Movie projector

35 mm movie projector in operation
Simulation of a spinning zoopraxiscope
An early projector and seats from a movie theater
1910's 35mm hand-cranked tinplate toy movie projector manufactured by Leonhard Müller in Nuremberg, Germany.
35 mm Kinoton FP30ST movie projector, with parts labeled. (Click thumbnail for larger text.)
Mechanical sequence when image is shown twice and then advanced. 
Outer sprockets rotate continuously while the frame advance sprockets are controlled by the mechanism shown – a Geneva drive.
Imaging lens Diastar of an Askania 35 mm movie projector (focal length: 400 mm)
Christie AW3 platter, BIG SKY Industries console, and Century SA projector
nonrewind in Royal – Malmö, Sweden
A diagram of the VistaVision format
A photo of a 35 mm film print featuring all four audio formats (or "quad track")- from left to right: SDDS (blue area to the left of the sprocket holes), Dolby Digital (grey area between the sprocket holes labelled with the Dolby "Double-D" logo in the middle), analog optical sound (the two white lines to the right of the sprocket holes), and the Datasat time code (the dashed line to the far right.)
Simulated wide screen image with 1.96 to 1 ratio as it would be seen in a camera viewfinder or on a theater screen
Simulated anamorphed image with 1.33 to 1 ratio (4:3) as it would appear on a frame of film

Opto-mechanical device for displaying motion picture film by projecting it onto a screen.

- Movie projector
35 mm movie projector in operation

30 related topics

Alpha

Black-and-white picture of a coloured zoopraxiscope disc, circa 1893 by Eadweard Muybridge and Erwin F. Faber

Zoopraxiscope

Black-and-white picture of a coloured zoopraxiscope disc, circa 1893 by Eadweard Muybridge and Erwin F. Faber
Black-and-white animation of a colored zoopraxiscope (without distortion, hence the elongated form)

The zoopraxiscope (initially named zoographiscope and zoogyroscope) is an early device for displaying moving images and is considered an important predecessor of the movie projector.

Projection screen in a movie theater

Projection screen

Installation consisting of a surface and a support structure used for displaying a projected image for the view of an audience.

Installation consisting of a surface and a support structure used for displaying a projected image for the view of an audience.

Projection screen in a movie theater
Home theater projection screen displaying a high-definition television image
An overhead projector projecting onto a pull-down screen
Inflatable movie screen

Different markets exist for screens targeted for use with digital projectors, movie projectors, overhead projectors and slide projectors, although the basic idea for each of them is very much the same: front projection screens work on diffusely reflecting the light projected on to them, whereas back-projection screens work by diffusely transmitting the light through them.

Max and Emil Skladanowsky in front of a projection screen

Max Skladanowsky

German inventor and early filmmaker.

German inventor and early filmmaker.

Max and Emil Skladanowsky in front of a projection screen
1895 poster for Bioscop screenings
Max Skladanowsky (right) in 1934 with his brother Eugen and the Bioscop

Along with his brother Emil, he invented the Bioscop, an early movie projector the Skladanowsky brothers used to display the first moving picture show to a paying audience on 1 November 1895, shortly before the public debut of the Lumière Brothers' Cinématographe in Paris on 28 December 1895.

A cartridge of Kodak 35 mm (135) film for cameras.

Film format

Technical definition of a set of standard characteristics regarding image capture on photographic film, for either stills or filmmaking.

Technical definition of a set of standard characteristics regarding image capture on photographic film, for either stills or filmmaking.

A cartridge of Kodak 35 mm (135) film for cameras.

Other characteristics usually include the film gauge, pulldown method, lens anamorphosis (or lack thereof), and film gate or projector aperture dimensions, all of which need to be defined for photography as well as projection, as they may differ.

This animated cartoon of a galloping horse is displayed at 12 drawings per second, and the fast motion is on the edge of being objectionably jerky.

Frame rate

Frequency (rate) at which consecutive images (frames) are captured or displayed.

Frequency (rate) at which consecutive images (frames) are captured or displayed.

This animated cartoon of a galloping horse is displayed at 12 drawings per second, and the fast motion is on the edge of being objectionably jerky.
Low frame rate video
Video with 4 times increased frame rate

To minimize the perceived flicker, projectors employed dual- and triple-blade shutters, so each frame was displayed two or three times, increasing the flicker rate to 48 or 72 hertz and reducing eye strain.

Muybridge in 1899

Eadweard Muybridge

Muybridge in 1899
Galloping horse, animated using photos by Muybridge
Muybridge's childhood home in Kingston upon Thames
Photo of Vernal Falls at Yosemite by Eadweard Muybridge, 1872
One of a series of Muybridge photos documenting the construction of the San Francisco Mint
Albumen silver print photograph of Muybridge in 1867 at base of the Ulysses S. Grant tree "71 Feet in Circumference" in the Mariposa Grove, Yosemite, by Carleton Watkins
Muybridge's The Horse in Motion, 1878
Animated gif from frame 1 to 11 of The Horse in Motion. "Sallie Gardner", owned by Leland Stanford, running at a 1:40 pace over the Palo Alto track, 19 June 1878
Plate 175. Crossing brook on stepping-stones with a fishing pole and can, 1887
American bison canteringanimated using 1887 photos by Eadweard Muybridge
Lawn tennis, serving, 1887
Horse and rider jumping, 1887
Patent model of one of Muybridge's machines for photographing objects in motion, 1879
Eadweard Muybridge statue at the Letterman Digital Arts Center in the Presidio of San Francisco
Title page of the first edition of Descriptive Zoopraxography
Cooking eggs at the Witches' Cauldron (c. 1867–1871)
Bay Shore, San Quentin (c. 1867–1874)
Sitka from Japanese Island (1868)
Fort Tongass, Group of Indians (1868)
South Farallon Island, Sea Lions in Main Top Bay (c. 1867–1872)
Mosquito Fall (c. 1868–1873)
Paiute Chief's Lodge (c. 1870)
A Modoc Warrior on the War Path (1873)
Original collotype
Side view
Front view
Original collotype
Front view
Alternative view
Athletes, Boxing
Spinning disc
Mirrored animation detail
A Couple Waltzing
Spinning disc
Animation detail
Animation of original Muybridge sequence (1887)

Eadweard Muybridge (9 April 1830 – 8 May 1904, born Edward James Muggeridge) was an English photographer known for his pioneering work in photographic studies of motion, and early work in motion-picture projection.

The 15 kW xenon short-arc lamp used in the IMAX projection system.

Arc lamp

Lamp that produces light by an electric arc .

Lamp that produces light by an electric arc .

The 15 kW xenon short-arc lamp used in the IMAX projection system.
A mercury arc lamp from a fluorescence microscope.
A krypton long arc lamp (top) is shown above a xenon flashtube. The two lamps, used for laser pumping, are very different in the shape of the electrodes, in particular, the cathode (on the left).
A krypton arc lamp during operation.
A carbon arc lamp, cover removed, on the point of ignition. This model requires manual adjustment of the electrodes
An electric arc, demonstrating the “arch” effect.
Early experimental carbon arc light powered by liquid batteries, similar to Davy's
Medical carbon arc lamp used to treat skin conditions, 1909
Self-regulating arc lamp proposed by William Edwards Staite and William Petrie in 1847

It continued in use in more specialized applications where a high intensity point light source was needed, such as searchlights and movie projectors until after World War II.

Projected image from a video projector in a home cinema.

Video projector

About home and business projectors; for video projectors used in movie theaters, see digital cinema.

About home and business projectors; for video projectors used in movie theaters, see digital cinema.

Projected image from a video projector in a home cinema.
A Zenith Electronics 1200 CRT Projector based home theater, ca. 2006.

Video projectors are used for many applications such as conference room presentations, classroom training, home cinema, movie theaters and concerts, having mostly replaced overhead, slide and conventional film projectors.

Panavision

American motion picture equipment company founded in 1953 specializing in cameras and lenses, based in Woodland Hills, California.

American motion picture equipment company founded in 1953 specializing in cameras and lenses, based in Woodland Hills, California.

Screenshot of The Big Fisherman (1959), the first film released using the Super Panavision 70 process. The image shows the 2.20:1 aspect ratio in which the film was presented.
Panavision cinematic camera R-200°

Panavision was established principally for the manufacture of anamorphic projection lenses to meet the growing demands of theaters showing CinemaScope films.

Working principle of a Maltese cross or Geneva drive

Intermittent mechanism

Device or movement which regularly advances an object, web, or plastic film and then holds it in place.

Device or movement which regularly advances an object, web, or plastic film and then holds it in place.

Working principle of a Maltese cross or Geneva drive
Animation of a rotating shutter. The film is transported one frame when the shutter is blocking illumination of the film.
Film advance mechanism in the Soviet Luch-2 8mm film projector, based on a Reuleaux triangle.

This motion is critical to the use of film in a movie camera or movie projector.