Mount Erebus

Anorthoclase crystal (45 mm long) from Mt. Erebus
Photograph of Mount Erebus taken by the Terra Nova Expedition
Topographic map of Ross Island (1:250,000 scale) Mount Erebus is in the lower left. Mount Bird is in the upper left. Mount Terra Nova is in the middle. Mount Terror is in the right.
Aerial view of Mount Erebus craters
Satellite picture of Mount Erebus showing glow from its persistent lava lake
Mount Erebus in December 1955

Second-highest volcano in Antarctica , the highest active volcano in Antarctica, and the southernmost active volcano on Earth.

- Mount Erebus
Anorthoclase crystal (45 mm long) from Mt. Erebus

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South end of Ross Island

Ross Island

Island formed by four volcanoes in the Ross Sea near the continent of Antarctica, off the coast of Victoria Land in McMurdo Sound.

Island formed by four volcanoes in the Ross Sea near the continent of Antarctica, off the coast of Victoria Land in McMurdo Sound.

South end of Ross Island

The planet's southernmost active volcano, Erebus (3794 m), as well as the dormant volcano Terror (3230 m), are situated on the island.

Scott Base

Aerial photograph of Scott Base, Ross Island, Antarctica.
Annotated view over Scott Base, also showing McMurdo Station and the McMurdo Ice Shelf
Scott Base
Sign for Scott Base on road to McMurdo Station
A pressure ridge in the Antarctic ice near Scott Base, with lenticular clouds in the sky.

Scott Base is a New Zealand Antarctic research station at Pram Point on Ross Island near Mount Erebus in New Zealand's Ross Dependency territorial claim.

Debris from the DC-10's fuselage photographed in 2004: Most of the wreckage of Flight 901 remains at the accident site.

Mount Erebus disaster

Debris from the DC-10's fuselage photographed in 2004: Most of the wreckage of Flight 901 remains at the accident site.
ZK-NZP, the aircraft involved in the accident, photographed in 1977
Mount Erebus
Flight path of Flight 901
The flight data recorder and cockpit voice recorder of Air New Zealand Flight 901, Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa (2015)
Photograph of the Erebus Memorial at Waikumete Cemetery, Glen Eden, Auckland, January 2014

The Mount Erebus disaster occurred on 28 November 1979 when Air New Zealand Flight 901 (TE-901) flew into Mount Erebus on Ross Island, Antarctica, killing all 237 passengers and 20 crew on board.

Lava lake at Nyiragongo Volcano in a molten state. (Democratic Republic of the Congo)

Lava lake

Lava lakes are large volumes of molten lava, usually basaltic, contained in a volcanic vent, crater, or broad depression.

Lava lakes are large volumes of molten lava, usually basaltic, contained in a volcanic vent, crater, or broad depression.

Lava lake at Nyiragongo Volcano in a molten state. (Democratic Republic of the Congo)
Lava lake at Erta Ale Volcano, Ethiopia.
The lava lake of Halemaʻumaʻu at Kīlauea, Hawaii, United States).
Lava lake in Marum crater, Ambrym, Vanuatu.
Satellite picture showing the lava lake of Mount Erebus, Antarctica.
Aerial view of a lava lake in Pu’u ’Ō’ō crater, east rift zone of Kīlauea. The crater is about 820 ft in diameter.
Aerial view of a lava lake atop the Kūpaʻianahā vent on the east rift zone of Kīlauea volcano.

Lava lakes occur in a variety of volcanic systems, ranging from the basaltic Erta Ale lake in Ethiopia and the basaltic andesite volcano of Villarrica, Chile, to the unique phonolitic lava lake at Mt. Erebus, Antarctica.

Topographic map of Ross Island off Antarctica (1:250,000 scale). Mount Terror is on the right, Mount Terra Nova is in the middle, and Mount Erebus is on the left. Mount Bird is in the upper left.

Mount Terror (Antarctica)

Large shield volcano that forms the eastern part of Ross Island, Antarctica.

Large shield volcano that forms the eastern part of Ross Island, Antarctica.

Topographic map of Ross Island off Antarctica (1:250,000 scale). Mount Terror is on the right, Mount Terra Nova is in the middle, and Mount Erebus is on the left. Mount Bird is in the upper left.

It is the second largest of the four volcanoes which make up Ross Island and is somewhat overshadowed by its neighbour, Mount Erebus, 30 km to the west.

Ross Dependency

Region of Antarctica defined by a sector originating at the South Pole, passing along longitudes 160° east to 150° west, and terminating at latitude 60° south.

Region of Antarctica defined by a sector originating at the South Pole, passing along longitudes 160° east to 150° west, and terminating at latitude 60° south.

Mosaic of Landsat images, showing McMurdo Sound (right) and the Dry Valleys (left). Part of Ross Island is visible upper right.
Aerial photo of Mount Erebus on Ross Island

In 1979, an Air New Zealand sightseeing flight crashed into the slopes of Mount Erebus killing all 257 people on board.

A diagram of a strombolian eruption: 1: ash plume, 2: lapilli, 3: volcanic ash fall, 4: lava fountain, 5: volcanic bomb, 6: lava flow, 7: layers of lava and ash, 8: stratum, 9: dike, 10: magma conduit, 11: magma chamber, 12: sill

Strombolian eruption

Type of volcanic eruption with relatively mild blasts, having a Volcanic Explosivity Index of about 1 to 2.

Type of volcanic eruption with relatively mild blasts, having a Volcanic Explosivity Index of about 1 to 2.

A diagram of a strombolian eruption: 1: ash plume, 2: lapilli, 3: volcanic ash fall, 4: lava fountain, 5: volcanic bomb, 6: lava flow, 7: layers of lava and ash, 8: stratum, 9: dike, 10: magma conduit, 11: magma chamber, 12: sill

For example, the Parícutin volcano erupted continuously between 1943–1952, Mount Erebus, Antarctica has produced Strombolian eruptions for at least many decades, and Stromboli itself has been producing Strombolian eruptions for over two thousand years.

Sir Ernest Shackleton

Ernest Shackleton

Anglo-Irish Antarctic explorer who led three British expeditions to the Antarctic.

Anglo-Irish Antarctic explorer who led three British expeditions to the Antarctic.

Sir Ernest Shackleton
Blue plaque marking the home of Ernest Shackleton at 12 Westwood Hill, Sydenham, London Borough of Lewisham
Shackleton in 1901, at the age of 27
in Antarctic waters
Robert Falcon Scott
Shackleton's wife, Emily Dorman
South Pole party: Frank Wild, Shackleton, Eric Marshall and Jameson Adams
Captioned "The South Pole", caricature of Shackleton in Vanity Fair, 6 October 1909
Shackleton embarked on an extensive lecture tour in which he talked not only about his own polar journeys but also those of Scott and Roald Amundsen
Shackleton after the loss of Endurance
Launching the from the shore of Elephant Island, 24 April 1916
"All Safe, All Well", allegedly depicting Shackleton's return to Elephant Island, August 1916. A photograph of the departure of the James Caird in April was doctored by photographer Frank Hurley to create this image.
Shackleton's grave at Grytviken
Shackleton statue by C.S. Jagger outside the Royal Geographical Society
Amundsen, Shackleton and Peary in 1913

Also, members of his team climbed Mount Erebus, the most active Antarctic volcano.

Mawson in 1914

Douglas Mawson

Australian geologist, Antarctic explorer, and academic.

Australian geologist, Antarctic explorer, and academic.

Mawson in 1914
Mackay, David and Mawson raise the flag at the South Magnetic Pole on 16 January 1909
Mawson rests at the side of his sledge, Adelie Land, Antarctica, 1912.
Photo of Douglas Mawson's sledge
Mawson in 1914
Mawson in 1926
Caricature by Sir David Low
Bust of Mawson on North Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia in front of the University of Adelaide
The Mawson Laboratories at the University of Adelaide.

They were part of the expedition's northern party, which became the first to attain the South Magnetic Pole and to climb Mount Erebus.

1834 painting of James Clark Ross

James Clark Ross

British Royal Navy officer and polar explorer known for his explorations of the Arctic, participating in two expeditions led by his uncle Sir John Ross, and four led by Sir William Parry, and, in particular, for his own Antarctic expedition from 1839 to 1843.

British Royal Navy officer and polar explorer known for his explorations of the Arctic, participating in two expeditions led by his uncle Sir John Ross, and four led by Sir William Parry, and, in particular, for his own Antarctic expedition from 1839 to 1843.

1834 painting of James Clark Ross
Illustration of the discovery of the North Magnetic Pole from Robert Huish's 1835 book.
Ross expedition in the Antarctic, 1847, by John Carmichael
"E.I. 1849": and, inscribed by a crew member of the Ross expedition on Somerset Island
James Clark Ross, depicted in 1850 by Stephen Pearce

He then reached Ross Island, with the volcanoes Mount Erebus and Mount Terror, which were named for the expedition's vessels.