Mountaineering

mountaineermountain climbingmountain climbermountaineersalpinistbase campalpinismmountain climbersClimbclimbing
Mountaineering is the set of activities that involves ascending mountains.wikipedia
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Peak bagging

peak-baggingpeak baggerspeakbaggers
It is still common to venture out and seek the summits of peaks, whether unclimbed or not; this practice is known as peak bagging.
Peak bagging or hill bagging is an activity in which hikers, climbers, and mountaineers attempt to reach a collection of summits, published in the form of a list.

Bouldering

bouldererboulderersboulder
Indoor climbing, sport climbing and bouldering are usually considered mountaineering as well.
The sport originally was a method of training for roped climbs and mountaineering, so climbers could practice specific moves at a safe distance from the ground.

Horace Bénédict de Saussure

de SaussureSaussureHorace-Bénédict de Saussure
In 1757 Swiss scientist Horace-Bénédict de Saussure made the first of several unsuccessful attempts on Mont Blanc in France, finally offering a reward, which was claimed in 1786 by Jacques Balmat and Michel-Gabriel Paccard.
Horace Bénédict de Saussure (17 February 1740 – 22 January 1799) was a Swiss geologist, meteorologist, physicist, mountaineer and Alpine explorer, often called the founder of alpinism and modern meteorology, and considered to be the first person to build a successful solar oven.

Jacques Balmat

In 1757 Swiss scientist Horace-Bénédict de Saussure made the first of several unsuccessful attempts on Mont Blanc in France, finally offering a reward, which was claimed in 1786 by Jacques Balmat and Michel-Gabriel Paccard.
Jacques Balmat, called Balmat du Mont Blanc (1762–1834) was a mountaineer, a Savoyard mountain guide, born in the Chamonix valley in Savoy, at this time part of the Kingdom of Sardinia.

Golden age of alpinism

goldengreat age of conquesttourism potential
This inaugurated what became known as the Golden age of alpinism, with the first mountaineering club - the Alpine Club - being founded in 1857.
The golden age of alpinism was the decade in mountaineering between Alfred Wills's ascent of the Wetterhorn in 1854 and Edward Whymper's ascent of the Matterhorn in 1865, during which many major peaks in the Alps saw their first ascents.

Lord Francis Douglas

FrancisFrancis DouglasDouglas
Prominent figures of the period include Lord Francis Douglas, Florence Crauford Grove, Charles Hudson, E. S. Kennedy, William Mathews, A. W. Moore, Leslie Stephen, Francis Fox Tuckett, John Tyndall, Horace Walker and Edward Whymper.
Lord Francis William Bouverie Douglas (8 February 1847 – 14 July 1865) was a novice British mountaineer.

Edward Shirley Kennedy

E. S. Kennedy
Prominent figures of the period include Lord Francis Douglas, Florence Crauford Grove, Charles Hudson, E. S. Kennedy, William Mathews, A. W. Moore, Leslie Stephen, Francis Fox Tuckett, John Tyndall, Horace Walker and Edward Whymper.
Edward Shirley Kennedy (usually known as E. S. Kennedy) (1817–1898) was an English mountaineer and author, and a founding member of the Alpine Club.

Alfred Wills

Sir Alfred WillsWillsMr Justice Wills
The beginning of mountaineering as a sport in the UK is generally dated to the ascent of the Wetterhorn in 1854 by English mountaineer Sir Alfred Wills, who made mountaineering fashionable in Britain.
Sir Alfred Wills (11 December 1828 – 9 August 1912) was a judge of the High Court of England and Wales and a well-known mountaineer.

Michel-Gabriel Paccard

Michel PaccardPaccardDr. Michel Paccard
In 1757 Swiss scientist Horace-Bénédict de Saussure made the first of several unsuccessful attempts on Mont Blanc in France, finally offering a reward, which was claimed in 1786 by Jacques Balmat and Michel-Gabriel Paccard.
Michel Gabriel Paccard (1757–1827) was a Savoyard doctor and alpinist, citizen of the Kingdom of Sardinia.

Leslie Stephen

Sir Leslie StephenStephen, LeslieLeslie
Prominent figures of the period include Lord Francis Douglas, Florence Crauford Grove, Charles Hudson, E. S. Kennedy, William Mathews, A. W. Moore, Leslie Stephen, Francis Fox Tuckett, John Tyndall, Horace Walker and Edward Whymper.
Sir Leslie Stephen (28 November 1832 – 22 February 1904) was an English author, critic, historian, biographer, and mountaineer, and father of Virginia Woolf and Vanessa Bell.

Edward Whymper

Whymper
Prominent figures of the period include Lord Francis Douglas, Florence Crauford Grove, Charles Hudson, E. S. Kennedy, William Mathews, A. W. Moore, Leslie Stephen, Francis Fox Tuckett, John Tyndall, Horace Walker and Edward Whymper.
Edward Whymper (27 April 1840 – 16 September 1911) was an English mountaineer, explorer, illustrator, and author best known for the first ascent of the Matterhorn in 1865.

Francis Fox Tuckett

Francis F. TuckettTuckett
Prominent figures of the period include Lord Francis Douglas, Florence Crauford Grove, Charles Hudson, E. S. Kennedy, William Mathews, A. W. Moore, Leslie Stephen, Francis Fox Tuckett, John Tyndall, Horace Walker and Edward Whymper.
Francis Fox Tuckett FRGS (10 February 1834 – 20 June 1913) was an English mountaineer.

Florence Crauford Grove

F. Crauford GroveGrove
Prominent figures of the period include Lord Francis Douglas, Florence Crauford Grove, Charles Hudson, E. S. Kennedy, William Mathews, A. W. Moore, Leslie Stephen, Francis Fox Tuckett, John Tyndall, Horace Walker and Edward Whymper.
Florence Crauford Grove (12 March 1838 – 17 August 1902) was an English mountaineer and author, sometimes known as F. Crauford Grove. He led the first expedition to ascend the higher summit of Mount Elbrus and was at one time president of the Alpine Club.

William Mathews (mountaineer)

William Mathews
Prominent figures of the period include Lord Francis Douglas, Florence Crauford Grove, Charles Hudson, E. S. Kennedy, William Mathews, A. W. Moore, Leslie Stephen, Francis Fox Tuckett, John Tyndall, Horace Walker and Edward Whymper.
William Mathews (1828–1901) was an English mountaineer, botanist, land agent and surveyor, who first proposed the formation of the Alpine Club of London in 1857.

Petrarch

PetrarcaFrancesco PetrarcaFrancesco Petrarch
On April 26, 1336 famous Italian poet Petrarch climbed to the summit of 1,912 m Mount Ventoux overlooking the Bay of Marseilles, claiming to be inspired by Philip V of Macedon's ascent of Mount Haemo, making him the first known alpinist.
Scholars note that Petrarch's letter to Dionigi displays a strikingly "modern" attitude of aesthetic gratification in the grandeur of the scenery and is still often cited in books and journals devoted to the sport of mountaineering.

Horace Walker

Prominent figures of the period include Lord Francis Douglas, Florence Crauford Grove, Charles Hudson, E. S. Kennedy, William Mathews, A. W. Moore, Leslie Stephen, Francis Fox Tuckett, John Tyndall, Horace Walker and Edward Whymper.
Horace Walker (1838–1908) was an English mountaineer who made many notable first ascents, including Mount Elbrus and the Grandes Jorasses.

Charles Hudson (climber)

Charles Hudson
Prominent figures of the period include Lord Francis Douglas, Florence Crauford Grove, Charles Hudson, E. S. Kennedy, William Mathews, A. W. Moore, Leslie Stephen, Francis Fox Tuckett, John Tyndall, Horace Walker and Edward Whymper.
Charles Hudson (4 October 1828 – 14 July 1865) was an Anglican chaplain and mountain climber from Skillington, Lincolnshire, England.

Climbing

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Mountaineering-related activities include traditional outdoor climbing, hiking, skiing, and traversing via ferratas.
Mountaineering: Ascending mountains for sport or recreation. It often involves rock and/or ice climbing (Alpine climbing).

Rocky Mountains

RockiesRocky MountainRocky
In North America, Pikes Peak (14415 ft) in the Colorado Rockies (discovered in 1806) was first climbed by Edwin James and two others in 1820.
Public parks and forest lands protect much of the mountain range, and they are popular tourist destinations, especially for hiking, camping, mountaineering, fishing, hunting, mountain biking, skiing, and snowboarding.

Adolphus Warburton Moore

A. W. MooreA. W MooreAdolphus W. Moore
Prominent figures of the period include Lord Francis Douglas, Florence Crauford Grove, Charles Hudson, E. S. Kennedy, William Mathews, A. W. Moore, Leslie Stephen, Francis Fox Tuckett, John Tyndall, Horace Walker and Edward Whymper.
Adolphus Warburton Moore (1841–1887) (known generally as A. W. Moore) was a British civil servant and mountaineer.

Martin Conway, 1st Baron Conway of Allington

Martin ConwaySir Martin ConwayWilliam Martin Conway
The Andes of Bolivia were first explored by Sir William Martin Conway in 1898, who later visited the mountains of Tierra del Fuego on the southern tip of South America.
William Martin Conway, 1st Baron Conway of Allington (12 April 1856 – 19 April 1937), known between 1895 and 1931 as Sir Martin Conway, was an English art critic, politician, cartographer and mountaineer, who made expeditions in Europe as well as in South America and Asia.

Edward FitzGerald (mountaineer)

Edward FitzGeraldE. A. FitzgeraldEdward Arthur Fitzgerald
The summit of Aconcagua was finally reached on January 14, 1897 by Swiss mountaineer Matthias Zurbriggen during an expedition led by Edward FitzGerald that began in December 1896.
Edward Arthur FitzGerald (10 May 1871 – 2 January 1931) was an American born mountaineer and soldier of British descent, best known for leading the expedition which made the first ascent of Aconcagua, the highest mountain in South America, in 1897.

Alps

Alpinethe AlpsAlpine region
By the early 19th century many of the alpine peaks were reached, including the Grossglockner in 1800, the Ortler in 1804, the Jungfrau in 1811, the Finsteraarhorn in 1812, and the Breithorn in 1813.
The Union Internationale des Associations d'Alpinisme (UIAA) has defined a list of 82 "official" Alpine summits that reach at least 4,000 m. The list includes not only mountains, but also subpeaks with little prominence that are considered important mountaineering objectives.

Ludwig Purtscheller

L. PurtschellerPurtscheller
Mount Kilimanjaro in Africa was climbed in 1889 by Austrian mountaineer Ludwig Purtscheller and German geologist Hans Meyer, Mt. Kenya in 1899 by Halford Mackinder, and a peak of Ruwenzori by H. J. Moore in 1900.
Ludwig Purtscheller (October 6, 1849 – March 3, 1900) was an Austrian mountaineer and teacher.

Grossglockner

GroßglocknerGlockner
By the early 19th century many of the alpine peaks were reached, including the Grossglockner in 1800, the Ortler in 1804, the Jungfrau in 1811, the Finsteraarhorn in 1812, and the Breithorn in 1813.
Due to its low topographic prominence and isolation as well as its close links in climbing history, it is counted as part of that of the Grossglockner in historic publications; however, in view of its separate climbing routes it is counted as an independent peak in mountaineering literature.