Movie projector

35 mm movie projector in operation
Simulation of a spinning zoopraxiscope
An early projector and seats from a movie theater
1910's 35mm hand-cranked tinplate toy movie projector manufactured by Leonhard Müller in Nuremberg, Germany.
35 mm Kinoton FP30ST movie projector, with parts labeled. (Click thumbnail for larger text.)
Mechanical sequence when image is shown twice and then advanced. 
Outer sprockets rotate continuously while the frame advance sprockets are controlled by the mechanism shown – a Geneva drive.
Imaging lens Diastar of an Askania 35 mm movie projector (focal length: 400 mm)
Christie AW3 platter, BIG SKY Industries console, and Century SA projector
nonrewind in Royal – Malmö, Sweden
A diagram of the VistaVision format
A photo of a 35 mm film print featuring all four audio formats (or "quad track")- from left to right: SDDS (blue area to the left of the sprocket holes), Dolby Digital (grey area between the sprocket holes labelled with the Dolby "Double-D" logo in the middle), analog optical sound (the two white lines to the right of the sprocket holes), and the Datasat time code (the dashed line to the far right.)
Simulated wide screen image with 1.96 to 1 ratio as it would be seen in a camera viewfinder or on a theater screen
Simulated anamorphed image with 1.33 to 1 ratio (4:3) as it would appear on a frame of film

Opto-mechanical device for displaying motion picture film by projecting it onto a screen.

- Movie projector
35 mm movie projector in operation

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Projection screen in a movie theater

Projection screen

Installation consisting of a surface and a support structure used for displaying a projected image for the view of an audience.

Installation consisting of a surface and a support structure used for displaying a projected image for the view of an audience.

Projection screen in a movie theater
Home theater projection screen displaying a high-definition television image
An overhead projector projecting onto a pull-down screen
Inflatable movie screen

Different markets exist for screens targeted for use with digital projectors, movie projectors, overhead projectors and slide projectors, although the basic idea for each of them is very much the same: front projection screens work on diffusely reflecting the light projected on to them, whereas back-projection screens work by diffusely transmitting the light through them.

Muybridge in 1899

Eadweard Muybridge

Muybridge in 1899
Galloping horse, animated using photos by Muybridge
Muybridge's childhood home in Kingston upon Thames
Photo of Vernal Falls at Yosemite by Eadweard Muybridge, 1872
One of a series of Muybridge photos documenting the construction of the San Francisco Mint
Albumen silver print photograph of Muybridge in 1867 at base of the Ulysses S. Grant tree "71 Feet in Circumference" in the Mariposa Grove, Yosemite, by Carleton Watkins
Muybridge's The Horse in Motion, 1878
Animated gif from frame 1 to 11 of The Horse in Motion. "Sallie Gardner", owned by Leland Stanford, running at a 1:40 pace over the Palo Alto track, 19 June 1878
Plate 175. Crossing brook on stepping-stones with a fishing pole and can, 1887
American bison canteringanimated using 1887 photos by Eadweard Muybridge
Lawn tennis, serving, 1887
Horse and rider jumping, 1887
Patent model of one of Muybridge's machines for photographing objects in motion, 1879
Eadweard Muybridge statue at the Letterman Digital Arts Center in the Presidio of San Francisco
Title page of the first edition of Descriptive Zoopraxography
Cooking eggs at the Witches' Cauldron (c. 1867–1871)
Bay Shore, San Quentin (c. 1867–1874)
Sitka from Japanese Island (1868)
Fort Tongass, Group of Indians (1868)
South Farallon Island, Sea Lions in Main Top Bay (c. 1867–1872)
Mosquito Fall (c. 1868–1873)
Paiute Chief's Lodge (c. 1870)
A Modoc Warrior on the War Path (1873)
Original collotype
Side view
Front view
Original collotype
Front view
Alternative view
Athletes, Boxing
Spinning disc
Mirrored animation detail
A Couple Waltzing
Spinning disc
Animation detail
Animation of original Muybridge sequence (1887)

Eadweard Muybridge (9 April 1830 – 8 May 1904, born Edward James Muggeridge) was an English photographer known for his pioneering work in photographic studies of motion, and early work in motion-picture projection.

Interior view of Kinetoscope with peephole viewer at top of cabinet

Kinetoscope

Early motion-picture exhibition device.

Early motion-picture exhibition device.

Interior view of Kinetoscope with peephole viewer at top of cabinet
Sheet of images from one of the three Monkeyshines films (c. 1889–90) produced as tests of an early version of the Kinetoscope
An acre in size, Edison's exhibit at the Exposition Universelle included an entire electrical power station. (Smithsonian Institution/William J. Hammer Collection)
Charles Kayser of the Edison lab seated behind the Kinetograph. Portability was not among the camera's virtues.
35 mm filmstrip of the Edison production Butterfly Dance (c. 1894–95), featuring Annabelle Whitford Moore, in the format that would become standard for both still and motion picture photography around the world.
Construction of the imposing Black Maria began in December 1892. In order to take full advantage of sunlight, the tar paper–lined studio was equipped with a hinged, flip-up roof and the entire structure could rotate on a track. "It obeys no architectural rules," declared Dickson, who found it "productive of the happiest effects in the films."
A San Francisco Kinetoscope parlor, c. 1894–95.
Advertisement announcing the initial Kinetoscope exhibition in London, held on October 17, 1894.
The 1895 version of the Kinetophone in use, showing the earphones that lead to the cylinder phonograph within the cabinet
Reverse side of a kinetophone, showing a wax cylinder phonograph driven by a belt.
In the first decade of the 1900s, years before developing the compact Home Projecting Kinetoscope, Edison marketed an essentially theatrical 35 mm Projecting Kinetoscope for domestic use.
Image of a Projecting Kinetoscope published in 1914
Promotion of Kinetophone system, January 1913

The Kinetoscope was not a movie projector, but it introduced the basic approach that would become the standard for all cinematic projection before the advent of video.

Auguste (left) and Louis (right)

Auguste and Louis Lumière

The Lumière brothers, Auguste Marie Louis Nicolas Lumière (19 October 1862 – 10 April 1954) and Louis Jean Lumière (5 October 1864 – 6 June 1948), were French manufacturers of photography equipment, best known for their Cinématographe motion picture system and the short films they produced between 1895 and 1905, which places them among the earliest filmmakers.

The Lumière brothers, Auguste Marie Louis Nicolas Lumière (19 October 1862 – 10 April 1954) and Louis Jean Lumière (5 October 1864 – 6 June 1948), were French manufacturers of photography equipment, best known for their Cinématographe motion picture system and the short films they produced between 1895 and 1905, which places them among the earliest filmmakers.

Auguste (left) and Louis (right)
Cinématographe Lumière at the Institut Lumière, France
Tomb of the Lumière brothers in the New Guillotière Cemetery in Lyon
Lumière ou Projection privée (2010), by the French painter Arnaud Courlet de Vregille, displayed in l'Eden-Théâtre, the first cinema in the world, in La Ciotat.
Lumières La Sortie de l'Usine Lumière à Lyon 1895
Cinématographe advertising poster with image from L'Arroseur arrosé
Autochrome colour picture by Jean-Baptiste Tournassoud of North-African soldiers, Oise, France, 1917.
Their house in Lyon is now the Institut Lumière museum.

Their screening of a single film on 22 March 1895 for around 200 members of the "Society for the Development of the National Industry" in Paris was probably the first presentation of projected film.

Cinématographe Lumière at the Institut Lumière, France

Cinematograph

Early term for several types of motion picture film mechanisms.

Early term for several types of motion picture film mechanisms.

Cinématographe Lumière at the Institut Lumière, France
The Institut Lumière in Lyon, France
The Cinématographe Lumière in projection mode
The Cinématographe Lumière at Institut Lumière

The name was used for movie cameras as well as film projectors, or for complete systems that also provided means to print films (such as the Cinématographe Lumière).

A modern 4K digital cinema camera in 2018, Canon EOS C700 MultiDyne

Movie camera

Type of photographic camera that rapidly takes a sequence of photographs, either on an image sensor or onto film stock, in order to produce a moving image to project onto a movie screen.

Type of photographic camera that rapidly takes a sequence of photographs, either on an image sensor or onto film stock, in order to produce a moving image to project onto a movie screen.

A modern 4K digital cinema camera in 2018, Canon EOS C700 MultiDyne
The chronophotographic gun invented by Étienne-Jules Marey.
Charles Kayser of the Edison lab seated behind the Kinetograph. Portability was not among the camera's virtues.
Film-gun at the Institut Lumière, France
The Aeroscope (1909) was the first hand-held movie camera.
ARRI ARRICAM Studio 35mm film camera
The Red EPIC camera has been used to shoot numerous feature filmsincluding The Amazing Spiderman and The Hobbit.
Basic operation: When the shutter inside the camera is opened, the film is illuminated. When the shutter is completely covering the film gate, the film strip is being moved one frame further by one or two claws which advance the film by engaging and pulling it through the perforations.
A spring-wound Bolex 16 mm camera
Multiple cameras to take surround images (1900 Cinéorama system, for modern version see Circle-Vision 360°
Various German Agfa Movex Standard 8 home movie cameras

The strips of frames are projected through a movie projector at a specific frame rate (number of frames per second) to show a moving picture.

This animated cartoon of a galloping horse is displayed at 12 drawings per second, and the fast motion is on the edge of being objectionably jerky.

Frame rate

Frequency (rate) at which consecutive images (frames) are captured or displayed.

Frequency (rate) at which consecutive images (frames) are captured or displayed.

This animated cartoon of a galloping horse is displayed at 12 drawings per second, and the fast motion is on the edge of being objectionably jerky.
Low frame rate video
Video with 4 times increased frame rate

To minimize the perceived flicker, projectors employed dual- and triple-blade shutters, so each frame was displayed two or three times, increasing the flicker rate to 48 or 72 hertz and reducing eye strain.

The 15 kW xenon short-arc lamp used in the IMAX projection system.

Arc lamp

Lamp that produces light by an electric arc .

Lamp that produces light by an electric arc .

The 15 kW xenon short-arc lamp used in the IMAX projection system.
A mercury arc lamp from a fluorescence microscope.
A krypton long arc lamp (top) is shown above a xenon flashtube. The two lamps, used for laser pumping, are very different in the shape of the electrodes, in particular, the cathode (on the left).
A krypton arc lamp during operation.
A carbon arc lamp, cover removed, on the point of ignition. This model requires manual adjustment of the electrodes
An electric arc, demonstrating the “arch” effect.
Early experimental carbon arc light powered by liquid batteries, similar to Davy's
Medical carbon arc lamp used to treat skin conditions, 1909
Self-regulating arc lamp proposed by William Edwards Staite and William Petrie in 1847

It continued in use in more specialized applications where a high intensity point light source was needed, such as searchlights and movie projectors until after World War II.

Modern cinema auditorium in Madrid, Spain

Movie theater

Building that contains auditoria for viewing films (also called movies) for entertainment.

Building that contains auditoria for viewing films (also called movies) for entertainment.

Modern cinema auditorium in Madrid, Spain
Rodgers Theatre in Poplar Bluff in Missouri. This Art Deco-style theater opened in 1949.
The view from the projectionist's booth at Ultimate Palace Cinema in Oxford. The projector is displaying the 1997 Universal Pictures logo.
A cinema auditorium in Australia
The Fox Theater in Atlanta has an old-fashioned neon sign.
Kay Theater in Rockdale, Texas
The Berlin Wintergarten theatre was the site of the Skladanowsky brothers's first film presentation from 1 to 31 November 1895
L'Idéal Cinéma at Aniche, France, opened 23 November 1905, closed 1977, demolished in 1995
A small still-active Kino Juha movie theatre in Nurmijärvi, Finland, opened in 1958
Regent Theatre in Hokitika, New Zealand
Cinema Odeon auditorium in Florence
Interior of Hoyts cinemas auditorium in Perth, Australia, with stadium seating with cup holders, acoustic wall hangings and wall-mounted speakers.
Interior of a 1950s-style fine arts movie theater auditorium. A low pitch viewing floor is used.
Tennispalatsi, one of the major Finnkino multiplex movie theatre places, in Helsinki, Finland
A typical raked (sloped) floor for a movie auditorium, which gives all viewers a clear view of the screen.
Example of a Multiplex layout
A drive-in with a 33-metre (108-foot) wide inflatable movie screen in the centre of Brussels
A giant inflatable movie screen used at a temporary outdoor movie theater (open air cinema)
1967 Bedford mobile cinema
A typical multiplex (AMC Promenade 16 in Woodland Hills, Los Angeles)
Non-movie-theater screening: movie in a culture club in Germany
35 mm movie projector
Broadcast center
Admission prices board, Cinema Museum (London)
Seating indicator
Box office of a 1950s style fine arts movie theater.
A theatre-goer enjoys a show
Some movie theaters in Finland sell alcohol to take along to the movie itself in select showings. Such showings are always adults-only, regardless of the rating of the movie.
These ratings are from the revised Taiwan motion picture rating system which took effect in October 2015.
Admission ticket for the premier of the movie A Viszkis
A bag of popcorn from the Plaza Theater in Atlanta, Georgia.
Hallway of MPX Grande, a defunct movie theater in Pasaraya Blok M, Jakarta.

The film is projected with a movie projector onto a large projection screen at the front of the auditorium while the dialogue, sounds, and music are played through a number of wall-mounted speakers.

Animated GIF of Prof. Stampfer's Stroboscopische Scheibe No. X (Trentsensky & Vieweg 1833)

Film

Work of visual art that simulates experiences and otherwise communicates ideas, stories, perceptions, feelings, beauty, or atmosphere through the use of moving images.

Work of visual art that simulates experiences and otherwise communicates ideas, stories, perceptions, feelings, beauty, or atmosphere through the use of moving images.

Animated GIF of Prof. Stampfer's Stroboscopische Scheibe No. X (Trentsensky & Vieweg 1833)
An animated GIF of a photographic sequence shot by Eadweard Muybridge in 1878. His chronophotographic works can be regarded as very short movies that were recorded before there was a proper way to replay the material in motion.
A frame from Roundhay Garden Scene, the world's earliest surviving film produced using a motion picture camera, by Louis Le Prince, 1888
A famous shot from Georges Méliès Le Voyage dans la Lune (A Trip to the Moon) (1902), an early narrative film and also an early science fiction film.
Salah Zulfikar, one of the most popular actors in the golden age of Egyptian Cinema
This 16 mm spring-wound Bolex "H16" Reflex camera is a popular entry level camera used in film schools.
Founded in 1912, the Babelsberg Studio near Berlin was the first large-scale film studio in the world, and the forerunner to Hollywood. It still produces global blockbusters every year.
The Lumière Brothers, who were among the first filmmakers
Salah Zulfikar and Faten Hamama in the premiere of Bain Al-Atlal ("Among the Ruins") in Cairo, 1959
An animated image of a horse, made using eight pictures.
An animation of the retouched Sallie Garner card from The Horse in Motion series (1878–1879) by Muybridge. His chronophotographic works can be regarded as very short movies that were recorded before there was a proper way to replay the material in motion.

The images are transmitted through a movie projector at the same rate as they were recorded, with a Geneva drive ensuring that each frame remains still during its short projection time.