intrinsic motivationmotivationalmotivesmotivateextrinsic motivationmotivemotivateddrivemotivatingdesire
Motivation is the experience of desire or aversion…You want something, or want to avoid or escape something.wikipedia
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Industrial and organizational psychology

organizational psychologyindustrial psychologyorganisational psychology
Some models treat as important the distinction between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation, and motivation is an important topic in work, organizational psychology, administrative organization, and management as well as education.
They contribute to an organization's success by improving the performance, motivation, job satisfaction, and occupational safety and health as well as the overall health and well-being of its employees.

Educational psychology

educational psychologisteducationaleducation
Some models treat as important the distinction between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation, and motivation is an important topic in work, organizational psychology, administrative organization, and management as well as education.
The study of learning processes, from both cognitive and behavioral perspectives, allows researchers to understand individual differences in intelligence, cognitive development, affect, motivation, self-regulation, and self-concept, as well as their role in learning.


emotionsemotionalemotional state
The definition of motivation as experienced desires and aversions highlights the association of motivation with emotion.
Emotion is often intertwined with mood, temperament, personality, disposition, and motivation.

Shelter (building)

sheltersheltersArtificial shelters
Having a place of shelter, of safety and of retreat, i.e. a home, is commonly considered a fundamental physiological human need, the foundation from which to develop higher human motivations.

Self-determination theory

The two necessary elements for intrinsic motivation are self-determination and an increase in perceived competence.
It is concerned with the motivation behind choices people make without external influence and interference.

Goal setting

goal-settinggoal-setting theorygoals
Achieving these goals in attainable pieces is also known as the goal-setting theory.
Goal setting involves the development of an action plan designed to motivate and guide a person or group toward a goal.

Steven Reiss

Starting from studies involving more than 6,000 people, Reiss proposed that 16 basic desires guide nearly all human behavior.
Steven Reiss (1947–2016) was an American psychologist who contributed original ideas, new assessment methods, and influential research studies to four topics in psychology: anxiety disorders, developmental disabilities, intrinsic motivation (what makes us tick), and the psychology of religion.


dopaminergic systemDAdopaminergic
Activated "seeking" behaviour, such as loco-motor activity, is influenced by dopaminergic drugs, and microdialysis experiments reveal that dopamine is released during the anticipation of a reward.
Inside the brain, dopamine plays important roles in executive functions, motor control, motivation, arousal, reinforcement, and reward, as well as lower-level functions including lactation, sexual gratification, and nausea.

Overjustification effect

overjustificationextrinsic rewardsoverjustification" effect
Social psychological research has indicated that extrinsic rewards can lead to overjustification and a subsequent reduction in intrinsic motivation.
The overjustification effect occurs when an expected external incentive such as money or prizes decreases a person's intrinsic motivation to perform a task.

Job satisfaction

employee satisfactionsatisfactionJob Characteristics Model
Frederick Herzberg's two-factor theory concludes that certain factors in the workplace result in job satisfaction (motivators), while others (hygiene factors), if absent, lead to dissatisfaction but are not related to satisfaction.
The level by each type affects motivation, job satisfaction, and job performance.

Mesolimbic pathway

mesolimbicreward pathwaymesolimbic reward pathway
This type of motivation has neurobiological roots in the basal ganglia, and mesolimbic, dopaminergic pathways.
The mesolimbic pathway is involved in motivation cognition.


self-worthself-respectself esteem
Many early theories suggested that self-esteem is a basic human need or motivation.

Expectancy theory

Expectancyexpectanciesoutcome expectancies
Vroom's "expectancy theory" provides an account of when people may decide to exert self-control in pursuit of a particular goal.
Expectancy theory(16/9) (or expectancy theory of motivation) proposes that an individual will behave or act in a certain way because they are motivated to select a specific behavior over others due to what they expect the result of that selected behavior will be.

Dopaminergic pathways

dopaminergic pathwaydopamine pathwaydopamine pathways
This type of motivation has neurobiological roots in the basal ganglia, and mesolimbic, dopaminergic pathways.
The mesolimbic pathway is involved in motivation cognition.

Clark L. Hull

Clark HullClark Leonard HullHull
Created by Clark Hull and further developed by Kenneth Spence, the theory became well known in the 1940s and 1950s.
Clark Leonard Hull (May 24, 1884 – May 10, 1952) was an American psychologist who sought to explain learning and motivation by scientific laws of behavior.

Temporal motivation theory

Another journal article that helped to develop the Temporal Motivation Theory, "The Nature of Procrastination, " received American Psychological Association's George A. Miller award for outstanding contribution to general science.
Temporal motivation theory (TMT) is an integrative motivational theory.

Classical conditioning

conditioningPavlovian conditioningPavlovian
In classical (or respondent) conditioning, behaviour is understood as responses triggered by certain environmental or physical stimuli.
The speed of conditioning depends on a number of factors, such as the nature and strength of both the CS and the US, previous experience and the animal's motivational state.

Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi

Mihály CsíkszentmihályiCsikszentmihalyiMihaly Csikszentmihaly
Mihali Csikszentmihaly described Flow theory as "A state in which people are so involved in an activity that nothing else seems to matter; the experience is so enjoyable that people will continue to do it even at great cost, for the sheer sake of doing it."
The flow state is an optimal state of intrinsic motivation, where the person is fully immersed in what they are doing.

Cognitive evaluation theory

Sociocultural theory extends the social aspects of Cognitive Evaluation Theory, which espouses the important role of positive feedback from others during action, but requires the individual as the internal locus of causality.
Cognitive evaluation theory (CET) is a theory in psychology that is designed to explain the effects of external consequences on internal motivation.


enviousphthonosconstant odds
To the extent that distinct emotions relate to specific subconscious appraisals (e.g., anger — injustice; guilt — violation of a moral standard; sadness—loss of a value; pride —the achievement of a moral ideal; love —valuing an object or person; joy —the attainment of an important value; envy —wanting the attainments of another, admiration —valuing the attainments of another, etc.), motivation theory involves specifying content theories – values that people find motivating – along with mechanisms by which they might attain these values (mastery, setting challenging goals, attending to required tasks, persistence, etc).
The phrase "green-eyed monster" refers to an individual whose current actions appear motivated by jealousy, not envy.

John William Atkinson

John W. AtkinsonJohn "Jack" William AtkinsonJohn (Jack) William Atkinson
John William Atkinson (December 31, 1923 – October 27, 2003), also known as Jack Atkinson, was an American psychologist who pioneered the scientific study of human motivation, achievement and behavior.

Employee motivation

performance-motivating employeesworkplace pleasant so no one wants to leave
In general, motivation theory is often applied to employee motivation.
Employee motivation, i.e. methods for motivating employees, is an intrinsic and internal drive to put forth the necessary effort and action towards work-related activities.

Homo economicus

economic manHomo oeconomicusperfect rationality
However, recent research (on satisfying for example) has significantly undermined the idea of homo economicus or of perfect rationality in favour of a more bounded rationality.
Other critics of the homo economicus model of humanity, such as Bruno Frey, point to the excessive emphasis on extrinsic motivation (rewards and punishments from the social environment) as opposed to intrinsic motivation.


self efficacyefficacypersonal change
where Motivation is the desire for a particular outcome, Expectancy or self-efficacy is the probability of success, Value is the reward associated with the outcome, Impulsiveness is the individual's sensitivity to delay and Delay is the time to realization.
One of the factors most commonly associated with self-efficacy in writing studies is motivation.

Maslow's hierarchy of needs

hierarchy of needsbasic needsself-actualization
Content theory of human motivation includes both Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Herzberg's two-factor theory.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs is used to study how humans intrinsically partake in behavioral motivation.