Mozambique

Mozambican dhow
Arab-Swahili slave traders and their captives on the Ruvuma River
The Island of Mozambique is a small coral island at the mouth of Mossuril Bay on the Nacala coast of northern Mozambique, first explored by Europeans in the late 15th century.
View of the Central Avenue in Lourenço Marques, now Maputo, ca. 1905
Portuguese language printing and typesetting class, 1930
Portuguese troops during the Portuguese Colonial War, some loading FN FAL and G3
A land mine victim in Mozambique
The geopolitical situation in 1975, nations friendly to the FRELIMO are shown in orange
A US helicopter flying over the flooded Limpopo River during the 2000 Mozambique flood
Satellite image
Mozambique map of Köppen climate classification zones
Incumbent President Filipe Nyusi
Maputo City Hall
A section of the crowd at its final campaign rally for the 2014 election
Mozambique's embassy in Washington, D.C.
Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi meets members of Indian community in Mozambique, 7 July 2016
Historical development of real GDP per capita in Mozambique, since 1960
A proportional representation of Mozambique's exports
Traditional sailboat in Ilha de Moçambique
European tourists on the beach, in Inhambane, Mozambique
Vilanculos beach Mozambique
Carrying goods on head in Mozambique
Steam locomotive at Inhambane, 2009
National Mozambican airline, LAM Mozambique
Woman fetching water during the dry season from a polluted source in Machaze District of the Central Manica Province
Ethnic map of Mozambique
Population pyramid 2016
The increase in the number of HIV positive Mozambicans on Antiretroviral treatment, 2003–14
Woman with traditional mask in Mozambique
Island of Mozambique, 2016
Headquarters of Rádio Moçambique in KaMpfumo district of Maputo (photo 2009)
Lebombo Mountains
Gorongosa National Park
Island of Mozambique
Monte Binga
Ponta do Ouro
Pupils in front of their school in Nampula, Mozambique
School children in the classroom

Country located in Southeastern Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Eswatini (Swaziland) and South Africa to the southwest.

- Mozambique

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Portuguese Mozambique

Location of Mozambique in Africa
The Portuguese fortress São Sebastião on Mozambique Island.
Location of Mozambique in Africa
The Island of Mozambique was first occupied by Portuguese explorers in the late 15th century. They quickly established a fort there, and with time a community sprang up and achieved importance as port of call, missionary base and a trading centre. The island is now a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Painting by Johannes Vingboons of Sofala, c. 1665
View of Lourenço Marques, ca. 1905
Former Portuguese administrative buildings and hospital, on Mozambique Island.
Ponta Vermelha Palace, former residence of the Portuguese governor and current presidential palace of Mozambique
Flag of the Portuguese governor of Mozambique.
Marracuene was the site of a decisive battle between Portuguese and King Gungunhana of Gaza in 1895.
Mount Murresse in Gurué (tea plantation).
Military road map of Portuguese Mozambique
Administrative divisions and ethnic groups of Portuguese Mozambique, 1964
Wedding procession at Tete, from David Livingstone's Narrative of an Expedition to the Zambesi and its Tributaries
Central train station of Lourenço Marques (renamed as Maputo)
Caeiro Lda. Tobacco Factory.
Cahora Bassa Dam reservoir — the dam began construction in 1969 and was at the time one of the biggest in all of Africa.
Portuguese language printing and typesetting class, 1930
The Clube Sport da Beira in the city of Beira.
War in Mozambique, 1961
Lourenço Marques (nowadays Maputo) in 1925.
Eusébio, one of the most famous players in Portuguese football history
Proposed flag for Portuguese Mozambique
Narrow-gauge rail in Beira. 1897.
Inauguration of the "tramuei" (Tramway). Beira, 1901.
Volunteer firemen, 1903.
Beira, 1901.
Portuguese police force in 1925.
Observatory. 1930.
Agronomist office.
Brewery. Beira, 1930.
Teachers and students of the "School of Arts and Trades".
Border post between Portuguese Mozambique and British-Swaziland, 1929.
Beachfront double estate. Beira, 1939.
Large beachfront estate in Beira.
Beachfront estate in Beira, 1939.
Private residence in Beira. 1930.
Standard Bank building, Beira. 1925.
Beira Clube. Beira, 1930.
"Indo-Portuguese recreational center". Beira.
Hotel Polana 1929, once one of the largest and most luxurious in southern Africa.
Courtroom. Beira, 1925.
Cine-Theater. Inhambane.
Colonial residence, Maputo.
Primary school, Maputo.
Maputo Naval Club.
25 reis 1877
100 reis 1895
100 reis 1898.
115 reis 1915
1 escudo 1921
10 centavos 1933

Portuguese Mozambique (Moçambique) or Portuguese East Africa (África Oriental Portuguesa) were the common terms by which Mozambique was designated during the period in which it was a Portuguese colony.

South Africa

Southernmost country in Africa.

Migrations that formed the modern Rainbow nation
Mapungubwe Hill, the site of the former capital of the Kingdom of Mapungubwe
Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias planting the cross at Cape Point after being the first to successfully round the Cape of Good Hope.
Charles Davidson Bell's 19th-century painting of Jan van Riebeeck, who founded the first European settlement in South Africa, arrives in Table Bay in 1652
Depiction of a Zulu attack on a Boer camp in February 1838
The First Boer War was a rebellion of Boers against the British rule in the Transvaal that re-established their independence.
"For use by white persons" – apartheid sign in English and Afrikaans
FW de Klerk and Nelson Mandela shake hands in January 1992
The Central Plateau edged by the Great Escarpment, and the Cape Fold Belt
The thick line traces the Great Escarpment bordering the central plateau; the line's red portion is the Drakensberg. The Escarpment rises to its highest, over 3000 m, where it separates KwaZulu-Natal and Lesotho. No regions on the map have well-defined borders except where the Escarpment or a mountain range forms a clear dividing line
Drakensberg, the eastern and highest portion of the Great Escarpment which surrounds the east, south and western borders of the central plateau of Southern Africa
Spring flowers in Namaqualand
Köppen climate types of South Africa
South African giraffes, Kruger National Park
Subtropical forest near Durban
Lowveld vegetation of the Kruger National Park
Cape Floral Region Protected Areas
Union Buildings in Pretoria, seat of the executive
Houses of Parliament in Cape Town, seat of the legislature
Constitutional Court in Johannesburg
Soweto Pride 2012 participants protest against violence against lesbians. The country has strong human rights laws but some groups are still discriminated against. It is the first country in Africa to recognise same sex marriage
SANDF soldiers
Provinces of South Africa
Change in per capita GDP of South Africa, 1700–2018. Figures are inflation-adjusted to 2011 International dollars.
Annual per capita personal income by race group in South Africa relative to white levels
A proportional representation of South Africa exports, 2019
The Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE) is the largest stock exchange on the African continent
Workers packing pears for export in the Ceres Valley, Western Cape
Mark Shuttleworth in space
Schoolchildren in Mitchell's Plain
Life expectancy in select Southern African countries, 1950–2019. HIV/AIDS has caused a fall in life expectancy.
Rock painting of an eland, Drakensberg
Olive Schreiner
A plate of freshly prepared Babotie, a meat-based meal which originated within South Africa.
Kagiso Rabada, South African cricketer
The Springboks in a bus parade after winning the 2007 Rugby World Cup

South Africa is bounded to the south by 2798 km of coastline that stretch along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans; to the north by the neighbouring countries of Namibia, Botswana, and Zimbabwe; and to the east and northeast by Mozambique and Eswatini and it surrounds the enclaved country of Lesotho.

Mozambican Civil War

Mozambican victim of land mines set up during the war.
The geopolitical situation of Rhodesia in 1965. Rhodesia is coloured green and countries friendly to the government (South Africa and Portugal) are shown in purple.
The geopolitical situation of Rhodesia after the independence of Angola and Mozambique in 1975. Rhodesia itself is shown in green, nations friendly to the nationalist guerrillas are shown in orange, and South Africa and its dependency South-West Africa (now Namibia) are coloured purple.
Afonso Dhlakama (center), leader of RENAMO from 1979
RENAMO-held areas in 1994

The Mozambican Civil War (Guerra Civil Moçambicana) was a civil war fought in Mozambique from 1977 to 1992.

Swahili language

Bantu language and the native language of the Swahili people native primarily to Tanzania.

Swahili in Arabic script—memorial plate at the Askari Monument, Dar es Salaam (1927)
Although originally written with the Arabic script, Swahili is now written in a Latin alphabet introduced by Christian missionaries and colonial administrators. The text shown here is the Catholic version of the Lord's Prayer.
Swahili in Arabic script on the clothes of a girl in German East Africa (ca. early 1900s)
Loxodonta africana elephants frolic in Amboseli National Park, Kenya, 2012.

It is a lingua franca of other areas in the African Great Lakes region and East and Southern Africa, including some parts of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Malawi, Mozambique, the southern tip of Somalia, and Zambia.

Portuguese language

Western Romance language of the Indo-European language family, originating in the Iberian Peninsula of Europe.

Spoken area of Galician-Portuguese (also known as Old Portuguese or Medieval Galician) in the kingdoms of Galicia and León around the 10th century, before the separation of Galician and Portuguese.
Sign in Japanese, Portuguese, and English in Oizumi, Japan, which has a large lusophone community due to return immigration of Japanese Brazilians.
Countries and regions where Portuguese has official status.
Multilingual signage in Chinese, Portuguese and English at the Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge port building in Macau. Portuguese is a co-official language in Macau.
Ethnically diverse East Timor has Portuguese as one of its official languages.
Statue of the Portuguese Poet Luís de Camões at the entrence of the Real Gabinete Português de Leitura in Rio de Janeiro.
Museum of the Portuguese Language in São Paulo.
Portugal's Portuguese Dialects.
Percentage of worldwide Portuguese speakers per country.
In Brasília, the Senate committee room during a meeting of the Education, Culture and Sport Committee in 2014. The committee holds a public hearing to discuss the Orthographic Agreement for the Portuguese Language, signed in 1990 and implemented in January 2016. The new rules must apply for the eight countries that have Portuguese as an official language, including Brazil, Portugal, etc.
Linguistic map of Pre-Roman Iberia.
Library of the Real Gabinete Português de Leitura in Rio de Janeiro.
A sign at Goa Central Library, in Panaji, India, listing three Portuguese-language newspapers
Map showing the historical retreat and expansion of Portuguese (Galician-Portuguese) within the context of its linguistic neighbors between the year 1000 and 2000.
Map showing mostly contemporary West Iberian and Occitano-Romance languages, as well many of their mainland European dialects (areas colored green, gold or pink/purple represent languages deemed endangered by UNESCO, so this may be outdated in less than a few decades). It shows European Portuguese, Galician, Eonavian, Mirandese and the Fala as not only closely related but as dialect continuum, though it excludes dialects spoken in insular Portugal (Azores and Madeira–Canaries is not shown either).
An Old Portuguese Memento mori memorial sign in Malacca City.
Participating countries of the Lusophony Games.
Chart of monophthongs of the Portuguese of Lisbon, with its in central schwa position.
Museum of the Portuguese Language in São Paulo.
Real Gabinete Português de Leitura in Recife.
The main post office building of Macau
The Bissau-Guinean Presidential Palace, with its Portuguese colonial architecture, is a building that has a library, a small theater and was formerly the palace of the colonial governor of Portuguese-Guinea, seen from the PAIGC-building (formerly the seat of the local commercial association Associação Comercial, Industrial e Agrícola de Bissau), located at the Praça dos Heróis Nacionais square (formerly Praça do Império square), in downtown Bissau.
The Natural History Museum of Mozambique (Manueline) in Maputo.
The Fundação Oriente of Fontainhas, India. The Fundação Oriente, along with Instituto Camões, Instituto Menezes Bragança among others, are institutions dedicated to the worldwide promotion of the Portuguese language and culture.
The International Portuguese Language Institute headquarters, in Praia.

It is the sole official language of Portugal, Brazil, Cape Verde, Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau and São Tomé and Príncipe, while having co-official language status in East Timor, Equatorial Guinea, and Macau.

Mozambican War of Independence

Armed conflict between the guerrilla forces of the Mozambique Liberation Front or FRELIMO and Portugal.

Mozambique within modern-day Africa.
The location of Mozambique in southern Africa
A Portuguese propaganda flier, distributed from aeroplanes: "FRELIMO lied! You suffer".
The Aérospatiale Alouette III, one of the most common helicopters operating in Africa, but a rare sight in the Mozambican conflict
A Portuguese Air Force G.91 fighter-bomber. After 1966, the G.91 become the backbone of the Portuguese air support in Mozambique, equipping squadrons 502 (Nacala) and 702 (Tete).
The Cahora Bassa dam (as seen from space), was built by the Portuguese colonial government during the war as part of a major development plan and helped to win support of the populace. It was a target of frequent FRELIMO attacks but no direct guerrilla attacks were ever successful.
A memorial service for fallen Portuguese soldiers.
Portuguese soldiers on patrol, illustrating the difficult terrain they encountered
Graph showing the rise in military expenditure during the Portuguese Colonial Wars. The yellow bars represent ordinary and the burgundy 'extraordinary' military expenditure.

In Mozambique, the conflict erupted in 1964 as a result of unrest and frustration amongst many indigenous Mozambican populations, who perceived foreign rule as exploitation and mistreatment, which served only to further Portuguese economic interests in the region.

Tanzania

Country in East Africa within the African Great Lakes region.

A 1.8-million-year-old stone chopping tool discovered at Olduvai Gorge and on display at the British Museum.
A 1572 depiction of the portuguese city of Kilwa, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Battle during the Maji Maji Rebellion against German colonial rule in 1905.
The Arusha Declaration Monument
Wildebeest migration in the Serengeti
Tanzania map of Köppen climate classification
The Masai giraffe is Tanzania's national animal
The semi-autonomous Zanzibar Archipelago
Regions of Tanzania
Tanzanian ambassador to Russia Jaka Mwambi presenting his credentials to the Russian President Dmitry Medvedev
Tanzanian Embassy in West End, Washington, D.C., USA
FIB Tanzanian special forces during training
A proportional representation of Tanzania exports, 2019
Historical development of real GDP per capita in Tanzania, since 1950
Tea fields in Tukuyu
Nyerere Bridge in Kigamboni, Dar es Salaam
The snowcapped Uhuru Peak
One of the main trunk roads
Zanzibar harbour
Domestic expenditure on research in Southern Africa as a percentage of GDP, 2012 or closest year. Source: UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030 (2015), Figure 20.3
A Tanzanian woman cooks Pilau rice dish wearing traditional Kanga.
Farmers using a rice harvester to harvest rice in Igunga District, Tanzania
Example of a World Food Programme parcel
Researchers (HC) in Southern Africa per million inhabitants, 2013 or closest year
Scientific publications per million inhabitants in SADC countries in 2014. Source: UNESCO Science Report (2015), data from Thomson Reuters' Web of Science, Science Citation Index Expanded
The Hadza live as hunter-gatherers.
A carved door with Arabic calligraphy in Zanzibar
Nkrumah Hall at the University of Dar es Salaam
Development of life expectancy
Tanzanian woman harvest tea leaves
Judith Wambura (Lady Jaydee) is a popular Bongo Flava recording singer.
A Tingatinga painting
National Stadium in Dar es Salaam.
St Joseph's Catholic cathedral, Zanzibar

It borders Uganda to the north; Kenya to the northeast; Comoro Islands and the Indian Ocean to the east; Mozambique and Malawi to the south; Zambia to the southwest; and Rwanda, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west.

Eswatini

Landlocked country in Southern Africa.

A 19th-century Swazi container, carved in wood
Swaziland in Southern Africa, 1896
Topographic map of Eswatini
Landscape in Eswatini
Grewia villosa
Mswati III has been king of Eswatini since 1986.
Swazi army officers
A proportional representation of Swazi exports
Central Bank in Mbabane
Eswatini is part of the Southern African Customs Union (green).
Eswatini's population in thousands (1950–2021)
A rural primary school in Eswatini
King Mswati III at the reed dance festival where he will choose his next wife
Princess Sikhanyiso Dlamini (left) and Temtsimba Dlamini (right) at the reed dance (umhlanga) festival 2006
A traditional Swazi homestead
Swazi warriors at the incwala ceremony

It is bordered by Mozambique to its northeast and South Africa to its north, west, south, and southeast.

Malawi

Landlocked country in Southeastern Africa that was formerly known as Nyasaland.

Chongoni Rock Art Area.
1897 British Central Africa stamp issued by the United Kingdom
Malawi's first Prime Minister and later the first President, Hastings Banda (left), with Tanzania's President Julius Nyerere
National Assembly building in Lilongwe
Locations of Malawian diplomatic embassies or high commissions
Mbawemi Women's group in Malawi learning how to add value to beeswax by making candles
Mountains in Northern Malawi during the rainy season
Lake Malawi
Elephant in Majete Wildlife Reserve
Crafts market in Lilongwe
A proportional representation of Malawi exports, 2019
Harvesting groundnuts at an agricultural research station in Malawi
Children attending a farmer meeting in Nalifu village, Mulanje
GDP in Southern African Development Community countries by economic sector, 2013 or closest year.
The M1 road between Blantyre and Lilongwe
Domestic expenditure on research in Southern Africa as a percentage of GDP, 2012 or closest year.
Scientific publication trends in the most productive SADC countries, 2005–2014.
Malawi women with young children attending family planning services
Public expenditure on education in Southern Africa as a share of GDP, 2012 or closest year.
Malawian female soldier
Musical instruments of Malawi
Bingu National Stadium in Lilongwe.
Scientific research output in terms of publications in Southern Africa, cumulative totals by field, 2008–2014.<ref>{{Cite book|title= UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030 |date=2015|chapter= Figure 20.6}}</ref>
Researchers (HC) in Southern Africa per million inhabitants, 2013 or closest year
Scientific publications per million inhabitants in SADC countries in 2014. <ref name="Web">{{Cite book |title= Thomson Reuters' Web of Science, Science Citation Index Expanded}}</ref>
Mission Church in Livingstonia

It is bordered by Zambia to the west, Tanzania to the north and northeast, and Mozambique to the east, south and southwest.

Community of Portuguese Language Countries

International organization and political association of Lusophone nations across four continents, where Portuguese is an official language.

The 12th CPLP Summit; Cabo Verde, 2018.
The seat of the Executive Secretariat of the CPLP is at Penafiel Palace, in Lisbon, the capital of Portugal.
President Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa of Portugal speaking at the 11th CPLP Summit.
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President Michel Temer of Brazil speaking at the 15th Meeting of Ministers of Justice.
I Forum of Civil Society of the CPLP; 2010.
The tomb of Luís de Camões is a revered space in the Lusofonia. Lusophone heads of state pay respects here on visits to Portugal.
The 7th Meeting of Ministers of Culture at Sintra Palace; Portuguese Riviera, 2010.
11th CPLP Summit; Brasília, Brazil, 2016.
22nd Meeting of the Council of Ministers.
1st CPLP Global Economic Forum; 2014.

The history of the CPLP began when it was founded in 1996, in Lisbon, by Angola, Brazil, Cabo Verde, Guinea Bissau, Mozambique, Portugal, and São Tomé and Príncipe, nearly two decades after the beginning of the decolonization of the Portuguese Empire.