane is generally differentiated from a motherboard by the lack of on-board processing and storage elements.

Super I/O

SIOcombo IOsingle microcontroller
In the late 1980s, personal computer motherboards began to include single ICs (also called Super I/O chips) capable of supporting a set of low-speed peripherals: keyboard, mouse, floppy disk drive, serial ports, and parallel ports.
Super I/O is a class of I/O controller integrated circuits that began to be used on personal computer motherboards in the late 1980s, originally as add-in cards, later embedded on the motherboards.

Desktop computer

desktopdesktopsdesktop computers
A typical desktop computer has its microprocessor, main memory, and other essential components connected to the motherboard. , most desktop computer motherboards use the ATX standard form factor — even those found in Macintosh and Sun computers, which have not been built from commodity components.
The most common configuration has a case that houses the power supply, motherboard (a printed circuit board with a microprocessor as the central processing unit (CPU), memory, bus, and other electronic components), disk storage (usually one or more hard disk drives, solid state drives, optical disc drives, and in early models a floppy disk drive); a keyboard and mouse for input; and a computer monitor, speakers, and, often, a printer for output.

Chipset

chipsetschip setchip
An important component of a motherboard is the microprocessor's supporting chipset, which provides the supporting interfaces between the CPU and the various buses and external components.
It is usually found on the motherboard.

CPU socket

socketsocketsprocessor socket
A CPU socket (central processing unit) or slot is an electrical component that attaches to a Printed Circuit Board (PCB) and is designed to house a CPU (also called a microprocessor).
CPU sockets are used on the motherboard in desktop and server computers.

Computer form factor

form factorform factorsform-factor
Motherboards are produced in a variety of sizes and shape called computer form factor, some of which are specific to individual computer manufacturers.
In computing, the form factor is the specification of a motherboard – the dimensions, power supply type, location of mounting holes, number of ports on the back panel, etc. Specifically, in the IBM PC compatible industry, standard form factors ensure that parts are interchangeable across competing vendors and generations of technology, while in enterprise computing, form factors ensure that server modules fit into existing rackmount systems.

Front-side bus

front side busFSBsystem bus
A front-side bus (FSB) is mostly used on PC-related motherboards (including personal computers and servers).

MicroATX

Micro-ATXMicro ATXmATX
For example, an ATX case will usually accommodate a microATX motherboard.
microATX (sometimes referred to as μATX, uATX or mATX) is a standard for motherboards that was introduced in December 1997.

Power supply unit (computer)

power suppliespower supplypower supply unit
A case's motherboard and power supply unit (PSU) form factor must all match, though some smaller form factor motherboards of the same family will fit larger cases.
ATX power supplies are turned on and off by a signal from the motherboard.

Computer case

casetower caseComputer cases
However, the motherboards used in IBM-compatible systems are designed to fit various case sizes.
The size and shape of a computer case is usually determined by the form factor of the motherboard, since it is the largest component of most computers.

IBM Personal Computer

IBM PCPCIBM-PC
The most popular computers of the 1980s such as the Apple II and IBM PC had published schematic diagrams and other documentation which permitted rapid reverse-engineering and third-party replacement motherboards. Early personal computers such as the Apple II or IBM PC included only this minimal peripheral support on the motherboard.
The main circuit board in a PC is called the motherboard (IBM terminology calls it a planar).

Graphics processing unit

GPUGPUsgraphics processor
In a personal computer, a GPU can be present on a video card or embedded on the motherboard.

Macintosh

Apple MacintoshMacMacs
, most desktop computer motherboards use the ATX standard form factor — even those found in Macintosh and Sun computers, which have not been built from commodity components.
The final Mac design was self-contained and had the complete QuickDraw picture language and interpreter in 64 KB of ROM – far more than most other computers which typically had around 4 to 8 KB of ROM; it had 128 kB of RAM, in the form of sixteen 64-kilobit (kb) RAM chips soldered to the logicboard.

PCI Express

PCIePCI-EPCI-Express
A standard, modern ATX motherboard will typically have two or three PCI-Express 16x connection for a graphics card, one or two legacy PCI slots for various expansion cards, and one or two PCI-E 1x (which has superseded PCI).
It is the common motherboard interface for personal computers' graphics cards, hard drives, SSDs, Wi-Fi and Ethernet hardware connections.

ATX

EATXATX motherboardATX12V
, most desktop computer motherboards use the ATX standard form factor — even those found in Macintosh and Sun computers, which have not been built from commodity components.
It was the first major change in desktop computer enclosure, motherboard and power supply design in many years, improving standardization and interchangeability of parts.

Advanced Micro Devices

AMDATIAdvanced Micro Devices, Inc.
Some motherboards have two or more PCI-E 16x slots, to allow more than 2 monitors without special hardware, or use a special graphics technology called SLI (for Nvidia) and Crossfire (for AMD).
AMD's main products include microprocessors, motherboard chipsets, embedded processors and graphics processors for servers, workstations, personal computers and embedded system applications.

Northbridge (computing)

northbridgeMemory Controller Hubnorth bridge
Motherboards are generally air cooled with heat sinks often mounted on larger chips, such as the Northbridge, in modern motherboards.
A northbridge or host bridge is one of the two chips in the core logic chipset architecture on a PC motherboard, the other being the southbridge.

Video Graphics Array

VGAVGA graphicsVGA card
Its single-chip implementation allowed the VGA to be placed directly on a PC′s motherboard with a minimum of difficulty, which in turn increased the reliability of the video subsystem by reducing the number of component connections, since the VGA required only video memory, timing crystals and an external RAMDAC.

TV tuner card

TV tunersTV tunercapture card
Motherboard specifically refers to a PCB with expansion capability and as the name suggests, this board is often referred to as the "mother" of all components attached to it, which often include peripherals, interface cards, and daughtercards: sound cards, video cards, network cards, hard drives, or other forms of persistent storage; TV tuner cards, cards providing extra USB or FireWire slots and a variety of other custom components.
Some care is required to select suitable host systems for video encoding, particularly HD applications which are more affected by CPU performance, number of CPU cores, and certain motherboard characteristics that heavily influence capture performance.

Personal computer

PCPCspersonal computers
Early personal computers such as the Apple II or IBM PC included only this minimal peripheral support on the motherboard.
A typical desktop computer consists of a computer case (or "tower"), a metal chassis that holds the power supply, motherboard, hard disk drive, and often an optical disc drive.

Small form factor

SFFUltra small form factorform-factor
Some small form factor computers and home theater PCs designed for quiet and energy-efficient operation boast fan-less designs.
Most SFF computers use highly integrated motherboards containing many on-board peripherals, reducing the need for expansion cards.

AMD CrossFire

CrossFireAMD CrossFireXATI CrossFire
Some motherboards have two or more PCI-E 16x slots, to allow more than 2 monitors without special hardware, or use a special graphics technology called SLI (for Nvidia) and Crossfire (for AMD).
The system required a CrossFire-compliant motherboard with a pair of ATI Radeon PCI Express (PCIe) graphics cards.

Computer hardware

hardwarepersonal computer hardwaredevice
A 2003 study found that some spurious computer crashes and general reliability issues, ranging from screen image distortions to I/O read/write errors, can be attributed not to software or peripheral hardware but to aging capacitors on PC motherboards.
Computer hardware includes the physical, tangible parts or components of a computer, such as the cabinet, central processing unit, monitor, keyboard, computer data storage, graphics card, sound card, speakers and motherboard.