A report on Mueang

Now Thailand, Laos, Burma, Cambodia, parts of northern Vietnam, southern Yunnan, western Guangxi and Assam.

- Mueang

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Thailand

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Country in Southeast Asia, located at the centre of Mainland Southeast Asia, spanning 513120 km2, with a population of almost 70 million.

Country in Southeast Asia, located at the centre of Mainland Southeast Asia, spanning 513120 km2, with a population of almost 70 million.

SPPM Mongkut Rex Siamensium, King Mongkut's signature
Map showing geographic distribution of Tai-Kadai linguistic family. Arrows represent general pattern of the migration of Tai-speaking tribes along the rivers and over the lower passes.
Taksin the Great enthroned himself as a Thai king, 1767.
Coronation of King Bhumibol Adulyadej.
United Front for Democracy Against Dictatorship, Red Shirts, protest in 2010
Thailand map of Köppen climate classification.
The population of Asian elephants in Thailand's wild has dropped to an estimated 2,000–3,000.
Sappaya-Sapasathan, the current Parliament House of Thailand
King Bhumibol Adulyadej in a meeting with U.S. President Barack Obama, 18 November 2012
The HTMS Chakri Naruebet, an aircraft carrier of the Royal Thai Navy
A Royal Thai Air Force JAS 39 Gripen
A proportional representation of Thailand exports, 2019
Sathorn in Bangkok is a skyscraper-studded business district that is home to major hotels and embassies.
Development of real GDP per capita, 1890 to 2018
A proportional representation of Thailand's exports
Thailand has long been one of the largest rice exporters in the world. Forty-nine percent of Thailand's labour force is employed in agriculture.
Scientists are working in the lab
The BTS Skytrain is an elevated rapid transit system in Bangkok
Population pyramid 2016
Hill tribes girls in the Northeast of Thailand
Samanera of Theravada Buddhism, the most practised religion in Thailand.
Chulalongkorn University, established in 1917, is the oldest university in Thailand.
Thailand is a country where school uniform is mandatory.
Siriraj Hospital in Bangkok, the oldest and largest hospital in Thailand.
Thai women wearing sabai, Jim Thompson House
People floating krathong rafts during the Loi Krathong festival in Chiang Mai, Thailand
Scene from the Ramakien depicted on a mural at Wat Phra Kaew.
Two sculptures guarding the eastern gate to the main chapel of Wat Arun.
Sculptures of Phra Aphai Mani and the Mermaid from the epic poem Phra Aphai Mani, a work of Sunthorn Phu.
Khon show is the most stylised form of Thai performance.
Muay Thai, Thailand's signature sport
Lumpinee Boxing Stadium

Thais often refer to their country using the polite form prathet Thai (ประเทศไทย), they also use the more colloquial term mueang Thai (เมืองไทย) or simply Thai; the word mueang, archaically referring to a city-state, is commonly used to refer to a city or town as the centre of a region.

Notable mandalas in classical Southeast Asian history (c. undefined 5th to 15th century). From north to south; Bagan, Ayutthaya, Champa, Angkor, Srivijaya and Majapahit.

Mandala (political model)

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Sanskrit word meaning 'circle'.

Sanskrit word meaning 'circle'.

Notable mandalas in classical Southeast Asian history (c. undefined 5th to 15th century). From north to south; Bagan, Ayutthaya, Champa, Angkor, Srivijaya and Majapahit.
Intersecting mandalas circa 1360: from north to south: Lan Xang, Lanna, Sukhothai, Ayutthaya, Khmer and Champa.
Bunga mas (Flowers of Gold), tribute from northern Malay states in Malay peninsula for Siam. National Museum, Kuala Lumpur.)

The mandala is a model for describing the patterns of diffuse political power distributed among Mueang or Kedatuan (principalities) in early Southeast Asian history, when local power was more important than the central leadership.

Rattanakosin Kingdom (1782–1932)

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Fourth and present Thai kingdom in the history of Thailand, which was formerly known as Siam until 1939, and briefly in 1946.

Fourth and present Thai kingdom in the history of Thailand, which was formerly known as Siam until 1939, and briefly in 1946.

Chao Phraya Chakri, later King Phutthayotfa Chulalok or Rama I (r. 1782–1809).
The sphere of influence of the Rattanakosin Kingdom in the first half of the 19th century (including its principal territories)
In the Nine Armies' War in 1785–1786, the Burmese forces invaded Siam simultaneously in five directions.
The sphere of influence of the Rattanakosin Kingdom in the first half of the 19th century (including its principal territories)
Map of Bangkok in the early Rattanakosin period.
Photograph of King Mongkut (Rama IV) (r. 1853–1868) in western style uniform
A white elephant, facing the hoist, centred on a red field. National ensign decreed by King Mongkut (Rama IV)
King Chulalongkorn (Rama V) (r. 1868–1910) with Tsar Nicholas II of Russia in Saint Petersburg 1897.
Somdet Chaophraya Sri Suriwongse, a major nobleman during the reigns of Rama IV and Rama V. Served as regent from 1868 to 1873.
Territorial claims abandoned by Siam in the late-18th through early-20th centuries
King Vajiravudh (Rama VI) (r. 1910–1925), supported nationalism and modernization
The Ananta Samakhom Throne Hall in Bangkok
The Siamese Expeditionary Force during World War I in Paris, 1919.
King Prajadhipok (Rama VII) (r. 1925–1935) was the last absolute monarch of Siam.
Group of soldiers standing on Royal Plaza waiting for orders during the Revolution, 24 June 1932
View of the city of Bangkok in 1822
Red flag with a white elephant inside the chakra. National ensign decreed by King Phutthaloetla Naphalai 
(Rama II)
Rajasiha Seal, the Seal of the Mahatthai Office of Samuha Nayok the Prime Minister of Northern Siam, later becomes the Seal of modern Thai Ministry of Interior.
Nakhon Si Thammarat, the political and cultural centre of Southern Siam, was one of the Mueang Eks or first level cities that held authorities over surrounding satellite towns.
Tributary kingdoms of Siam were required to periodically send the ceremonial golden and silver trees as tributes to the Bangkok court.
A physical copy of Palace Law, which was a part of the Three Seals Law, imprinted with the three seals of Mahatthai, Kalahom and Phrakhlang, displayed at the House of Representatives of Thailand.
Royal coat of arms and emblem of the Kingdom of Siam from 1878 to 1910
Sacred Tooth Temple in Kandy, Sri Lanka
Holy Rosary Church or Calvário church in modern Samphanthawong District in Bangkok, established in 1822, had been the centre of Portuguese community on the Eastern Bank of Chao Phraya River.
John Crawfurd, a Scottish diplomat, was the leader of British mission to Siam in 1822, which was the first official contact between Siam and British Empire in Rattanakosin period.
Edmund Roberts, the American diplomat, arrived in Bangkok in March 1833 with the USS Peacock (shown in the image).
Phaya Tani, taken from Pattani in 1786 to Bangkok, an example of a native bronze cannon now placed in front of Thai Ministry of Defence.
Wat Bang Sai Kai (วัดบางไส้ไก่) in modern Thonburi District of Bangkok was constructed under the sponsorship of Prince Nanthasen of Vientiane during his exile. The temple itself had been a centre of a Lao community in Bangkok.
Wat Yannawa was patronised by Nangklao, who ordered the temple enlarged and constructed many new structures within. The temple is shaped like a Chinese junk to signify the importance of Chinese commerce within Siam during Nangklao's reign.
Aerial night photo of Wat Phichai Yat, a Buddhist temple on the Thonburi side of Bangkok, commissioned by Chao Phraya Phichaiyat (That Bunnag). Large temple projects patronized and built by the nobility was also typical of the early Rattanakosin period.
King Mongkut observing Buddhist precepts (1867)
Old Dhammayuttika seal
Wat Bowon Nivet, where Prince Mongkut was the abbot from 1836 to 1851, became the administrative headquarter of modern Thammayut order.
The Giant Swing in Bangkok, a Hindu structure formerly used for the annual Triyamphway Ceremony, still performed today, although the swing's function was discontinued for safety reasons in 1935
Jean-Baptist Pallegoix was the vicar apostolic of Eastern Siam from 1841 to 1862. He was known for his works Description du Royaume Thai and Dictionarium linguae and also for his close companionship with King Mongkut.
Bangluang Mosque in Kudi Chin, built by a Muslim named Toh Yi around 1784, was renovated into distinct Thai style in the reign of King Rama III.
Phraya Siphiphat, personal name That Bunnag, was the head of Phra Khlang Sinkha or the Royal Warehouse from the 1820s to 1857. He later became Somdet Chao Phraya Borom Maha Phichaiyat.
Rise of sugar industry in early nineteenth century Siam led to the increased number of Chinese-owned sugarcane plantations in the lowlands of Central Siam.
Thai duplicate of the Burney Treaty ratified in June 1826. The Burney Treaty ended three centuries of royal court monopoly on foreign trades by allowing the British to trade freely.
Photduang (lit. curled worm) the silver bullet money of Siam with the Chakra Seal of the kingdom imprinted on one side and the regal seal of the reign imprinted on the other side.
Photograph of Wat Arun in 1862. A principal temple of the Thonburi and Rattanakosin periods; the temple's iconic central prang was later rebuilt to its present appearance during the reign of Rama III.
Phra Aphai Mani statue on Ko Samet
Hanuman on his chariot, a mural scene from the Ramakien in Wat Phra Kaew.
Portrait of King Chulalongkorn wearing the raj pattern costume
Vajiramonkut Building, Vajiravudh College.
Vajiravudh College.
Maha Chulalongkorn Building, Chulalongkorn University.
Tributary kingdoms of Siam were required to periodically send the ceremonial golden and silver trees as tributes to the Bangkok court.

Autonomous and semi-autonomous mueangs were brought under the direct control of the state by the beginning of the 20th century.

The Ahom Kingdom, final years. The western boundary was established at the Manas river after the Battle of Saraighat (1671) and finalized after the Battle of Itakhuli (1681)

Ahom kingdom

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Late medieval kingdom in the Brahmaputra Valley in Assam.

Late medieval kingdom in the Brahmaputra Valley in Assam.

The Ahom Kingdom, final years. The western boundary was established at the Manas river after the Battle of Saraighat (1671) and finalized after the Battle of Itakhuli (1681)
The Ahom Kingdom, final years. The western boundary was established at the Manas river after the Battle of Saraighat (1671) and finalized after the Battle of Itakhuli (1681)
Swargodeo offering prayer
The king on the elephant with the fourfold division of the army
Ahom royal court
Siva Singha and Ambika Devi in Court with courtier, pundits and artisans
alt=|Rajeshwar Singha.
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Coinage of Gadadhara Singha (1681-1696), Ahom Kingdom
Coinage of king Gaurinatha Singha (1780-1796), Ahom Kingdom
 Musicians, dancers and the subjects celebrating coronation of the King.
Rudra Singha
Siva Singha

Established by Sukaphaa, a Tai prince from Mong Mao (present-day Yunnan Province, China), it began as a mong in the upper reaches of the Brahmaputra based on wet rice agriculture.

Territory of Mong Mao in the heyday of Si Kefa period.

Möng Mao

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Ethnic Tai state that controlled several smaller Tai states or chieftainships along the frontier of what is now Myanmar, China, the states of Northeast India of Assam, and Arunachal Pradesh, principally set in the Dehong region of Yunnan with a capital near the modern-day border town of Ruili/Meng Mao.The name of the main river in this region is the Nam Mao, also known as the Shweli River.

Ethnic Tai state that controlled several smaller Tai states or chieftainships along the frontier of what is now Myanmar, China, the states of Northeast India of Assam, and Arunachal Pradesh, principally set in the Dehong region of Yunnan with a capital near the modern-day border town of Ruili/Meng Mao.The name of the main river in this region is the Nam Mao, also known as the Shweli River.

Territory of Mong Mao in the heyday of Si Kefa period.

The "Möng" means country or place.

Extent of Lan Na's zone of influence (dark blue), c. 1400.

Lan Na

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Indianized state centered in present-day Northern Thailand from the 13th to 18th centuries.

Indianized state centered in present-day Northern Thailand from the 13th to 18th centuries.

Extent of Lan Na's zone of influence (dark blue), c. 1400.
Central Chedi at Wat Doi Suthep, Chiang Mai
Extent of Lan Na's zone of influence (dark blue), c. 1400.
Map of Lan Na during the reign of King Tilokkarat ( 1441–1487)

Mangrai, the 25th king of Ngoenyang (modern Chiang Saen) of the Lavachakkaraj dynasty, whose mother was a princess of a kingdom in Sipsongpanna ("the twelve nations"), centralized the mueangs of Ngoenyang into a unified kingdom or mandala and allied with the neighboring Phayao Kingdom.

Laos

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Socialist state and the only landlocked country in Southeast Asia.

Socialist state and the only landlocked country in Southeast Asia.

Pha That Luang in Vientiane is the national symbol of Laos.
Fa Ngum, founder of the Lan Xang Kingdom
Local Lao soldiers in the French Colonial guard, c. 1900
French General Salan and Prince Sisavang Vatthana in Luang Prabang, 4 May 1953
Ruins of Muang Khoun, former capital of Xiangkhouang province, destroyed by the American bombing of Laos in the late 1960s
Pathet Lao soldiers in Vientiane, 1972
Mekong River flowing through Luang Prabang
Paddy fields in Laos
Laos map of Köppen climate classification.
Flag of the ruling Lao People's Revolutionary Party
Prime Minister Thongloun Sisoulith with Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi and ASEAN heads of state in New Delhi on 25 January 2018
Prime Minister Thongloun Sisoulith with Russian President Vladimir Putin in 2016
Hmong girls in Laos, 1973
A proportional representation of Laos exports, 2019
GDP per capita development in Laos
Near the sanctuary on the main upper level of Vat Phou, looking back towards the Mekong River
Rivers are an important means of transport in Laos.
Pha That Luang in Vientiane. The Buddhist stupa that is a national symbol of Laos.
Mahosot Hospital in Vientiane.
National University of Laos in Vientiane.
An example of Lao cuisine
Lao women wearing sinhs
Lao dancers during the New Year celebration
New Laos National Stadium in Vientiane.
Wat Nong Sikhounmuang - buddhist pagoda in Luang Prabang.

In the Lao language, the country's name is Muang Lao (ເມືອງລາວ) or Pathet Lao (ປະເທດລາວ), both of which literally mean 'Lao Country'.

Monthon in 1900

Monthon

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Monthon (มณฑล) were administrative subdivisions of Thailand at the beginning of the 20th century.

Monthon (มณฑล) were administrative subdivisions of Thailand at the beginning of the 20th century.

Monthon in 1900
Map of Siam in 1900
Map of Thailand 1915
Administrative Division of Siam in 1900

Before the Thesaphiban reforms, the country consisted of partially independent cities called mueang, some directly subordinate to the capital, some subordinate to larger mueang, or to one or more of the tributary kingdoms.

Muang Phuan

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Historical principality on the Xiangkhoang Plateau, which constitutes the modern territory of Xiangkhouang Province, Laos.

Historical principality on the Xiangkhoang Plateau, which constitutes the modern territory of Xiangkhouang Province, Laos.

Ruins of Wat Piawat, Khoune District
Ruins of a stupa, Khoune District
Black Flag soldier, c.1885
Plain of Jars, Hmong girls

Among the Lao, Phuan, and Thai muang has a dual meaning: 'city' or more broadly 'country of'.

Sukaphaa

Sukaphaa

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Sukaphaa ((r.

Sukaphaa ((r.

Sukaphaa
Chaolung Sukafa
Sukapha statue at Sukapha Samannay Kshetra
Artist's depiction of the court of Sukaphaa.
Sukapha Statue

Here he subjugated the Nagas very ferociously and established a Mong.