35 mm movie projector in operation
A modern 4K digital cinema camera in 2018, Canon EOS C700 MultiDyne
Simulation of a spinning zoopraxiscope
The chronophotographic gun invented by Étienne-Jules Marey.
An early projector and seats from a movie theater
Charles Kayser of the Edison lab seated behind the Kinetograph. Portability was not among the camera's virtues.
1910's 35mm hand-cranked tinplate toy movie projector manufactured by Leonhard Müller in Nuremberg, Germany.
Film-gun at the Institut Lumière, France
35 mm Kinoton FP30ST movie projector, with parts labeled. (Click thumbnail for larger text.)
The Aeroscope (1909) was the first hand-held movie camera.
Mechanical sequence when image is shown twice and then advanced. 
Outer sprockets rotate continuously while the frame advance sprockets are controlled by the mechanism shown – a Geneva drive.
ARRI ARRICAM Studio 35mm film camera
Imaging lens Diastar of an Askania 35 mm movie projector (focal length: 400 mm)
The Red EPIC camera has been used to shoot numerous feature filmsincluding The Amazing Spiderman and The Hobbit.
Christie AW3 platter, BIG SKY Industries console, and Century SA projector
Basic operation: When the shutter inside the camera is opened, the film is illuminated. When the shutter is completely covering the film gate, the film strip is being moved one frame further by one or two claws which advance the film by engaging and pulling it through the perforations.
nonrewind in Royal – Malmö, Sweden
A spring-wound Bolex 16 mm camera
A diagram of the VistaVision format
Multiple cameras to take surround images (1900 Cinéorama system, for modern version see Circle-Vision 360°
A photo of a 35 mm film print featuring all four audio formats (or "quad track")- from left to right: SDDS (blue area to the left of the sprocket holes), Dolby Digital (grey area between the sprocket holes labelled with the Dolby "Double-D" logo in the middle), analog optical sound (the two white lines to the right of the sprocket holes), and the Datasat time code (the dashed line to the far right.)
Various German Agfa Movex Standard 8 home movie cameras
Simulated wide screen image with 1.96 to 1 ratio as it would be seen in a camera viewfinder or on a theater screen
Simulated anamorphed image with 1.33 to 1 ratio (4:3) as it would appear on a frame of film

Most of the optical and mechanical elements, except for the illumination and sound devices, are present in movie cameras.

- Movie projector

The strips of frames are projected through a movie projector at a specific frame rate (number of frames per second) to show a moving picture.

- Movie camera
35 mm movie projector in operation

2 related topics

Alpha

Interior view of Kinetoscope with peephole viewer at top of cabinet

Kinetoscope

Early motion-picture exhibition device.

Early motion-picture exhibition device.

Interior view of Kinetoscope with peephole viewer at top of cabinet
Sheet of images from one of the three Monkeyshines films (c. 1889–90) produced as tests of an early version of the Kinetoscope
An acre in size, Edison's exhibit at the Exposition Universelle included an entire electrical power station. (Smithsonian Institution/William J. Hammer Collection)
Charles Kayser of the Edison lab seated behind the Kinetograph. Portability was not among the camera's virtues.
35 mm filmstrip of the Edison production Butterfly Dance (c. 1894–95), featuring Annabelle Whitford Moore, in the format that would become standard for both still and motion picture photography around the world.
Construction of the imposing Black Maria began in December 1892. In order to take full advantage of sunlight, the tar paper–lined studio was equipped with a hinged, flip-up roof and the entire structure could rotate on a track. "It obeys no architectural rules," declared Dickson, who found it "productive of the happiest effects in the films."
A San Francisco Kinetoscope parlor, c. 1894–95.
Advertisement announcing the initial Kinetoscope exhibition in London, held on October 17, 1894.
The 1895 version of the Kinetophone in use, showing the earphones that lead to the cylinder phonograph within the cabinet
Reverse side of a kinetophone, showing a wax cylinder phonograph driven by a belt.
In the first decade of the 1900s, years before developing the compact Home Projecting Kinetoscope, Edison marketed an essentially theatrical 35 mm Projecting Kinetoscope for domestic use.
Image of a Projecting Kinetoscope published in 1914
Promotion of Kinetophone system, January 1913

The Kinetoscope was not a movie projector, but it introduced the basic approach that would become the standard for all cinematic projection before the advent of video.

Dickson and his team at the Edison lab also devised the Kinetograph, an innovative motion picture camera with rapid intermittent, or stop-and-go, film movement, to photograph movies for in-house experiments and, eventually, commercial Kinetoscope presentations.

Working principle of a Maltese cross or Geneva drive

Intermittent mechanism

Device or movement which regularly advances an object, web, or plastic film and then holds it in place.

Device or movement which regularly advances an object, web, or plastic film and then holds it in place.

Working principle of a Maltese cross or Geneva drive
Animation of a rotating shutter. The film is transported one frame when the shutter is blocking illumination of the film.
Film advance mechanism in the Soviet Luch-2 8mm film projector, based on a Reuleaux triangle.

This motion is critical to the use of film in a movie camera or movie projector.