A report on Movie projector and Zoopraxiscope

35 mm movie projector in operation
Black-and-white picture of a coloured zoopraxiscope disc, circa 1893 by Eadweard Muybridge and Erwin F. Faber
Simulation of a spinning zoopraxiscope
Black-and-white animation of a colored zoopraxiscope (without distortion, hence the elongated form)
An early projector and seats from a movie theater
1910's 35mm hand-cranked tinplate toy movie projector manufactured by Leonhard Müller in Nuremberg, Germany.
35 mm Kinoton FP30ST movie projector, with parts labeled. (Click thumbnail for larger text.)
Mechanical sequence when image is shown twice and then advanced. 
Outer sprockets rotate continuously while the frame advance sprockets are controlled by the mechanism shown – a Geneva drive.
Imaging lens Diastar of an Askania 35 mm movie projector (focal length: 400 mm)
Christie AW3 platter, BIG SKY Industries console, and Century SA projector
nonrewind in Royal – Malmö, Sweden
A diagram of the VistaVision format
A photo of a 35 mm film print featuring all four audio formats (or "quad track")- from left to right: SDDS (blue area to the left of the sprocket holes), Dolby Digital (grey area between the sprocket holes labelled with the Dolby "Double-D" logo in the middle), analog optical sound (the two white lines to the right of the sprocket holes), and the Datasat time code (the dashed line to the far right.)
Simulated wide screen image with 1.96 to 1 ratio as it would be seen in a camera viewfinder or on a theater screen
Simulated anamorphed image with 1.33 to 1 ratio (4:3) as it would appear on a frame of film

The zoopraxiscope (initially named zoographiscope and zoogyroscope) is an early device for displaying moving images and is considered an important predecessor of the movie projector.

- Zoopraxiscope

Eadweard Muybridge developed his Zoopraxiscope in 1879 and gave many lectures with the machine from 1880 to 1894.

- Movie projector
35 mm movie projector in operation

2 related topics with Alpha


Muybridge in 1899

Eadweard Muybridge

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Muybridge in 1899
Galloping horse, animated using photos by Muybridge
Muybridge's childhood home in Kingston upon Thames
Photo of Vernal Falls at Yosemite by Eadweard Muybridge, 1872
One of a series of Muybridge photos documenting the construction of the San Francisco Mint
Albumen silver print photograph of Muybridge in 1867 at base of the Ulysses S. Grant tree "71 Feet in Circumference" in the Mariposa Grove, Yosemite, by Carleton Watkins
Muybridge's The Horse in Motion, 1878
Animated gif from frame 1 to 11 of The Horse in Motion. "Sallie Gardner", owned by Leland Stanford, running at a 1:40 pace over the Palo Alto track, 19 June 1878
Plate 175. Crossing brook on stepping-stones with a fishing pole and can, 1887
American bison canteringanimated using 1887 photos by Eadweard Muybridge
Lawn tennis, serving, 1887
Horse and rider jumping, 1887
Patent model of one of Muybridge's machines for photographing objects in motion, 1879
Eadweard Muybridge statue at the Letterman Digital Arts Center in the Presidio of San Francisco
Title page of the first edition of Descriptive Zoopraxography
Cooking eggs at the Witches' Cauldron (c. 1867–1871)
Bay Shore, San Quentin (c. 1867–1874)
Sitka from Japanese Island (1868)
Fort Tongass, Group of Indians (1868)
South Farallon Island, Sea Lions in Main Top Bay (c. 1867–1872)
Mosquito Fall (c. 1868–1873)
Paiute Chief's Lodge (c. 1870)
A Modoc Warrior on the War Path (1873)
Original collotype
Side view
Front view
Original collotype
Front view
Alternative view
Athletes, Boxing
Spinning disc
Mirrored animation detail
A Couple Waltzing
Spinning disc
Animation detail
Animation of original Muybridge sequence (1887)

Eadweard Muybridge (9 April 1830 – 8 May 1904, born Edward James Muggeridge) was an English photographer known for his pioneering work in photographic studies of motion, and early work in motion-picture projection.

Today, Muybridge is best known for his pioneering chronophotography of animal locomotion between 1878 and 1886, which used multiple cameras to capture the different positions in a stride, and for his zoopraxiscope, a device for projecting painted motion pictures from glass discs that pre-dated the flexible perforated film strip used in cinematography.

Interior view of Kinetoscope with peephole viewer at top of cabinet


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Early motion-picture exhibition device.

Early motion-picture exhibition device.

Interior view of Kinetoscope with peephole viewer at top of cabinet
Sheet of images from one of the three Monkeyshines films (c. 1889–90) produced as tests of an early version of the Kinetoscope
An acre in size, Edison's exhibit at the Exposition Universelle included an entire electrical power station. (Smithsonian Institution/William J. Hammer Collection)
Charles Kayser of the Edison lab seated behind the Kinetograph. Portability was not among the camera's virtues.
35 mm filmstrip of the Edison production Butterfly Dance (c. 1894–95), featuring Annabelle Whitford Moore, in the format that would become standard for both still and motion picture photography around the world.
Construction of the imposing Black Maria began in December 1892. In order to take full advantage of sunlight, the tar paper–lined studio was equipped with a hinged, flip-up roof and the entire structure could rotate on a track. "It obeys no architectural rules," declared Dickson, who found it "productive of the happiest effects in the films."
A San Francisco Kinetoscope parlor, c. 1894–95.
Advertisement announcing the initial Kinetoscope exhibition in London, held on October 17, 1894.
The 1895 version of the Kinetophone in use, showing the earphones that lead to the cylinder phonograph within the cabinet
Reverse side of a kinetophone, showing a wax cylinder phonograph driven by a belt.
In the first decade of the 1900s, years before developing the compact Home Projecting Kinetoscope, Edison marketed an essentially theatrical 35 mm Projecting Kinetoscope for domestic use.
Image of a Projecting Kinetoscope published in 1914
Promotion of Kinetophone system, January 1913

The Kinetoscope was not a movie projector, but it introduced the basic approach that would become the standard for all cinematic projection before the advent of video.

On February 25, 1888, in Kaust, Kentucky, Muybridge gave a lecture that may have included a demonstration of his zoopraxiscope, a device that projected sequential images drawn around the edge of a glass disc, producing the illusion of motion.