Mughal architecture

The Taj Mahal at Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India is the most famous example of Mughal Architecture and one of India's most recognisable landmarks in general,
Badshahi Mosque, in Lahore, Pakistan was the largest mosque in the world for 313 years, and is the last of the imperial mosques built by the Mughals
The Alamgiri Gate at Lahore Fort, Lahore, Pakistan, was named for Aurangzeb, who was sometimes referred to as "Alamgir".
Bibi Ka Maqbara is a tomb in Aurangabad, Maharashtra, which was built by Aurangzeb in the memory of his wife, Dilras Banu Begum
The use of elephant-shaped column brackets at Lahore Fort reflects Hindu influences on Mughal Architecture during the reign of Akbar
Gardens of Babur in Kabul, Afghanistan.
Islamia White Mosque
Humayun's Tomb, Delhi, India
Buland Darwaza, Agra was built by Akbar the Great to commemorate his victory.
The tomb of Shaikh Salim Chisti is considered to be one of the finest examples of Mughal architecture
Begum Shahi Mosque is Lahore's earliest dated Mughal period mosque
The tomb of I'timād-ud-Daulah is often regarded as a draft of the Tāj Mahal.
The Tomb of Jahangir at Lahore does not have a dome as Jahangir forbade construction of a dome over his tomb.
Wazir Khan Mosque in Lahore, Pakistan, is considered to be the most ornately decorated Mughal-era mosque
The Shalimar Gardens, Lahore are among the most famous Mughal gardens.
The mosque's tile work exhibits Timurid influences introduced during Shah Jahan's campaigns in Central Asia.
The central chamber of the Shahi Hammam is decorated with frescoes
Badshahi Masjid, Lahore, Pakistan was the largest mosque in the world for 313 years, and is now the second-largest mosque in the Indian subcontinent.
Lalbagh Fort in Dhaka is an incomplete fort built by Prince Azam Shah
The 18th-century Sunehri Mosque is named for its gilded domes.
The Darwaza-i-Rauza (Great Gate) of the Taj Mahal.
Jali decorative work at the Tomb of Salim Chishti, Fatehpur Sikri.
Lahori Gate of the Red Fort, Delhi, India.
Jahangir's grave at the Tomb of Jahangir, decorated with parchin kari work.
Tomb of Nithar Begum at Khusro Bagh, Allahabad, India.
The shahada in Arabic calligraphy at the Wazir Khan Mosque, Lahore, Pakistan.
Akbar's Tomb at Agra, India uses red sandstone and white marble, like many of the Mughal monuments. The Taj Mahal is a notable exception, as it uses only marble.
Diwan-i-Khas (Hall of private audience) at Lahore Fort.
Shah Jahan Mosque in Thatta, Pakistan. The mosque is not built in the Mughal style, but reflects a heavy Persian influence.
One of the Tombs of Ustad-Shagird, Nakodar, India.

Type of Indo-Islamic architecture developed by the Mughals in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries throughout the ever-changing extent of their empire in the Indian subcontinent.

- Mughal architecture

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Mughal Empire

Early modern Islamic empire in South Asia.

The empire at its greatest extent in c. 1700 under Aurangzeb ((r. 1658 – 1707))
Akbar holds a religious assembly of different faiths in the Ibadat Khana in Fatehpur Sikri.
Group portrait of Mughal rulers, from Babur to Aurangzeb, with the Mughal ancestor Timur seated in the middle. On the left: Shah Jahan, Akbar and Babur, with Abu Sa'id of Samarkand and Timur's son, Miran Shah. On the right: Aurangzeb, Jahangir and Humayun, and two of Timur's other offspring Umar Shaykh and Muhammad Sultan. Created c. 1707–12
Horsemen of the invading Maratha Empire
Shah Alam II on horseback
Portrait of Bahadur Shah II
Coin of Aurangzeb, minted in Kabul, dated 1691/2
Miniature painting - Portrait of an Old Mughal Courtier Wearing Muslin
Muslim Lady Reclining or An Indian Girl with a Hookah, painted in Dacca, 18th century
Ruins of the Great Caravanserai in Dhaka.
Ghulam Hamdani Mushafi, the poet first believed to have coined the name "Urdu" around 1780 AD for a language that went by a multiplicity of names before his time.
Mir Taqi Mir, an Urdu poet of the 18th century Mughal Empire
The Taj Mahal in the 1870s
Badshahi Mosque, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan
Buland Darwaza in Fatehpur Sikiri, Agra, India
Lalbagh Fort aerial view in Dhaka, Bangladesh
Shalimar Bagh in Srinagar, Kashmir, India
Illustration by the 17th-century Mughal artist Ustad Mansur
"Alexander Visits the Sage Plato in His Mountain Cave"; illustration by the 16th-century Indian artist Basawan, in a folio from a quintet of the 13th-century Indian poet Amir Khusrau Dihlavi
Folio from Farhang-i-Jahangiri, a Persian dictionary compiled during the Mughal era.
Mughal matchlock rifle, 16th century.
Mughal musketeer, 17th century.
The remnants of the empire in 1751

There was more conspicuous consumption among the Mughal elite, resulting in greater patronage of painting, literary forms, textiles, and architecture, especially during the reign of Shah Jahan.

Akbar

The third Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1556 to 1605.

Akbar by Govardhan, c. 1630
Akbar as a boy
Mughal Empire under Akbar's period (yellow)
Mughal Emperor Akbar training an elephant
Akbar hawking with Mughal chieftains and nobleman accompanied by his guardian Bairam Khan
Young Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khana son of Bairam Khan being received by Akbar
Mughal Emperor Akbar shoots the Rajput warrior Jaimal during the Siege of Chittorgarh in 1568
Bullocks dragging siege-guns uphill during Akbar's attack on Ranthambhor Fort in 1568
The court of young Akbar, age 13, showing his first imperial act: the arrest of an unruly courtier, who was once a favourite of Akbar's father. Illustration from a manuscript of the Akbarnama
Falcon Mohur of Akbar, minted in Asir. This coin was issued in the name of Akbar, to commemorate the capture of the strategic Asirgarh Fort of the Khandesh Sultanate on 17 January 1601 CE. Legend: "Allah is great, Khordad Ilahi 45, struck at Asir".
Diwan-i-Khas (Hall of Private Audience) in Fatehpur Sikri
Silver coin of Akbar with inscriptions of the Islamic declaration of faith, the declaration reads: "There is no god except Allah, and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah."
Portrait of Empress Mariam-uz-Zamani, commonly known as Jodha Bai, giving birth to Prince Salim, the future emperor Jahangir.
Death of Bahadur Shah of Gujarat at Diu, in front of the Portuguese in 1537
Portuguese ambush against the galleys of Seydi Ali Reis (Akbar's allies) in the Indian Ocean.
The Akbari Mosque, overlooking the Ganges
Portrait of the Mughal Emperor Akbar invocation of a Dua prayer.
The Mughal Emperor Akbar welcomes his son Prince Salim at Fatehpur Sikri, (Akbarnameh).
Akbar holds a religious assembly of different faiths in the Ibadat Khana in Fatehpur Sikri.
Silver square rupee of Akbar, Lahore mint, struck in Aban month of Ilahi
The great Mogul discoursing with a Humble Fakir
Akbar triumphantly enters Surat
Akbar hunting with cheetahs, c. 1602
Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak presenting Akbarnama to Akbar, Mughal miniature
Gate of Akbar's mausoleum at Sikandra, Agra, 1795
Potrait of Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar with Mariam Zamani Begum, drawn as per Akbar's description.

Timurid and Perso-Islamic culture began to merge and blend with indigenous Indian elements, and a distinct Indo-Persian culture emerged characterized by Mughal style arts, painting, and architecture.

Taj Mahal

Islamic ivory-white marble mausoleum on the right bank of the river Yamuna in the Indian city of Agra.

Walkways beside reflecting pool
The western building, a mosque, faces the tomb.
Protective wartime scaffolding in 1942
Visitors at Taj Mahal
Jean-Baptiste Tavernier, one of the first European writers about the Taj Mahal
Eastern view in the morning
Taj Mahal in cloudy weather and its minaret under restoration
Western view at sunset
Taj Mahal through the fog
A panoramic view looking 360 degrees around the Taj Mahal in 2005

It is regarded by many as the best example of Mughal architecture and a symbol of India's rich history.

Iwan

Rectangular hall or space, usually vaulted, walled on three sides, with one end entirely open.

Multiple iwans and tiled domes of the 16th century Persian-style Mir-i-Arab madrasa, Bukhara, Uzbekistan
The Taj Mahal uses iwans for both entrances and decorative features.
Sheykh Lotfollah Mosque, Isfahan, Iran
Iwan of the Āmeri House in Kashan, Iran
Shrine of Abdussamad Esfahani at Natanz, Iran
Blue Mosque, Tabriz, Iran
Bibi Khanym, Samarkand, Uzbekistan
Hazrat Ali Mazar, Mazar-I-Sharif, Afghanistan
Taq-i Kisra, Ctesiphon, Iran, c. 540
Iwans of the Mosque-Madrasa of Sultan Hasan in Cairo, Egypt (built in 1356–1363)
Hatra
Taq-i Bostan
The iwan of the Palace of Ardashir
The courtyard of the Great Mosque of Isfahan, one of the earliest and most prominent uses of the four-iwan plan in mosque architecture, introduced in the early 12th century
alt=|Iwans in the Friday Mosque of Ardestan, Iran, added in 12th century by the Seljuks
alt=|Iwan inside the Hospital of Divriği, Turkey, built in Anatolia under Seljuk domination in the 13th century
Iwan in the Al-Firdaws Madrasa in Aleppo, Syria, built by the Ayyubids in the 13th century
alt=|Qibla-side iwan of the Madrasa of al-Ghuri (early 16th century) in Cairo, Egypt, an example of an iwan with a flat roof in Mamluk architecture
Iwan entrance of the Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque in Isfahan, Iran, built under the Safavids in the early 17th century
alt=|Çifte Minareli Medrese (13th century) in Erzurum, Turkey, an variation of the four-iwan plan in Anatolian Seljuk architecture
alt=|Interior of the Green Mosque (14th century) in Bursa, Turkey, an example of the modified four-iwan plan in early Ottoman architecture

570–632). This development reached its peak during the Seljuki era, when iwans became a fundamental unit in architecture, and later the Mughal architecture.

Chhatri

Element in Indo-Islamic architecture and Indian architecture.

Memorial chhatri of Jat Rana Udaybhanu Singh Maharaj at Dholpur, Rajasthan, India.
Chhatri set atop each corner of the Hall of Audience in Fatehpur Sikri palace complex.
Chhatri of Vithoji in Maheshwar.
Rao Lakhaji Chhatri Bhuj
Chhatri of Ram Mohan Roy in Arnos Vale Cemetery, Bristol, England
A 12th-century chatri, Jaisalmir
Bada Bagh at Jaisalmer
Chhatri at Rajgarh, Rajasthan
Moosi Rani Ki Chhatri, Alwar
Barah Khamba Chhatri at Jalsen Talab in Hindaun

Chhatri are found particularly within Mughal architecture.

Badshahi Mosque

Mughal-era congregational mosque in Lahore located at the west of the Lahore Fort along the outskirts of the Walled City of Lahore.

Badshahi Mosque stands across the Hazuri Bagh from Lahore Fort.
Badshahi Mosque is renowned for the carved marble and elaborate plasterwork that are used throughout the mosque's interior.
Entrance to the main prayer hall is through arches made of red sandstone city was made an imperial capital by the earlier Emperor, Akbar, who established the nearby Lahore Fort.
The Badshahi Mosque features a monumental gateway that faces the Hazuri Bagh quadrangle and Lahore Fort.
The Samadhi of Ranjit Singh (white edifice) is a Sikh shrine that was built next to the mosque in 1848.
Badshahi Mosque had fallen into disrepair after the city's Sikh rule
The mosque is heavily used during the Islamic month of Ramadan.
The mosque's interior is embellished with Mughal frescoes and carved marble.
The mosque's domes
The intricately painted entryway
The ceiling of the prayer hall is embellished with elegant floral frescoes and Middle-Eastern style muqarnas.
The mosque features intricate Mughal frescoes.
Badshahi Mosque Gate as viewed from the mosque's courtyard
Silhouette of the mosque's architectural elements
Badshahi Masjid
The mosque's southern view from Fort Street
The interior of the mosque is embellished with intricate floral motifs.
An example of Badshahi Mosque's intricate decoration.
The Tomb of Allama Iqbal is located immediately north of the mosque's monumental gateway
Light fixtures at the mosque
An evening view of the Badshahi Mosque.
The mosque at night
Side view
A view over the mosque's marble domes.
A view of Badshahi Mosque from the Alamgiri Gate.
The mosque's entry gateway connects the mosque to the Hazuri Bagh
Entry gate's design
View from Iqbal Park
alt=Panoramic view of Badshahi Mosque as seen from Food Street Fort Road|Panoramic view of Badshahi Mosque as seen from Food Street Fort Road

The mosque is an important example of Mughal architecture, with an exterior that is decorated with carved red sandstone with marble inlay.

Red Fort

Historic fort in Old Delhi, Delhi in India that served as the main residence of the Mughal Emperors.

A view of the Red Fort's Lahori Gate
Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, c. 1630
The walls of Red Fort (in the background) as seen from the top of Jama Masjid's tower
Every year on India's Independence Day, the Prime Minister hoists the Indian "tricolour flag" at the fort's main gate and delivers a nationally broadcast speech from its ramparts. Pictured is Nehru on 15 August 1947.
View of the Red Fort from the river (by Ghulam Ali Khan, between c. 1852–1854
Inner walls and ceiling of the Diwan-e-Khas
Barrel vault structure located past the Lahore Gate, acts as a market that was built to satisfy the needs of higher ranked Mughal women, who resided in the fort
Map of Red Fort showing major structures
The Delhi Gate, which is almost identical in appearance to the Lahori Gate
Naubat Khana and the courtyard before its demolition by the British, in an 1858 photograph
Naubat Khana inside Red Fort today
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Diwan-i-Khas in the mid-nineteenth century
Hammam of Red Fort interior in mid-nineteenth century
Moti Masjid in Red Fort Delhi
Red Zafar Mahal and white Sawan/Bhadon pavilion behind it in the Hayat Bakhsh Bagh

The fort represents the peak in Mughal architecture under Shah Jahan, and combines Persianate palace architecture with Indian traditions.

Architecture of India

Rooted in its history, culture and religion.

Royal cortege leaving Rajagriha
Dashavatara Temple, Deogarh is a Vishnu Hindu temple built during the early 6th century, near the end of the Gupta period.
The rock-cut Shore Temple of the temples in Mahabalipuram, Tamil Nadu, 700–728. Showing the typical dravida form of tower.
Hindu Temple basic floor design
The ninth century temple in Barakar shows a tall curving shikhara crowned by a large amalaka and is an example of the early Pala style. It is similar to contemporaneous temples of Odisha.
Drawing of a pancharatha (5 ratha) plan of subsidiary shrines of Brahmeswara Temple
Palitana Jain Temples
Jain Temple complex, Deogarh, Uttar Pradesh, before 862
Temple ceiling of Ranakpur Jain Temple, Rajasthan
The Charminar, built in the 16th century by the Golconda Sultanate
Tomb of Muhammad Shah, Lodi Gardens
Qutb complex
Burial place of Ibrahim Adil Shah II
Tombs beside Tomb of Fatima Khanam
Firoze Minar at Gaur
Interior of the hypostyle hall of the Adina Mosque
Jama Masjid, Srinagar
The Golden Temple in Amritsar
Gurdwara Baba Atal is a 17th-century nine-storeyed Gurudwara in Amritsar
Shaniwarwada palace fort in Pune.
Kee monastery, Spiti
Cluster of temples in Bishnupur
Thakur Dalan of Itachuna Rajbari at Khanyan
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Lotus Temple, Delhi Fariborz Sahba
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Bimbisara visiting a bamboo garden in Rajagriha
Pari Mahal
Pointed arch, Mahabodhi temple, 6th–7th century CE, Late-Gupta period
Arches of Diwan-i-Khas, Red Fort, Delhi
Nav Toran Temple, Neemuch, Madhya Pradesh
Po Klong Garai Temple near Phan Rang
Angkor Wat
Wat Chaiwatthanaram, an example of Thai style prang
Masjid Ubudiah, showcasing elements of Indo-Saracenic style
Temples in Bagan
Ananda Temple terracotta plaque glazed in green
numerous rock-cut equivalents
A tetrastyle prostyle Gupta period temple at Sanchi besides the Apsidal hall with Maurya foundation, an example of Buddhist architecture. 5th century CE.
The Hindu Tigawa Temple, early 5th century.
The current structure of the Mahabodhi Temple dates to the Gupta era, 5th century CE. Marking the location where the Buddha is said to have attained enlightenment.
Vishnu temple in Eran, 5th-6th century
The Buddhagupta pillar at Eran (c.476–495 CE)
Detailed carving of elephant, Ranakpur Jain Temple
Rani Ki Vav, Gujrat
Somanath Temple
Adalaj stepwell
Taranga Jain Temple, Gujrat
Safdarjung's Tomb is built in the late Mughal style for Nawab Safdarjung. The tomb is described as the “last flicker in the lamp of Mughal architecture”
Tomb of I'timād-ud-Daulah is a Mughal mausoleum in Agra.It is noticeable for the first use of pietra dura technique. The tomb is often regarded as a draft of the Taj Mahal.
Shalimar Bagh is a Mughal garden in Srinagar, linked through a channel to the northeast of Dal Lake. The Bagh is considered the high point of Mughal horticulture.
Akbar's Tomb, Agra. Built with red sandstone by his son and grandson in 1605 to 1618.
Humayun's Tomb, Delhi, the first fully developed Mughal imperial tomb, 1569–70 CE<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/232/|title=Humayun's Tomb, Delhi|website=UNESCO World Heritage Centre|language=en|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190228192141/https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/232/|archive-date=2019-02-28|url-status=live|access-date=2019-02-28}}</ref>
Stupas in Thikse Monastery
Ralang Monastery, Sikkim
Tawang Monastery, Arunachal Pradesh
Tawang Monastery assembly hall
Prayer hall at the Golden Temple in Bylakuppe, a Tibetan settlement in Karnataka
The Chandannagar Strand Ghat, reminiscences of a French colony, Chandannagar, West Bengal
Fort Dansborg, built by the 17th century Danish admiral Ove Gjedde, reminiscences of Danish India, Tharangambadi, Tamil Nadu
Tomb of Susanna Anna Maria, reminisces of Dutch India, Chinsurah, West Bengal
Church Of St Francis Of Assisi, reminisce of Portuguese India, Goa
French Quarter, Pondicherry. The city became the chief French settlement in India.
Nishat Bagh, Srinagar
Lal Bagh, Bengaluru
View of the Mughal Garden of Rashtrapati Bhavan
Waterfall at Rock Garden, Chandigarh
Char Bagh Garden, Rajasthan
The Athpula (eight piers) bridge in Lodi gardens

Among a number of architectural styles and traditions, the best-known include the many varieties of Hindu temple architecture, Indo-Islamic architecture, especially Mughal architecture, Rajput architecture and Indo-Saracenic architecture.

Shah Jahan

The fifth emperor of the Mughal Empire, reigning from January 1628 until July 1658.

Portrait of Shah Jahan in c. 1630
Shah Jahan, accompanied by his three sons: Dara Shikoh, Shah Shuja and Aurangzeb, and their maternal grandfather Asaf Khan IV
Rosette bearing the names and titles of Shah Jahan
The Taj Mahal, the burial place of Shah Jahan and his wife Mumtaz Mahal
The Submission of Rana Amar Singh of Mewar to Prince Khurram, Tuzk-e-Jahangiri.
Shah Jahan on horseback (during his youth).
Shah Jahan at his Durbar, from the Windsor Padshahnama, c. 1657
Shah Jahan the Great Mogul
Throne of king Shah Jahan, Red Fort, Delhi
Painting of Shah Jahan hunting Asiatic lions at Burhanpur, present-day Madhya Pradesh, from 1630
Shah Jahan and his eldest son Dara Shikoh.
The Passing of Shah Jahan
The actual tombs of Mumtaz Mahal and Shah Jahan in the lower level of Taj Mahal
Red Fort
The elegant Naulakha Pavilion at the Lahore Fort was built during the reign of Shah Jahan.
Agra Fort
Shah Jahan and the Mughal Army return after attending a congregation in the Jama Masjid, Delhi.
Lahore's Wazir Khan Mosque is considered to be the most ornate Mughal-era mosque.<ref>{{cite book |last=Dani |first=A. H. |date=2003 |chapter=The Architecture of the Mughal Empire (North-Western Regions) |editor-last1=Adle |editor-first1=Chahryar |editor-last2=Habib |editor-first2=Irfan |editor2-link=Irfan Habib |title=History of Civilizations of Central Asia |volume=V |chapter-url=http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0013/001302/130205e.pdf |publisher=UNESCO |page=524 |isbn=978-92-3-103876-1}}</ref>
Moti Masjid (Red Fort)
Finial, Tamga of the Mughal Empire (combining a crescent and a spear pendant with the word Allah).
Gold Mohur from Akbarabad (Agra)
Silver rupee coin of Shah Jahan, from Patna.
Copper Dam from Daryakot mint
Silver Rupee from Multan

He was one of the greatest patrons of Mughal architecture.

Humayun

The second emperor of the Mughal Empire, who ruled over territory in what is now Eastern Afghanistan, Pakistan, Northern India, and Bangladesh from 1530 to 1540 and again from 1555 to 1556.

Portrait of Humayun
Babur celebrates the birth of Humayun in the Charbagh of Kabul.
The Mughal Emperor Humayun, fights Bahadur Shah of Gujarat, in the year 1535.
Raja Todar Mal, an ally of Sher Shah Suri, constructed the Rohtas Fort to check Humayun from Persia, and also halt the local Muslim tribes from joining the claimant emperor.
Humayun, detail of miniature of the Baburnama
Humayun's Genealogical Order up to Timur
Humayun and his Mughal Army defeats Kamran Mirza in 1553.
Shah Tahmasp provided Humayun with 12,000 cavalry and 300 veterans of his personal guard along with provisions, so that his guests may recover their lost domains.
Shah Tahmasp I and the Mughal Emperor Humayun in Isfahan.
The infant Akbar presents a painting to his father Humayun.
Humayun is reunited with Akbar.
Humayun receiving the head of his opponent, Qaracha Khan.
An image from an album commissioned by Shah Jahan shows Humayun sitting beneath a tree in his garden in India.
Copper coin of Humayun
Tomb entrance view
Humayun's Tomb in Delhi, India, was commissioned by his chief wife, Bega Begum

Its sandstone gates, both massive and ornate, are thought to have exerted a profound influence on Mughal military architecture.