Mughal Empire

The empire at its greatest extent in c. 1700 under Aurangzeb ((r. 1658 – 1707))
Akbar holds a religious assembly of different faiths in the Ibadat Khana in Fatehpur Sikri.
Group portrait of Mughal rulers, from Babur to Aurangzeb, with the Mughal ancestor Timur seated in the middle. On the left: Shah Jahan, Akbar and Babur, with Abu Sa'id of Samarkand and Timur's son, Miran Shah. On the right: Aurangzeb, Jahangir and Humayun, and two of Timur's other offspring Umar Shaykh and Muhammad Sultan. Created c. 1707–12
Horsemen of the invading Maratha Empire
Shah Alam II on horseback
Portrait of Bahadur Shah II
Coin of Aurangzeb, minted in Kabul, dated 1691/2
Miniature painting - Portrait of an Old Mughal Courtier Wearing Muslin
Muslim Lady Reclining or An Indian Girl with a Hookah, painted in Dacca, 18th century
Ruins of the Great Caravanserai in Dhaka.
Ghulam Hamdani Mushafi, the poet first believed to have coined the name "Urdu" around 1780 AD for a language that went by a multiplicity of names before his time.
Mir Taqi Mir, an Urdu poet of the 18th century Mughal Empire
The Taj Mahal in the 1870s
Badshahi Mosque, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan
Buland Darwaza in Fatehpur Sikiri, Agra, India
Lalbagh Fort aerial view in Dhaka, Bangladesh
Shalimar Bagh in Srinagar, Kashmir, India
Illustration by the 17th-century Mughal artist Ustad Mansur
"Alexander Visits the Sage Plato in His Mountain Cave"; illustration by the 16th-century Indian artist Basawan, in a folio from a quintet of the 13th-century Indian poet Amir Khusrau Dihlavi
Folio from Farhang-i-Jahangiri, a Persian dictionary compiled during the Mughal era.
Mughal matchlock rifle, 16th century.
Mughal musketeer, 17th century.
The remnants of the empire in 1751

Early modern Islamic empire in South Asia.

- Mughal Empire
The empire at its greatest extent in c. 1700 under Aurangzeb ((r. 1658 – 1707))

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Akbar by Govardhan, c. 1630

Akbar

The third Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1556 to 1605.

The third Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1556 to 1605.

Akbar by Govardhan, c. 1630
Akbar as a boy
Mughal Empire under Akbar's period (yellow)
Mughal Emperor Akbar training an elephant
Akbar hawking with Mughal chieftains and nobleman accompanied by his guardian Bairam Khan
Young Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khana son of Bairam Khan being received by Akbar
Mughal Emperor Akbar shoots the Rajput warrior Jaimal during the Siege of Chittorgarh in 1568
Bullocks dragging siege-guns uphill during Akbar's attack on Ranthambhor Fort in 1568
The court of young Akbar, age 13, showing his first imperial act: the arrest of an unruly courtier, who was once a favourite of Akbar's father. Illustration from a manuscript of the Akbarnama
Falcon Mohur of Akbar, minted in Asir. This coin was issued in the name of Akbar, to commemorate the capture of the strategic Asirgarh Fort of the Khandesh Sultanate on 17 January 1601 CE. Legend: "Allah is great, Khordad Ilahi 45, struck at Asir".
Diwan-i-Khas (Hall of Private Audience) in Fatehpur Sikri
Silver coin of Akbar with inscriptions of the Islamic declaration of faith, the declaration reads: "There is no god except Allah, and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah."
Portrait of Empress Mariam-uz-Zamani, commonly known as Jodha Bai, giving birth to Prince Salim, the future emperor Jahangir.
Death of Bahadur Shah of Gujarat at Diu, in front of the Portuguese in 1537
Portuguese ambush against the galleys of Seydi Ali Reis (Akbar's allies) in the Indian Ocean.
The Akbari Mosque, overlooking the Ganges
Portrait of the Mughal Emperor Akbar invocation of a Dua prayer.
The Mughal Emperor Akbar welcomes his son Prince Salim at Fatehpur Sikri, (Akbarnameh).
Akbar holds a religious assembly of different faiths in the Ibadat Khana in Fatehpur Sikri.
Silver square rupee of Akbar, Lahore mint, struck in Aban month of Ilahi
The great Mogul discoursing with a Humble Fakir
Akbar triumphantly enters Surat
Akbar hunting with cheetahs, c. 1602
Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak presenting Akbarnama to Akbar, Mughal miniature
Gate of Akbar's mausoleum at Sikandra, Agra, 1795
Potrait of Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar with Mariam Zamani Begum, drawn as per Akbar's description.

A strong personality and a successful general, Akbar gradually enlarged the Mughal Empire to include much of the Indian subcontinent.

Portrait of Shah Jahan in c. 1630

Shah Jahan

Portrait of Shah Jahan in c. 1630
Shah Jahan, accompanied by his three sons: Dara Shikoh, Shah Shuja and Aurangzeb, and their maternal grandfather Asaf Khan IV
Rosette bearing the names and titles of Shah Jahan
The Taj Mahal, the burial place of Shah Jahan and his wife Mumtaz Mahal
The Submission of Rana Amar Singh of Mewar to Prince Khurram, Tuzk-e-Jahangiri.
Shah Jahan on horseback (during his youth).
Shah Jahan at his Durbar, from the Windsor Padshahnama, c. 1657
Shah Jahan the Great Mogul
Throne of king Shah Jahan, Red Fort, Delhi
Painting of Shah Jahan hunting Asiatic lions at Burhanpur, present-day Madhya Pradesh, from 1630
Shah Jahan and his eldest son Dara Shikoh.
The Passing of Shah Jahan
The actual tombs of Mumtaz Mahal and Shah Jahan in the lower level of Taj Mahal
Red Fort
The elegant Naulakha Pavilion at the Lahore Fort was built during the reign of Shah Jahan.
Agra Fort
Shah Jahan and the Mughal Army return after attending a congregation in the Jama Masjid, Delhi.
Lahore's Wazir Khan Mosque is considered to be the most ornate Mughal-era mosque.<ref>{{cite book |last=Dani |first=A. H. |date=2003 |chapter=The Architecture of the Mughal Empire (North-Western Regions) |editor-last1=Adle |editor-first1=Chahryar |editor-last2=Habib |editor-first2=Irfan |editor2-link=Irfan Habib |title=History of Civilizations of Central Asia |volume=V |chapter-url=http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0013/001302/130205e.pdf |publisher=UNESCO |page=524 |isbn=978-92-3-103876-1}}</ref>
Moti Masjid (Red Fort)
Finial, Tamga of the Mughal Empire (combining a crescent and a spear pendant with the word Allah).
Gold Mohur from Akbarabad (Agra)
Silver rupee coin of Shah Jahan, from Patna.
Copper Dam from Daryakot mint
Silver Rupee from Multan

Shihab al-Din Muhammad Khurram (5 January 1592 – 22 January 1666), better known by his regnal name Shah Jahan, was the fifth emperor of the Mughal Empire, reigning from January 1628 until July 1658.

The Taj Mahal at Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India is the most famous example of Mughal Architecture and one of India's most recognisable landmarks in general,

Mughal architecture

The Taj Mahal at Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India is the most famous example of Mughal Architecture and one of India's most recognisable landmarks in general,
Badshahi Mosque, in Lahore, Pakistan was the largest mosque in the world for 313 years, and is the last of the imperial mosques built by the Mughals
The Alamgiri Gate at Lahore Fort, Lahore, Pakistan, was named for Aurangzeb, who was sometimes referred to as "Alamgir".
Bibi Ka Maqbara is a tomb in Aurangabad, Maharashtra, which was built by Aurangzeb in the memory of his wife, Dilras Banu Begum
The use of elephant-shaped column brackets at Lahore Fort reflects Hindu influences on Mughal Architecture during the reign of Akbar
Gardens of Babur in Kabul, Afghanistan.
Islamia White Mosque
Humayun's Tomb, Delhi, India
Buland Darwaza, Agra was built by Akbar the Great to commemorate his victory.
The tomb of Shaikh Salim Chisti is considered to be one of the finest examples of Mughal architecture
Begum Shahi Mosque is Lahore's earliest dated Mughal period mosque
The tomb of I'timād-ud-Daulah is often regarded as a draft of the Tāj Mahal.
The Tomb of Jahangir at Lahore does not have a dome as Jahangir forbade construction of a dome over his tomb.
Wazir Khan Mosque in Lahore, Pakistan, is considered to be the most ornately decorated Mughal-era mosque
The Shalimar Gardens, Lahore are among the most famous Mughal gardens.
The mosque's tile work exhibits Timurid influences introduced during Shah Jahan's campaigns in Central Asia.
The central chamber of the Shahi Hammam is decorated with frescoes
Badshahi Masjid, Lahore, Pakistan was the largest mosque in the world for 313 years, and is now the second-largest mosque in the Indian subcontinent.
Lalbagh Fort in Dhaka is an incomplete fort built by Prince Azam Shah
The 18th-century Sunehri Mosque is named for its gilded domes.
The Darwaza-i-Rauza (Great Gate) of the Taj Mahal.
Jali decorative work at the Tomb of Salim Chishti, Fatehpur Sikri.
Lahori Gate of the Red Fort, Delhi, India.
Jahangir's grave at the Tomb of Jahangir, decorated with parchin kari work.
Tomb of Nithar Begum at Khusro Bagh, Allahabad, India.
The shahada in Arabic calligraphy at the Wazir Khan Mosque, Lahore, Pakistan.
Akbar's Tomb at Agra, India uses red sandstone and white marble, like many of the Mughal monuments. The Taj Mahal is a notable exception, as it uses only marble.
Diwan-i-Khas (Hall of private audience) at Lahore Fort.
Shah Jahan Mosque in Thatta, Pakistan. The mosque is not built in the Mughal style, but reflects a heavy Persian influence.
One of the Tombs of Ustad-Shagird, Nakodar, India.

Mughal architecture is the type of Indo-Islamic architecture developed by the Mughals in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries throughout the ever-changing extent of their empire in the Indian subcontinent.

Maratha Empire

Confederacy that came to dominate a large portion of early modern India in the 18th century.

Confederacy that came to dominate a large portion of early modern India in the 18th century.

The Maratha Empire in 1758 with the Nizam of Hyderabad and the Mughal Empire as its vassals
Maratha kingdom in 1680 (yellow)
A portrait of Shivaji Maharaj
Sambhaji, eldest son of Shivaji
Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath
Peshwa Baji Rao I
Peshwa Balaji Bajirao
Peshwa Madhavrao I
Mahadaji Shinde restored the Maratha domination of northern India
A mural depicting the British surrender during the First Anglo-Maratha War. The mural is a part of the Victory Memorial (Vijay Stambh) located at Vadgaon Maval, Pune.
Peshwa Madhavrao II in his court in 1790, concluding a treaty with the British
Battle of Assaye during the Second Anglo-Maratha War
Peshwa Baji Rao II signing of the Treaty of Bassein with the British
Maratha king of Gwalior at his palace
Pratapgad fort, one of the earliest forts administered by Shivaji.
Maratha darbar or court.
Gold coins minted during Shivaji's era, 17th century.
800px
Maratha Gurabs ships attacking a British East India Company ship
Arms of Maratha
Ramchandra Pant Amatya
Thanjavur Maratha palace
Maratha Empire at its peak in 1759 (orange)
Maratha Empire in 1760 (yellow)
Maratha Empire in 1765 (yellow)
Maratha Empire in 1795 (yellow)
Maratha Empire in 1805
Maratha Princely States in 1823

The Marathas are responsible for the end of the Mughal Empire over most of the Indian subcontinent.

A 1912 map of Northern India, showing the centres of the rebellion.

Indian Rebellion of 1857

Major uprising in India in 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown.

Major uprising in India in 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown.

A 1912 map of Northern India, showing the centres of the rebellion.
India in 1765 and 1805, showing East India Company-governed territories in pink
India in 1837 and 1857, showing East India Company-governed territories in pink
Two sepoy officers; a private sepoy, 1820s
A scene from the 1857 Indian Rebellion (Bengal Army).
Indian mutiny map showing position of troops on 1 May 1857
"The Sepoy revolt at Meerut," wood-engraving from the Illustrated London News, 1857
An 1858 photograph by Felice Beato of a mosque in Meerut where some of the rebel soldiers may have prayed
Wood-engraving depicting the massacre of officers by insurgent cavalry at Delhi
The Flagstaff Tower, Delhi, where the British survivors of the rebellion gathered on 11 May 1857; photographed by Felice Beato
States during the rebellion
Troops of the Native Allies by George Francklin Atkinson, 1859.
Sikh Troops Dividing the Spoil Taken from Mutineers, circa 1860
Fugitive British officers and their families attacked by mutineers.
A wood-engraving of Nynee Tal (today Nainital) and accompanying story in the Illustrated London News, 15 August 1857, describing how the resort town in the Himalayas served as a refuge for British families escaping from the rebellion of 1857 in Delhi and Meerut.
Attack of the mutineers on the Redan Battery at Lucknow, 30 July 1857
Assault on Delhi and capture of the Cashmere Gate, 14 September 1857
Capture of Delhi 1857.
Capture of Bahadur Shah Zafar and his sons by William Hodson at Humayun's tomb on 20 September 1857
Wood-engraving depicting Tatya Tope's Soldiery
A memorial erected (circa 1860) by the British after the Mutiny at the Bibighar Well. After India's Independence the statue was moved to the All Souls Memorial Church, Cawnpore. Albumen silver print by Samuel Bourne, 1860
A contemporary image of the massacre at the Satichaura Ghat
The interior of the Secundra Bagh, several months after its storming during the second relief of Lucknow. Albumen silver print by Felice Beato, 1858
Jhansi Fort, which was taken over by rebel forces, and subsequently defended against British recapture by the Rani of Jhansi
Wood-engraving of the execution of mutineers at Peshawar
Marble Lectern in memory of 35 British soldiers in Jhelum
Lieutenant William Alexander Kerr, 24th Bombay Native Infantry, near Kolapore, July 1857
The Relief of Lucknow by Thomas Jones Barker
British soldiers looting Qaisar Bagh, Lucknow, after its recapture (steel engraving, late 1850s)
Execution of mutineers by blowing from a gun by the British, 8 September 1857.
Justice, a print by Sir John Tenniel in a September 1857 issue of Punch
Bahadur Shah Zafar (the last Mughal emperor) in Delhi, awaiting trial by the British for his role in the Uprising. Photograph by Robert Tytler and Charles Shepherd, May 1858
The proclamation to the "Princes, Chiefs, and People of India," issued by Queen Victoria on 1 November 1858. "We hold ourselves bound to the natives of our Indian territories by the same obligation of duty which bind us to all our other subjects." (p. 2)
Captain C Scott of the Gen. Sir. Hope Grant's Column, Madras Regiment, who fell on the attack of Fort of Kohlee, 1858. Memorial at the St. Mary's Church, Madras
Memorial inside the York Minster
The Mutiny Memorial in Delhi, a monument to those killed on the British side during the fighting.
Suppression of the Indian Revolt by the English, which depicts the execution of mutineers by blowing from a gun by the British, a painting by Vasily Vereshchagin c. 1884. Note: This painting was allegedly bought by the British crown and possibly destroyed (current whereabouts unknown). It anachronistically depicts the events of 1857 with soldiers wearing (then current) uniforms of the late 19th century.
The hanging of two participants in the Indian Rebellion, Sepoys of the 31st Native Infantry. Albumen silver print by Felice Beato, 1857.
The National Youth rally at the National Celebration to Commemorate 150th Anniversary of the First War of Independence, 1857 at Red Fort, in Delhi on 11 May 2007
Henry Nelson O'Neil's 1857 painting Eastward Ho! depicting British soldiers saying farewell to their loved ones as they embark on a deployment to India.
Charles Canning, the Governor-General of India during the rebellion.
Lord Dalhousie, the Governor-General of India from 1848 to 1856, who devised the Doctrine of Lapse.
Lakshmibai, the Rani of Maratha-ruled Jhansi, one of the principal leaders of the rebellion who earlier had lost her kingdom as a result of the Doctrine of Lapse.
Bahadur Shah Zafar, the last Mughal Emperor, crowned Emperor of India, by the Indian troops, he was deposed by the British, and died in exile in Burma
The Jantar Mantar observatory in Delhi in 1858, damaged in the fighting
Mortar damage to Kashmiri Gate, Delhi, 1858
Hindu Rao's house in Delhi, now a hospital, was extensively damaged in the fighting
Bank of Delhi was attacked by mortar and gunfire
Photograph entitled, "The Hospital in General Wheeler's entrenchment, Cawnpore". (1858) The hospital was the site of the first major loss of British lives in Cawnpore
1858 picture of Sati Chaura Ghat on the banks of the Ganges River, where on 27 June 1857 many British men lost their lives and the surviving women and children were taken prisoner by the rebels.
Bibigarh house where British women and children were killed and the well where their bodies were found, 1858.
The Bibighar Well site where a memorial had been built. Samuel Bourne, 1860.

After the outbreak of the mutiny in Meerut, the rebels quickly reached Delhi, whose 81-year-old Mughal ruler, Bahadur Shah Zafar, was declared the Emperor of Hindustan.

Timur, the founder of the Timurid dynasty

Timurid dynasty

Timur, the founder of the Timurid dynasty

The Timurid dynasty, also known as the Gurkani dynasty , was the ruling family of the Timurid Empire between in 1370–1507 and later of the Mughal Empire in 1526–1857.

Govardhan, Emperor Jahangir visiting the ascetic Jadrup, 1616–20

Mughal painting

Particular style of South Asian, particularly North Indian , painting confined to miniatures either as book illustrations or as single works to be kept in albums (muraqqa).

Particular style of South Asian, particularly North Indian , painting confined to miniatures either as book illustrations or as single works to be kept in albums (muraqqa).

Govardhan, Emperor Jahangir visiting the ascetic Jadrup, 1616–20
The Emperor Shah Jahan standing on a globe, with a halo and European-style putti, c. 1618–19 to 1629.
Abu'l Hasan, Emperor Jahangir at the Jharoka window of the Agra Fort, c. 1620, Aga Khan Museum
Nilgai by Ustad Mansur (fl. 1590–1624), who specialized in birds and animal studies for albums.
Babur Receives a Courtier by Farrukh Beg c. 1580–85. Opaque watercolor and gold on paper, painted and mounted within borders, from a Rawżat aṣ-ṣafāʾ. Still using the style of Persian miniature.
Princes of the House of Timur, attributed to the Persian Abd as-Samad, c. 1550–1555, with additions in the next century under Jahangir.
Emperor Jahangir weighs Prince Khurram by Manohar Das, 1610–15, from Jahangir's own copy of the Tuzk-e-Jahangiri. The names of the main figures are noted on their clothes, and the artist shown at bottom. British Museum
A durbar scene with the newly crowned Emperor Aurangzeb in his golden throne. Though he did not encourage Mughal painting, some of the best work was done during his reign.
The scribe and painter of a Khamsa of Nizami manuscript in the British Library, made for Akbar, 1610
Portrait of Akbar
A noble lady, Mughal dynasty, India. 17th century. Color and gold on paper. Freer Gallery of Art F1907.219
Nur Jahan
Shah Jahan on a terrace holding a pendant set with his portrait
Daud Khan Karrani receives a Kaftan of honor from Munim Khan
Victory of Ali Quli Khan on the river Gomti-Akbarnama, 1561
Mir Sayyid Ali's depiction of a young scholar in the Mughal Empire, reading and writing a commentary on the Quran, 1559.
Battle scene from the Hamzanama of Akbar, 1570
The Submission of the rebel brothers Ali Quli and Bahadur Khan. Akbarnama, 1590–95<ref>{{cite web|last=Basawan & Chitra|url=http://warfare.atspace.eu/Moghul/Akbar/Akbarnama.htm|title=The Submission of the rebel brothers Ali Quli and Bahadur Khan-Akbarnama|date=1590–1595|work=Akbarnama}}</ref>
Akbar riding the elephant Hawa'I pursuing another elephant across a collapsing bridge of boats (right), 1561
Pir Muhammad Drowns While Crossing the Narbada-Akbarnama, 1562
Akbar receiving his sons at Fatehpur Sikri. Akbarnama, 1573
Alexander is Lowered into the Sea, from a Khamsa (Quintet) of Amir Khusrau Dihlavi c. 1597–98, attributed to Mukanda.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/140003774?rpp=20&pg=8&ao=on&ft=mughal+empire&pos=145|title=Alexander is Lowered into the Sea|website=www.metmuseum.org|access-date=2018-12-14}}</ref>
Balchand,<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Smart|first=Ellen|date=1999|title=The Death of Ināyat Khān by the Mughal Artist Bālchand|journal=Artibus Asiae. Supplementum|volume=58|pages=273-279|issn=1423-0526|jstor=3250020}}</ref> The Dying Inayat Khan, c. 1618, Bodleian Library, Oxford
Mughal Prince visits a Holy Man
A Mughal prince and ladies in a garden, 18th century
A young woman playing a Veena to a parakeet, a symbol of her absent lover. 18th-century painting in the provincial Mughal style of Bengal
Female performer with a tanpura, 18th century. Color and gold on paper. Freer Gallery of Art F1907.195
Ascetic Seated on Leopard's Skin, late 18th century
Mughal Ganjifa playing cards, early 19th century, with miniature paintings – courtesy of the Wovensouls collection
The figural decoration of this example shows a strong relationship to paintings of the 17th century.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/451479|website=www.metmuseum.org|access-date=2018-12-17|title=Box with Scenes of an Emperor Receiving Gifts, early to mid-17th century}}</ref>

It emerged from Persian miniature painting (itself partly of Chinese origin) and developed in the court of the Mughal Empire of the 16th to 18th centuries.

Taj Mahal

Islamic ivory-white marble mausoleum on the right bank of the river Yamuna in the Indian city of Agra.

Islamic ivory-white marble mausoleum on the right bank of the river Yamuna in the Indian city of Agra.

Walkways beside reflecting pool
The western building, a mosque, faces the tomb.
Protective wartime scaffolding in 1942
Visitors at Taj Mahal
Jean-Baptiste Tavernier, one of the first European writers about the Taj Mahal
Eastern view in the morning
Taj Mahal in cloudy weather and its minaret under restoration
Western view at sunset
Taj Mahal through the fog
A panoramic view looking 360 degrees around the Taj Mahal in 2005

It was commissioned in 1632 by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan ((r.

Afghanistan

Landlocked country located at the crossroads of Central and South Asia.

Landlocked country located at the crossroads of Central and South Asia.

Tents of Afghan nomads in the northern Badghis province of Afghanistan. Early peasant farming villages came into existence in Afghanistan about 7,000 years ago.
The extent of the Indus Valley Civilization during its mature phase
A "Bactrian gold" Scythian belt depicting Dionysus, from Tillya Tepe in the ancient region of Bactria
Approximate maximum extent of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom, formed by the fragmentation of Alexander the Great's Empire, circa 180 BCE
Saffarid rule at its greatest extent under Ya'qub ibn al-Layth al-Saffar
Mongol invasions and conquests depopulated large areas of Afghanistan
Map of the Hotak Empire during the Reign of Mirwais Hotak, 1715.
Map of the Hotak Empire at its height in 1728. Disputed between Hussain Hotak (Centered in Kandahar) and Ashraf Hotak (centered in Isfahan)
Portrait of Ahmad Shah Durrani c. 1757.
Afghan tribesmen in 1841, painted by British officer James Rattray
Map of Afghanistan (Emirate) and surrounding nations in 1860, following the conquest of [[Principality of Qandahar|
Kandahar]], and before the conquest of Herat.
Emir Amanullah invaded British India in 1919 and proclaimed Afghanistan's full independence thereafter. He proclaimed himself King of Afghanistan in June 1926.
King Zahir, the last reigning monarch of Afghanistan, who reigned from 1933 until 1973.
Development of the civil war from 1992 to late 2001
U.S. troops and Chinooks in Afghanistan, 2008
A map of Afghanistan showing the 2021 Taliban offensive
Taliban fighters in Kabul on a captured Humvee following the 2021 fall of Kabul.
The mountainous topography of Afghanistan
Köppen climate map of Afghanistan
The snow leopard was the official national animal of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
A 2005 CIA map showing traditional Afghan tribal territories. Pashtun tribes form the world's largest tribal society.
Ethnolinguistic map of Afghanistan (2001)
Blue Mosque in Mazar-i-Sharif is the largest mosque in Afghanistan
UNESCO Institute of Statistics Afghanistan Literacy Rate population plus15 1980–2018
The Daoud Khan Military Hospital in Kabul is one of the largest hospitals in Afghanistan
The Arg (the Presidential palace) in Kabul
U.S. representative Zalmay Khalilzad (left) meeting with Taliban leaders, Abdul Ghani Baradar, Abdul Hakim Ishaqzai, Sher Mohammad Abbas Stanikzai, Suhail Shaheen, unidentified. Doha, Qatar on 21 November 2020.
Afghanistan is divided into 34 provinces, which are further divided into a number of districts
Workers processing pomegranates (anaar), which Afghanistan is famous for in Asia
Afghan rugs are one of Afghanistan's main exports
Afghan saffron has been recognized as the world's best
Lapis lazuli stones
Afghanistan electricity supply 1980–2019
Band-e Amir National Park
The Minaret of Jam is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, currently under threat by erosion and flooding
The Salang Tunnel, once the highest tunnel in the world, provides a key connection between the north and south of the country
An Ariana Afghan Airlines Airbus A310 in 2006
An Afghan family near Kholm, 1939 – most Afghans are tribal
A house occupied by nomadic kochi people in Nangarhar Province
Kabul skyline, displaying both historical and contemporary buildings
A traditional Afghan embroidery pattern
The Afghan rubab
Non (bread) from a local baker, the most widely consumed bread in Afghanistan
Haft Mewa (Seven Fruit Syrup) is popularly consumed during Nowruz in Afghanistan
The ancient national sport of Afghanistan, Buzkashi

Afghanistan also served as the source from which the Greco-Bactrians and the Mughals, among others, rose to form major empires.

Fatehpur Sikri

Town in the Agra District of Uttar Pradesh, India.

Town in the Agra District of Uttar Pradesh, India.

Kos Minar#793 at 12-mile on Agra-Fatehpur Sikri Road section of National Highway 21
General plan of Fatehpur Sikri city in 1917.
Jama Masjid, Fatehpur Sikri
Tomb of Salim Chishti in Jama Masjid courtyard, Fatehpur Sikri
Panch Mahal, Fatehpur Sikri
Hiran Minar, Fatehpur Sikri
Buland Darwaza
Buland Darwaza backside.
King's Gate
Palace of Akbar's favorite consort, Queen Mariam-uz-Zamani
Diwan-i-Khas
Mariam-uz-Zamani's kitchen
Akbar's Harem Complex
Panoramic view of Fatehpur Sikri Palace

Situated 37 kms from the district headquarters Agra, Fatehpur Sikri itself was founded as the capital of Mughal Empire in 1571 by Emperor Akbar, serving this role from 1571 to 1585, when Akbar abandoned it due to a campaign in Punjab and was later completely abandoned in 1610.