Mount Kilimanjaro

KilimanjaroMt. KilimanjaroMt KilimanjaroMawenziKiboMount KilamanjaroUhuru PeakKilimandjarohighest Mountain in AfricaKilima-Njaro
Mount Kilimanjaro or just Kilimanjaro, with its three volcanic cones, Kibo, Mawenzi, and Shira, is a dormant volcano in Tanzania.wikipedia
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TanzanianUnited Republic of TanzaniaRepublic of Tanzania
Mount Kilimanjaro or just Kilimanjaro, with its three volcanic cones, Kibo, Mawenzi, and Shira, is a dormant volcano in Tanzania.
Mount Kilimanjaro, Africa's highest mountain, is in northeastern Tanzania.

List of highest mountain peaks of Africa

Highest mountain peaks of Africa11th highest mountain of Africa13th highest mountain of Africa
It is the highest mountain in Africa and the highest single free-standing mountain in the world, with its summit of 5895 m above sea level and at about 4900 m high from its plateau base.
The highest African mountain is Kilimanjaro, which has three peaks, named Kibo, Mawenzi and Shira, of which Kibo is the tallest.

List of mountain peaks by prominence

List of peaks by prominenceRanked 100thRanked 10th
Kilimanjaro is also the fourth most topographically prominent peak on Earth.

Kilimanjaro National Park

KilimanjaroNational Parkthe park
The mountain is part of Kilimanjaro National Park and is a major climbing destination.
The park includes the whole of Mount Kilimanjaro above the tree line and the surrounding montane forest belt above 1820 m. It covers an area of 1688 sqkm, 2°50'–3°10'S latitude, 37°10'–37°40'E longitude.

Hans Meyer (geographer)

Hans MeyerHans Meyer (geologist)Hans
The first people known to have reached the summit of the mountain were Hans Meyer and Ludwig Purtscheller, in 1889.
Hans Meyer is credited with being the first European to reach the summit of Mount Kilimanjaro 5,895 m (19,341 ft).

Ludwig Purtscheller

L. PurtschellerPurtscheller
The first people known to have reached the summit of the mountain were Hans Meyer and Ludwig Purtscheller, in 1889.
He is best known as the first European to ascend Kilimanjaro in 1889, together with the German mountaineer Hans Meyer.

Pangani River

PanganiPangani basinRuvu river
The Lumi and Pangani rivers drain Kilimanjaro on the eastern and southern sides, respectively.
It has two main sources: the Ruvu, which rises as Lumi at Kilimanjaro, passes through Lake Jipe, and empties into the Nyumba ya Mungu Reservoir, and the Kikuletwa, coming from the west and mainly fed by Mount Meru, which also enters into the Nyumba ya Mungu Reservoir.

Johann Ludwig Krapf

Ludwig KrapfJohann KrapfDr Johann Ludwig Krapf
Johann Ludwig Krapf wrote in 1860 that Swahilis along the coast called the mountain Kilimanjaro.
They were the first Europeans to see Mount Kenya with the help of Kikuyus who dwelled at its slopes and Kilimanjaro.

Chaga people

ChagaChaggaChagga people
Considering that the name Kilimanjaro has never been current among the Wachagga people, it is possible that the name was derived from Wachagga saying that the mountain was unclimbable, kilemanjaare or kilemajyaro, and porters misinterpreting this as being the name of the mountain.
They traditionally live on the southern and eastern slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro and Mount Meru and near Moshi.

Mount Kenya

Mt. KenyaBatianMt Kenya
Sailors' reports recorded by Ptolemy mention a "moon mountain" and a spring lake of the Nile, which may indicate Kilimanjaro; although available historical information does not allow differentiation among others in East Africa like Mount Kenya, the mountains of Ethiopia, the Virunga Mountains, the Rwenzori Mountains, and Kilimanjaro.
Mount Kenya is the highest mountain in Kenya and the second-highest in Africa, after Kilimanjaro.

Maasai people

MaasaiMasaiMaasai tribe
According to reports gathered in the 19th century from the Maasai, Lake Chala on Kibo's eastern flank was the site of a village that was destroyed by an eruption.
Maasai in Tanganyika (now mainland Tanzania) were displaced from the lands in Mount Kilimanjaro.

Lake Chala

They reach as far as Lake Chala and Taveta in the southeast and the Lengurumani Plain in the northwest.
The lake is east of Mount Kilimanjaro, 8 km north of Taveta, Kenya, and 55 km east of Moshi, Tanzania.

Lumi River (East Africa)

Lumi RiverLumiRiver Lumi, Tanzania
The Lumi and Pangani rivers drain Kilimanjaro on the eastern and southern sides, respectively.
It originates on the east side of Mawenzi (Mount Kilimanjaro), and flows so close to the River Rombo as almost to form a fork.

Johannes Rebmann

Johann Rebmann
The German missionaries Johannes Rebmann of Mombasa and Krapf were the first Europeans known to have attempted to reach the mountain.
In addition, he was the first European to find Kilimanjaro.

Harry Johnston

Sir Harry JohnstonHenry Hamilton JohnstonHarry Hamilton Johnston
According to English geographer Halford Mackinder and English explorer Harry Johnston, Rebmann in 1848 was the first European to report the existence of Kilimanjaro.
His developing reputation led the Royal Geographical Society and the British Association to appoint him leader of an 1884 scientific expedition to Mount Kilimanjaro.

Chaga languages

However, "[i]t is ... possible ... that an early European visitor, whose knowledge of [Kiswahili] was not extensive, changed mlima to kilima by analogy with the two Wachagga names: Kibo and Kimawenzi."
Chaga, also Kichaga or Kichagga, is a Bantu dialect continuum spoken by the Chaga people of northern Tanzania, south of Mount Kilimanjaro.

Western Breach

About 100,000 years ago, part of Kibo's crater rim collapsed, creating the area known as the Western Breach and the Great Barranco.
on the western outer rim of Mount Kilimanjaro's main summit, Kibo.

Otto Kersten

In December 1862, von der Decken tried a second time together with Otto Kersten, reaching a height of 14000 ft.
In 1862 he took part in Karl Klaus von der Decken's expedition in East Africa, where the two men made a partial ascent (4280 m) of Mount Kilimanjaro.

Drygalski Glacier (Tanzania)

Drygalski GlacierDrygalski
Oehler and Klute went on to make the third-ever ascent of Kibo, via the Drygalski Glacier, and descended via the Western Breach.
Drygalski Glacier was on Mount Kilimanjaro in Tanzania, on the northwest slope of the peak.

Ludwig von Höhnel

von HöhnelHöhnel CataractsLieutenant Ludwig Ritter Von Höhnel
In June 1887, the Hungarian Count Sámuel Teleki and the Austrian Lieutenant Ludwig von Höhnel made an attempt to climb the mountain.
Between 1892 and 1894 Höhnel explored the territory in the vicinity of Mount Kilimanjaro with American magnate William Astor Chanler.

Porphyry (geology)

Rhomb porphyry lavas are only known from three rift areas: the East African Rift (including Mount Kilimanjaro), Mount Erebus near the Ross Sea in Antarctica, and the Oslo graben in Norway.


SipoEntradrolphragus angolensisutile wood
Native vegetation at this altitude range (Strombosia, Newtonia, and Entandrophragma) is limited to inaccessible valleys and gorges and is completely different from vegetation at higher altitudes.
In 2016 a specimen of Entandrophragma excelsum towering more than 80 m was identified at Kilimanjaro.

Karl Klaus von der Decken

Carl von der DeckenVon der Decken
In August 1861, the Prussian officer Baron Karl Klaus von der Decken accompanied by English geologist R. Thornton made an attempt to climb Kibo but "got no farther than 8200 ft owing to the inclemency of the weather".
Baron Karl Klaus (Carl Claus) von der Decken (born 8 August 1833 in Kotzen, Brandenburg, Germany; died 2 October 1865 near Bardera, Somalia) was a German explorer of eastern Africa and the first European to attempt to climb Mount Kilimanjaro.

Kilimanjaro International Airport

KilimanjaroKADCOKilimanjaro International
In Tanzania, Kilimanjaro International Airport also serves as an important traffic hub.
The airport facilitates the tourism industry for visitors travelling to Mount Kilimanjaro National Park, Arusha National Park, Tarangire National Park, Lake Manyara National Park, the Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Serengeti National Park, and elsewhere.

Northern Ice Field (Mount Kilimanjaro)

Northern Ice Field
The average temperature in the summit area is approximately -7 C. Nighttime surface temperatures on the Northern Ice Field (NIF) fall on average to -9 C with an average daytime high of -4 C. During nights of extreme radiational cooling, the NIF can cool to as low as -15 to -27 C.
The Northern Ice Field is near the summit of Mount Kilimanjaro in Tanzania, on the west slope of the peak.