A report on Mughal Empire

The empire at its greatest extent in c. 1700 under Aurangzeb ((r. 1658 – 1707))
Akbar holds a religious assembly of different faiths in the Ibadat Khana in Fatehpur Sikri.
Group portrait of Mughal rulers, from Babur to Aurangzeb, with the Mughal ancestor Timur seated in the middle. On the left: Shah Jahan, Akbar and Babur, with Abu Sa'id of Samarkand and Timur's son, Miran Shah. On the right: Aurangzeb, Jahangir and Humayun, and two of Timur's other offspring Umar Shaykh and Muhammad Sultan. Created c. 1707–12
Horsemen of the invading Maratha Empire
Shah Alam II on horseback
Portrait of Bahadur Shah II
Coin of Aurangzeb, minted in Kabul, dated 1691/2
Miniature painting - Portrait of an Old Mughal Courtier Wearing Muslin
Muslim Lady Reclining or An Indian Girl with a Hookah, painted in Dacca, 18th century
Ruins of the Great Caravanserai in Dhaka.
Ghulam Hamdani Mushafi, the poet first believed to have coined the name "Urdu" around 1780 AD for a language that went by a multiplicity of names before his time.
Mir Taqi Mir, an Urdu poet of the 18th century Mughal Empire
The Taj Mahal in the 1870s
Badshahi Mosque, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan
Buland Darwaza in Fatehpur Sikiri, Agra, India
Lalbagh Fort aerial view in Dhaka, Bangladesh
Shalimar Bagh in Srinagar, Kashmir, India
Illustration by the 17th-century Mughal artist Ustad Mansur
"Alexander Visits the Sage Plato in His Mountain Cave"; illustration by the 16th-century Indian artist Basawan, in a folio from a quintet of the 13th-century Indian poet Amir Khusrau Dihlavi
Folio from Farhang-i-Jahangiri, a Persian dictionary compiled during the Mughal era.
Mughal matchlock rifle, 16th century.
Mughal musketeer, 17th century.
The remnants of the empire in 1751

Early-modern empire that controlled much of South Asia between the 16th and 19th centuries.

- Mughal Empire
The empire at its greatest extent in c. 1700 under Aurangzeb ((r. 1658 – 1707))

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Akbar by Govardhan, c. 1630

Akbar

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The third Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1556 to 1605.

The third Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1556 to 1605.

Akbar by Govardhan, c. 1630
Akbar as a boy
Mughal Empire under Akbar's period (yellow)
Mughal Emperor Akbar training an elephant
Akbar hawking with Mughal chieftains and nobleman accompanied by his guardian Bairam Khan
Young Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khana son of Bairam Khan being received by Akbar
Mughal Emperor Akbar shoots the Rajput warrior Jaimal during the Siege of Chittorgarh in 1568
Bullocks dragging siege-guns uphill during Akbar's attack on Ranthambhor Fort in 1568
The court of young Akbar, age 13, showing his first imperial act: the arrest of an unruly courtier, who was once a favourite of Akbar's father. Illustration from a manuscript of the Akbarnama
Falcon Mohur of Akbar, minted in Asir. This coin was issued in the name of Akbar, to commemorate the capture of the strategic Asirgarh Fort of the Khandesh Sultanate on 17 January 1601 CE. Legend: "Allah is great, Khordad Ilahi 45, struck at Asir".
Diwan-i-Khas (Hall of Private Audience) in Fatehpur Sikri
Silver coin of Akbar with inscriptions of the Islamic declaration of faith, the declaration reads: "There is no god except Allah, and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah."
Portrait of Empress Mariam-uz-Zamani, commonly known as Jodha Bai, giving birth to Prince Salim, the future emperor Jahangir.
Death of Bahadur Shah of Gujarat at Diu, in front of the Portuguese in 1537
Portuguese ambush against the galleys of Seydi Ali Reis (Akbar's allies) in the Indian Ocean.
The Akbari Mosque, overlooking the Ganges
Portrait of the Mughal Emperor Akbar invocation of a Dua prayer.
The Mughal Emperor Akbar welcomes his son Prince Salim at Fatehpur Sikri, (Akbarnameh).
Akbar holds a religious assembly of different faiths in the Ibadat Khana in Fatehpur Sikri.
Silver square rupee of Akbar, Lahore mint, struck in Aban month of Ilahi
The great Mogul discoursing with a Humble Fakir
Akbar triumphantly enters Surat
Akbar hunting with cheetahs, c. 1602
Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak presenting Akbarnama to Akbar, Mughal miniature
Gate of Akbar's mausoleum at Sikandra, Agra, 1795
Potrait of Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar with Mariam Zamani Begum, drawn as per Akbar's description.

A strong personality and a successful general, Akbar gradually enlarged the Mughal Empire to include much of the Indian subcontinent.

Aurangzeb holding a hawk in c. 1660

Aurangzeb

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Aurangzeb holding a hawk in c. 1660
A painting from c. 1637 shows the brothers (left to right) Shah Shuja, Aurangzeb and Murad Baksh in their younger years.
The Mughal Army under the command of Aurangzeb recaptures Orchha in October 1635.
A painting from Padshahnama depicts Prince Aurangzeb facing a maddened war elephant named Sudhakar.
Sepoys loyal to the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb maintain their positions around the palace, at Aurangabad, in 1658.
Aurangzeb becomes emperor.
Mughal Empire under Aurangzeb in early 18th century
Aurangzeb compiled Hanafi law by introducing the Fatawa-e-Alamgiri.
Aurangzeb holding a flywhisk
Aurangzeb seated on a golden throne holding a Hawk in the Durbar. Standing before him is his son, Azam Shah.
Aurangzeb Receives Prince Mu'azzam. Chester Beatty Library
Dagger (Khanjar) of Aurangzeb (Badshah Alamgir).
Manuscript of the Quran, parts of which are believed to have been written in Aurangzeb's own hand.
The Birthday of the Grand Mogul Aurangzeb, made 1701–1708 by Johann Melchior Dinglinger.
Josiah Child requests a pardon from Aurangzeb during the Anglo-Mughal War.
By 1690, Aurangzeb was acknowledged as: "emperor of the Mughal Sultanate from Cape Comorin to Kabul".
Aurangzeb spent his reign crushing major and minor rebellions throughout the Mughal Empire.
The tomb of Akbar was pillaged by Jat rebels during the reign of Aurangzeb.
Aurangzeb leads the Mughal Army during the Battle of Satara.
Raja Shivaji at Aurangzeb's Darbar- M V Dhurandhar
Aurangzeb reciting the Quran.
Aurangzeb dispatched his personal imperial guard during the campaign against the Satnami rebels.
Gurudwara Sis Ganj Sahib in Delhi is built at the place where Guru Tegh Bahadur was beheaded.
Zafarnama is the name given to the letter sent by the tenth Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh in 1705 to Aurangzeb. The letter is written in Persian script.
Aurangzeb in a pavilion with three courtiers below.
Bibi Ka Maqbara, the mausoleum of Aurangzeb's wife Dilras Banu Begum, was commissioned by him
Aurangzeb's tomb in Khuldabad, Maharashtra.
Aurangzeb reading the Quran
The unmarked grave of Aurangzeb in the mausoleum at Khuldabad, Maharashtra.
Tughra and seal of Aurangzeb, on an imperial firman
In the year 1689, according to Mughal accounts, Sambhaji was put on trial, found guilty of atrocities and executed.<ref>{{cite book |last=Mehta |first=J. L. |title=Advanced Study in the History of Modern India: Volume One: 1707{{snd}}1813 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=d1wUgKKzawoC&pg=PA50 |access-date=29 September 2012 |date=2005 |publisher=Sterling Publishers |isbn=978-1-932705-54-6 |pages=50–}}</ref><ref name="google2">{{cite book |last=Stein |first=Burton |author-link=Burton Stein |year=2010 |orig-year=First published 1998 |editor-last=Arnold |editor-first=David |editor-link=David Arnold (historian) |title=A History of India |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=QY4zdTDwMAQC&pg=PA180 |publisher=Blackwell Publishers |edition=2nd |page=180 |isbn=978-1-4051-9509-6}}</ref>
Guru Tegh Bahadur was publicly executed in 1675 on the orders of Aurangzeb in Delhi<ref>{{Cite web |url=http://www.allaboutsikhs.com/Sikh-Guru-Ji'/Sri-Guru-Tegh-Bhadur-Sahib-Ji.html |title=A Gateway to Sikhism {{!}} Sri Guru Tegh Bhadur Sahib |website=Gateway to Sikhism |access-date=28 October 2018 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140327223831/http://www.allaboutsikhs.com/Sikh-Guru-Ji'/Sri-Guru-Tegh-Bhadur-Sahib-Ji.html#12 |archive-date=27 March 2014 |url-status=dead}}</ref>
Sarmad Kashani, a Jewish convert to Islam and Sufi mystic was accused of heresy and executed.<ref name="David Cook 2007">{{cite book |last=Cook |first=David |author-link=David Cook (historian) |year=2007 |title=Martyrdom in Islam |publisher=Cambridge University Press |page=80 |isbn=978-0-521-85040-7}}</ref>
Daulatabad cannon
Kalak Bangadi cannon.
One of the Daulatabad cannons
Kilkila cannon
Aurangabad cannon
Seventeenth-century Badshahi Masjid built by Aurangzeb in Lahore.
Bibi ka Maqbara.
Tomb of Sufi saint, Syed Abdul Rahim Shah Bukhari constructed by Aurangzeb.
Shawls manufactured in the Mughal Empire had highly influenced other cultures around the world.
Shawl makers in the Mughal Empire.
Mughal imperial carpet
March of the Great Moghul (Aurangzeb)
François Bernier, was a French physician and traveller, who for 12 years was the personal physician of Aurangzeb. He described his experiences in Travels in the Mughal Empire.
Map of the Mughal Empire by Vincenzo Coronelli (1650–1718) of Venice, who served as Royal Geographer to Louis XIV of France.
French map of the Deccan.
Half rupee
Rupee coin showing full name
Rupee with square area
A copper dam of Aurangzeb
A Mughal trooper in the Deccan.
Aurangzeb leads his final expedition (1705), leading an army of 500,000 troops.
Mughal-era aristocrat armed with a matchlock musket.
Aurangzeb, in later life, hunting with hounds and falconers

Muhi al-Din Muhammad (c. 1618 – 3 March 1707), commonly known as Aurangzeb and by his regnal title Alamgir, was the sixth emperor of the Mughal Empire, ruling from July 1658 until his death in 1707.

Idealized portrait of Babur, early 17th century

Babur

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Idealized portrait of Babur, early 17th century
Babur Family Tree
17th-century portrait of Babur
Coin minted by Babur during his time as ruler of Kabul. Dated 1507/8
Babur leaves for Hindustan from Kabul
The meeting between Babur and Sultan Ali Mirza near Samarkand
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Mughal artillery and troops in action during the Battle of Panipat (1526)
Babur encounters the Jain statues at the Urvah valley in Gwalior in 1527. He ordered them to be destroyed
Babur crossing the Indus River
Babur and his heir Humayun
Bobur Square, Andijan, Uzbekistan in 2012
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Babur (14 February 1483 – 26 December 1530), born Mīrzā Zahīr ud-Dīn Muhammad, was the founder of the Mughal Empire in the Indian subcontinent.

Afghanistan

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Landlocked country located at the crossroads of Central and South Asia.

Landlocked country located at the crossroads of Central and South Asia.

Tents of Afghan nomads in the northern Badghis province of Afghanistan. Early peasant farming villages came into existence in Afghanistan about 7,000 years ago.
The extent of the Indus Valley Civilization during its mature phase
A "Bactrian gold" Scythian belt depicting Dionysus, from Tillya Tepe in the ancient region of Bactria
Approximate maximum extent of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom, formed by the fragmentation of Alexander the Great's Empire, circa 180 BCE
Saffarid rule at its greatest extent under Ya'qub ibn al-Layth al-Saffar
Mongol invasions and conquests depopulated large areas of Afghanistan
Map of the Hotak Empire during the Reign of Mirwais Hotak, 1715.
Map of the Hotak Empire at its height in 1728. Disputed between Hussain Hotak (Centered in Kandahar) and Ashraf Hotak (centered in Isfahan)
Portrait of Ahmad Shah Durrani c. 1757.
Afghan tribesmen in 1841, painted by British officer James Rattray
Map of Afghanistan (Emirate) and surrounding nations in 1860, following the conquest of [[Principality of Qandahar|
Kandahar]], and before the conquest of Herat.
Emir Amanullah invaded British India in 1919 and proclaimed Afghanistan's full independence thereafter. He proclaimed himself King of Afghanistan in June 1926.
King Zahir, the last reigning monarch of Afghanistan, who reigned from 1933 until 1973.
Development of the civil war from 1992 to late 2001
U.S. troops and Chinooks in Afghanistan, 2008
A map of Afghanistan showing the 2021 Taliban offensive
Taliban fighters in Kabul on a captured Humvee following the 2021 fall of Kabul.
The mountainous topography of Afghanistan
Köppen climate map of Afghanistan
The snow leopard was the official national animal of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
A 2005 CIA map showing traditional Afghan tribal territories. Pashtun tribes form the world's largest tribal society.
Ethnolinguistic map of Afghanistan (2001)
Blue Mosque in Mazar-i-Sharif is the largest mosque in Afghanistan
UNESCO Institute of Statistics Afghanistan Literacy Rate population plus15 1980–2018
The Daoud Khan Military Hospital in Kabul is one of the largest hospitals in Afghanistan
The Arg (the Presidential palace) in Kabul
U.S. representative Zalmay Khalilzad (left) meeting with Taliban leaders, Abdul Ghani Baradar, Abdul Hakim Ishaqzai, Sher Mohammad Abbas Stanikzai, Suhail Shaheen, unidentified. Doha, Qatar on 21 November 2020.
Afghanistan is divided into 34 provinces, which are further divided into a number of districts
Workers processing pomegranates (anaar), which Afghanistan is famous for in Asia
Afghan rugs are one of Afghanistan's main exports
Afghan saffron has been recognized as the world's best
Lapis lazuli stones
Afghanistan electricity supply 1980–2019
Band-e Amir National Park
The Minaret of Jam is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, currently under threat by erosion and flooding
The Salang Tunnel, once the highest tunnel in the world, provides a key connection between the north and south of the country
An Ariana Afghan Airlines Airbus A310 in 2006
An Afghan family near Kholm, 1939 – most Afghans are tribal
A house occupied by nomadic kochi people in Nangarhar Province
Kabul skyline, displaying both historical and contemporary buildings
A traditional Afghan embroidery pattern
The Afghan rubab
Non (bread) from a local baker, the most widely consumed bread in Afghanistan
Haft Mewa (Seven Fruit Syrup) is popularly consumed during Nowruz in Afghanistan
The ancient national sport of Afghanistan, Buzkashi

Afghanistan also served as the source from which the Greco-Bactrians and the Mughals, among others, rose to form major empires.

Bangladesh

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Country in South Asia. It is the eighth-most populous country in the world, with a population exceeding 165 million people in an area of either 148460 km2 or 147570 km2, making it one of the most densely populated countries in the world. Bangladesh shares land borders with India to the west, north, and east, and Myanmar to the southeast; to the south it has a coastline along the Bay of Bengal. It is narrowly separated from Bhutan and Nepal by the Siliguri Corridor; and from China by 100 km of the Indian state of Sikkim in the north. Dhaka, the capital and largest city, is the nation's economic, political, and cultural hub.

Country in South Asia. It is the eighth-most populous country in the world, with a population exceeding 165 million people in an area of either 148460 km2 or 147570 km2, making it one of the most densely populated countries in the world. Bangladesh shares land borders with India to the west, north, and east, and Myanmar to the southeast; to the south it has a coastline along the Bay of Bengal. It is narrowly separated from Bhutan and Nepal by the Siliguri Corridor; and from China by 100 km of the Indian state of Sikkim in the north. Dhaka, the capital and largest city, is the nation's economic, political, and cultural hub.

Vanga Kingdom and erstwhile neighbours in ancient South Asia
7th century buddhist monastery. Known as Somapura Mahavihara
The Pala Empire was an imperial power during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, which originated in the region of Bengal.
The Sixty Dome Mosque is the largest mosque in the UNESCO protected Mosque City of Bagerhat.
Choto Sona Mosque, built during the reign of Sultan Alauddin Hussain Shah
Kusumba Mosque
Shipbuilding was a major industry in the Bengal Sultanate and later in Mughal Bengal
The Bibi Mariam Cannon (Lady Mary Cannon) was used by the Mughals to defend their bases.
Lalbagh Fort was the residence of the Mughal viceroy Shaista Khan.
Portuguese envoys (top left) at the imperial court of emperor Akbar. The Portuguese settlement in Chittagong flourished until the Mughals expelled the Portuguese in 1666.
Lord Clive meeting with Mir Jafar after the Battle of Plassey, which led to the overthrow of the last independent Nawab of Bengal
Founding conference of the All India Muslim League in Dhaka, 1906
The Dominion of Pakistan in 1947, with East Bengal its eastern part
Women students of Dhaka University marching in defiance of the Section 144 prohibition on assembly during the Bengali Language Movement in early 1953
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (left) and Munier Chowdhury (centre) visiting Matiul Islam (right), an East Bengali student at Harvard during the late 1950s
Museum of Independence, Dhaka
Sheikh Mujib casting his ballot during a general election. He was given the popular title of Bangabandhu (Friend of Bengal) and is regarded as Bangladesh's founding leader.
Ziaur Rahman with members of the Dutch royal family in 1978
Muhammad Yunus (center) celebrating the Nobel Peace Prize in 2006 with his family in Oslo, Norway
Rohingya refugees entering Bangladesh from Myanmar
Physical map of Bangladesh
A Bengal tiger, the national animal, in the Sundarbans
Bangabhaban, the official residence of the President of Bangladesh, was built in 1905 during the British Raj for use by the Viceroy of India and the Governor of Bengal.
Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi during bilateral talks with Bangladeshi Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina at the Prime Minister's Office in Dhaka
The National Parliament of Bangladesh
The Supreme Court of Bangladesh
Map of Bangladesh UN Peacekeeping Force deployments
First South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) meeting in 1985 in Dhaka (l-r, top row: the presidents of Pakistan and the Maldives, the king of Bhutan, the president of Bangladesh, the prime minister of India, the king of Nepal and the president of Sri Lanka)
U.S. Special Presidential Envoy for Climate John Kerry meeting Bangladeshi Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina at her residence in Dhaka in April 2021
The Rapid Action Battalion has been sanctioned by the United States for human rights abuses
Historical development of GDP per capita
Construction of Padma Bridge, the longest bridge on the Ganges, by China Major Bridge Engineering Co. Ltd. The bridge was designed by AECOM.
Hotels and office blocks in an upmarket neighborhood of Dhaka
Paddy fields dominate the country's farmland. Bangladesh is a top global producer of rice (3rd), potatoes (7th), tropical fruits (6th), jute (2nd), and farmed fish (5th).
A Boeing 777 of the national flag carrier Biman Bangladesh Airlines
Coal and natural-gas fields in Bangladesh, 2011
In 2018, the first payload of SpaceX's Falcon 9 Block 5 rocket was the Bangabandhu-1 satellite built by Thales Alenia Space
The Charyapada scrolls are the oldest surviving text of the Bengali language. The photograph was taken at the Rajshahi College Library
Chakma alphabets are indigenous to the Chittagong Hill Tracts
Eid prayers for Muslims at Barashalghar, Debidwar, Comilla
Bangladeshis celebrating Pahela Baishakh as a mark of the beginning of Bengali new year
Literacy rates in Bangladesh districts
Faculty of Sciences at the University of Dhaka; The Curzon Hall
A Bangladeshi nurse in Kutupalong Refugee Camp
Historical development of life expectancy in Bangladesh
A preserved cloth of historic Bengali fine muslin, which is now extinct
Syed Mujtaba Ali
Muslim feminist Begum Rokeya and her husband in 1898
The 18th century terracotta Hindu Kantanagar Temple in Dinajpur
A Baul from Lalon Shah's shrine in Kushtia
Embroidery on Nakshi kantha (embroidered quilt), centuries-old Bengali art tradition
Traditional Bangladeshi Meal: Mustard seed Ilish Curry, Dhakai Biryani and Pitha
A Nouka Baich boat race
Bangladesh team on practice session at Sher-e-Bangla National Cricket Stadium
Anwar Hossain playing Siraj-ud-Daulah, the last independent Nawab of Bengal, in the 1967 film Nawab Sirajuddaulah
Beds of zamindars kept at the Bangladesh National Museum

Under Mughal rule, eastern Bengal continued to prosper as the melting pot of Muslims in the eastern subcontinent and attracted traders from around the world.

Delhi

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Ancient built environment.

Ancient built environment.

The walls of the 16th-century Purana Qila built on a mound whose topography is thought to match the literary description of the citadel Indraprastha in the Sanskrit-epic Mahabharata, though excavations in the vicinity have yielded no evidence of construction.
At 72.5 m, the Qutb Minar, a UNESCO World Heritage Site in Delhi, was completed during the reign of Sultan Illtutmish in the 13th century; although its style has some similarities with the Jarkurgan minaret, it is more closely related to the Ghaznavid and Ghurid minarets of Central Asia
Red Fort, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, was the main residence of the Mughal emperors for nearly 200 years.
Six stamps issued by the Government of British India to mark the inauguration of New Delhi in February 1931
Khan Market in New Delhi, now a high-end shopping district, was established in 1951 to help refugees of the Partition of India, especially those from the North West Frontier Province (NWFP). It honours Khan Abdul Jabbar Khan, Chief Minister of NWFP during the Partition.
Aerial view of Delhi in April 2016 with river Yamuna in top-right.
A dense toxic smog in New Delhi blocks out the sun. In November 2017, Delhi's chief minister described the city as a "gas chamber".
Urban sustainability analysis of the greater urban area of the city using the 'Circles of Sustainability method of the UN Global Compact Cities Programme.
Districts of Delhi
Municipalities of Delhi
Connaught Place in New Delhi is an important economic hub of the National Capital Region.
The Khari Baoli market in Old Delhi is one of the oldest and busiest in the city.
Indira Gandhi International Airport's new terminal in Delhi. It is the busiest airport in South Asia. Shown here is the immigration counter in Terminal 3.
The Delhi Transport Corporation operates three types of compressed natural gas buses, the world's largest fleet. The red- and green-roofed buses seen in the picture have low floors whereas the orange buses have standard height. The elevated Delhi metro is seen above in Azadpur.
The cycle rickshaw and the auto rickshaw are commonly used in Delhi for travelling short distances.
A platform of the New Delhi railway station shows a passenger train and freight which awaits pick up or transportation to other destinations. The pedestrian bridge overhead connects the platforms.
Delhi Metro is widely used Delhi- NCR.
Traditional pottery on display in Dilli Haat
The Pragati Maidan in Delhi hosts the World Book Fair biennially
More than a quarter of the immigrants in Delhi are from Bihar and neighboring states. Chhath, a festival of rural Bihar is now popular in Delhi.
On Basant Panchmi eve, qawwali singers wearing yellow headbands gather at the dargah of Sufi saint Nizamuddin Auliya to sing verses from Amir Khusrau.
The kitchen of Karim's, Old Delhi, a historic restaurant located near Jama Masjid. 
 Established in 1913, the restaurant has been described as "arguably the city's most famous culinary destination".
Pitampura TV Tower broadcasts programming to Delhi
Indian athletes marching into the National Stadium during the opening ceremony of the 1951 Asian Games.
The 2010 Commonwealth Games opening ceremony in Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium.
Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium.
alt=The Birla temple in Delhi with its towers.|Birla Mandir, Delhi, a Hindu temple, was inaugurated by Mahatma Gandhi in 1933
The Jama Masjid was built by the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan between 1650 and 1656
The prayer hall of Sikh Gurudwara Sis Ganj Sahib in Chandni Chowk, Old Delhi which dates to 1783
Municipalities of Delhi

From the early 13th century until the mid-19th century, Delhi was the capital of two major empires, the Delhi sultanate and the Mughal Empire, which covered large parts of South Asia.

Maratha Empire

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Early modern Indian confederation that came to dominate much of the Indian subcontinent in the 18th century.

Early modern Indian confederation that came to dominate much of the Indian subcontinent in the 18th century.

The Maratha Empire in 1758 with the Nizam of Hyderabad and the Mughal Empire as its vassals
Maratha Empire at its peak in 1760 (Yellow)
Maratha kingdom in 1680 (yellow)
A portrait of Shivaji Maharaj
Sambhaji, eldest son of Shivaji
Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath
Peshwa Baji Rao I
Peshwa Balaji Bajirao
Peshwa Madhavrao I
Mahadaji Shinde restored the Maratha domination of northern India
A mural depicting the British surrender during the First Anglo-Maratha War. The mural is a part of the Victory Memorial (Vijay Stambh) located at Vadgaon Maval, Pune.
Peshwa Madhavrao II in his court in 1790, concluding a treaty with the British
Battle of Assaye during the Second Anglo-Maratha War
Peshwa Baji Rao II signing of the Treaty of Bassein with the British
Maratha king of Gwalior at his palace
Pratapgad fort, one of the earliest forts administered by Shivaji.
Maratha darbar or court.
Gold coins minted during Shivaji's era, 17th century.
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Maratha Gurabs ships attacking a British East India Company ship
Arms of Maratha
Ramchandra Pant Amatya
Thanjavur Maratha palace
Maratha Empire at its peak in 1759 (orange)
Maratha Empire in 1760 (yellow)
Maratha Empire in 1765 (yellow)
Maratha Empire in 1795 (yellow)
Maratha Empire in 1805
Maratha Princely States in 1823

The Marathas were responsible for weakening the Mughal control over the Indian subcontinent.

Genealogy of the Mughal Dynasty. Only principal offspring of each emperor are provided in the chart.

Mughal emperors

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Genealogy of the Mughal Dynasty. Only principal offspring of each emperor are provided in the chart.
Group portrait of Mughal rulers, from Babur to Aurangzeb, with the Mughal ancestor Timur seated in the middle. On the left: Shah Jahan, Akbar and Babur, with Abu Sa'id of Samarkand and Timur's son, Miran Shah. On the right: Aurangzeb, Jahangir and Humayun, and two of Timur's other offspring Umar Shaykh and Muhammad Sultan. Created c. 1707–12
Shah Jahan, accompanied by his three sons: Dara Shikoh, Shah Shuja and Aurangzeb, and their maternal grandfather Asaf Khan IV
Akbar Shah II and his four sons

The Mughal emperors were the supreme head of state of the Mughal Empire on the Indian subcontinent, mainly corresponding to the modern countries of India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh.

Delhi Sultanate

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Islamic empire based in Delhi that stretched over large parts of South Asia for 320 years .

Islamic empire based in Delhi that stretched over large parts of South Asia for 320 years .

Map of the Delhi Sultanate at its zenith under the Turko–Indian Tughlaq dynasty.
Delhi Sultanate from 1206 to 1290 AD under the Mamluk dynasty.
Alai Gate and Qutub Minar were built during the Mamluk and Khalji dynasties of the Delhi Sultanate.
Delhi Sultanate from 1321 to 1330 AD under the Tughlaq dynasty. After 1330, various regions rebelled against the Sultanate and the kingdom shrank.
Daulatabad Fort in the 1700s
A base metal coin of Muhammad bin Tughlaq that led to an economic collapse.
The Mahmud Gawan Madrasah built by the resultant Bahmanid kingdom
Delhi Sultanate during Babur's invasion.
The Qutb Minar (left, begun c. 1200) next to the Alai Darwaza gatehouse (1311); Qutb Complex in Delhi
Tomb of Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq (d. 1325), Delhi
Screen of the Adhai Din Ka Jhonpra mosque, Ajmer, {{circa|1229}}; Corbel arches, some cusped.
Mausoleum of Iltutmish, Delhi, by 1236, with corbel arches
Possibly the first "true" arches in India; Tomb of Balban (d. 1287) in Delhi
Pavilions in the Hauz Khas Complex, Delhi
The Sheesh Gumbad in the Lodi Gardens, Delhi
Tomb of Sikander Lodi in the Lodi Gardens, Delhi
The Somnath Temple in Gujarat was repeatedly destroyed by Muslim armies and rebuilt by Hindus. It was destroyed by Delhi Sultanate's army in 1299 CE.<ref name=eaton200080>Eaton (2000), Temple desecration in pre-modern India Frontline, p. 73, item 16 of the Table, Archived by Columbia University</ref>
The Kashi Vishwanath Temple was destroyed by the army of Qutb-ud-din Aibak.<ref name="SPUday2005">{{cite book |author=S. P. Udayakumar |title=Presenting the Past: Anxious History and Ancient Future in Hindutva India |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=XjkEERJrRdwC&pg=PA99 |date=1 January 2005 |publisher=Greenwood Publishing Group |isbn=978-0-275-97209-7 |pages=99 }}</ref>
Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji, the military general of Delhi Sultan Qutb al-Din Aibak, was responsible for the destruction of Nalanda university.<ref>History of Ancient India: Earliest Times to 1000 A. D.; Radhey Shyam Chaurasia, Atlantic, 2009 [p191]</ref>
The armies of Delhi Sultanate led by Muslim Commander Malik Kafur plundered the Meenakshi Temple and looted it of its valuables.<ref name="Ernst2004p109">{{cite book|author=Carl W. Ernst| title=Eternal Garden: Mysticism, History, and Politics at a South Asian Sufi Center| url=https://books.google.com/books?id=9bNAAQAAIAAJ|year=2004|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-566869-8|page=109}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|author=Sarojini Chaturvedi|title=A short history of South India|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=qXcwAQAAIAAJ| year=2006|publisher= Saṁskṛiti|isbn=978-81-87374-37-4|page=209}}</ref><ref name="Eraly2015chid">{{cite book|author=Abraham Eraly|title=The Age of Wrath: A History of the Delhi Sultanate|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=vyEoAwAAQBAJ&pg=PT155| year=2015|publisher= Penguin Books|isbn=978-93-5118-658-8|pages=155–156}}</ref>
Kakatiya Kala Thoranam (Warangal Gate) built by the Kakatiya dynasty in ruins; one of the many temple complexes destroyed by the Delhi Sultanate.
Rani ki vav is a stepwell, built by the Chaulukya dynasty, located in Patan; the city was sacked by Sultan of Delhi Qutb-ud-din Aybak between 1200 and 1210, and again by the Allauddin Khilji in 1298.{{sfn|Lal|1950|p=84}}
Artistic rendition of the Kirtistambh at Rudra Mahalaya Temple. The temple was destroyed by Alauddin Khalji.<ref name="Burgess1874">{{cite book|last1=Burgess|last2=Murray|title=Photographs of Architecture and Scenery in Gujarat and Rajputana|chapter-url=https://archive.org/stream/photographsofarc00murr#page/n17/mode/2up|access-date=23 July 2016|year=1874|publisher=Bourne and Shepherd|page=19|chapter=The Rudra Mala at Siddhpur}}</ref>
Exterior wall reliefs at Hoysaleswara Temple. The temple was twice sacked and plundered by the Delhi Sultanate.<ref name="Bradnock2000p959">{{cite book|author1=Robert Bradnock|author2=Roma Bradnock|title=India Handbook|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=2hCFDsTbmhoC|year=2000|publisher=McGraw-Hill |isbn=978-0-658-01151-1|page=959}}</ref>

In 1526, the Sultanate was conquered and succeeded by the Mughal Empire.

A 1912 map of Northern India, showing the centres of the rebellion.

Indian Rebellion of 1857

15 links

Major uprising in India in 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown.

Major uprising in India in 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown.

A 1912 map of Northern India, showing the centres of the rebellion.
India in 1765 and 1805, showing East India Company-governed territories in pink
India in 1837 and 1857, showing East India Company-governed territories in pink
Two sepoy officers; a private sepoy, 1820s
A scene from the 1857 Indian Rebellion (Bengal Army).
Indian mutiny map showing position of troops on 1 May 1857
"The Sepoy revolt at Meerut," wood-engraving from the Illustrated London News, 1857
An 1858 photograph by Felice Beato of a mosque in Meerut where some of the rebel soldiers may have prayed
Wood-engraving depicting the massacre of officers by insurgent cavalry at Delhi
The Flagstaff Tower, Delhi, where the British survivors of the rebellion gathered on 11 May 1857; photographed by Felice Beato
States during the rebellion
Troops of the Native Allies by George Francklin Atkinson, 1859.
Sikh Troops Dividing the Spoil Taken from Mutineers, circa 1860
Fugitive British officers and their families attacked by mutineers.
A wood-engraving of Nynee Tal (today Nainital) and accompanying story in the Illustrated London News, 15 August 1857, describing how the resort town in the Himalayas served as a refuge for British families escaping from the rebellion of 1857 in Delhi and Meerut.
Attack of the mutineers on the Redan Battery at Lucknow, 30 July 1857
Assault on Delhi and capture of the Cashmere Gate, 14 September 1857
Capture of Delhi 1857.
Capture of Bahadur Shah Zafar and his sons by William Hodson at Humayun's tomb on 20 September 1857
Wood-engraving depicting Tatya Tope's Soldiery
A memorial erected (circa 1860) by the British after the Mutiny at the Bibighar Well. After India's Independence the statue was moved to the All Souls Memorial Church, Cawnpore. Albumen silver print by Samuel Bourne, 1860
A contemporary image of the massacre at the Satichaura Ghat
The interior of the Secundra Bagh, several months after its storming during the second relief of Lucknow. Albumen silver print by Felice Beato, 1858
Jhansi Fort, which was taken over by rebel forces, and subsequently defended against British recapture by the Rani of Jhansi
Wood-engraving of the execution of mutineers at Peshawar
Marble Lectern in memory of 35 British soldiers in Jhelum
Lieutenant William Alexander Kerr, 24th Bombay Native Infantry, near Kolapore, July 1857
The Relief of Lucknow by Thomas Jones Barker
British soldiers looting Qaisar Bagh, Lucknow, after its recapture (steel engraving, late 1850s)
Execution of mutineers by blowing from a gun by the British, 8 September 1857.
Justice, a print by Sir John Tenniel in a September 1857 issue of Punch
Bahadur Shah Zafar (the last Mughal emperor) in Delhi, awaiting trial by the British for his role in the Uprising. Photograph by Robert Tytler and Charles Shepherd, May 1858
The proclamation to the "Princes, Chiefs, and People of India," issued by Queen Victoria on 1 November 1858. "We hold ourselves bound to the natives of our Indian territories by the same obligation of duty which bind us to all our other subjects." (p. 2)
Captain C Scott of the Gen. Sir. Hope Grant's Column, Madras Regiment, who fell on the attack of Fort of Kohlee, 1858. Memorial at the St. Mary's Church, Madras
Memorial inside the York Minster
The Mutiny Memorial in Delhi, a monument to those killed on the British side during the fighting.
Suppression of the Indian Revolt by the English, which depicts the execution of mutineers by blowing from a gun by the British, a painting by Vasily Vereshchagin c. 1884. Note: This painting was allegedly bought by the British crown and possibly destroyed (current whereabouts unknown). It anachronistically depicts the events of 1857 with soldiers wearing (then current) uniforms of the late 19th century.
The hanging of two participants in the Indian Rebellion, Sepoys of the 31st Native Infantry. Albumen silver print by Felice Beato, 1857.
The National Youth rally at the National Celebration to Commemorate 150th Anniversary of the First War of Independence, 1857 at Red Fort, in Delhi on 11 May 2007
Henry Nelson O'Neil's 1857 painting Eastward Ho! depicting British soldiers saying farewell to their loved ones as they embark on a deployment to India.
Charles Canning, the Governor-General of India during the rebellion.
Lord Dalhousie, the Governor-General of India from 1848 to 1856, who devised the Doctrine of Lapse.
Lakshmibai, the Rani of Maratha-ruled Jhansi, one of the principal leaders of the rebellion who earlier had lost her kingdom as a result of the Doctrine of Lapse.
Bahadur Shah Zafar, the last Mughal Emperor, crowned Emperor of India, by the Indian troops, he was deposed by the British, and died in exile in Burma
The Jantar Mantar observatory in Delhi in 1858, damaged in the fighting
Mortar damage to Kashmiri Gate, Delhi, 1858
Hindu Rao's house in Delhi, now a hospital, was extensively damaged in the fighting
Bank of Delhi was attacked by mortar and gunfire
Photograph entitled, "The Hospital in General Wheeler's entrenchment, Cawnpore". (1858) The hospital was the site of the first major loss of British lives in Cawnpore
1858 picture of Sati Chaura Ghat on the banks of the Ganges River, where on 27 June 1857 many British men lost their lives and the surviving women and children were taken prisoner by the rebels.
Bibigarh house where British women and children were killed and the well where their bodies were found, 1858.
The Bibighar Well site where a memorial had been built. Samuel Bourne, 1860.

After the outbreak of the mutiny in Meerut, the rebels quickly reached Delhi, whose 81-year-old Mughal ruler, Bahadur Shah Zafar, was declared the Emperor of Hindustan.