Mughal emperors

Genealogy of the Mughal Dynasty. Only principal offspring of each emperor are provided in the chart.
Group portrait of Mughal rulers, from Babur to Aurangzeb, with the Mughal ancestor Timur seated in the middle. On the left: Shah Jahan, Akbar and Babur, with Abu Sa'id of Samarkand and Timur's son, Miran Shah. On the right: Aurangzeb, Jahangir and Humayun, and two of Timur's other offspring Umar Shaykh and Muhammad Sultan. Created c. 1707–12
Shah Jahan, accompanied by his three sons: Dara Shikoh, Shah Shuja and Aurangzeb, and their maternal grandfather Asaf Khan IV
Akbar Shah II and his four sons

The Mughal emperors were the supreme head of state of the Mughal Empire on the Indian subcontinent, mainly corresponding to the modern countries of India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh.

- Mughal emperors

500 related topics

Relevance

Akbar

Akbar by Govardhan, c. 1630
Akbar as a boy
Mughal Empire under Akbar's period (yellow)
Mughal Emperor Akbar training an elephant
Akbar hawking with Mughal chieftains and nobleman accompanied by his guardian Bairam Khan
Young Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khana son of Bairam Khan being received by Akbar
Mughal Emperor Akbar shoots the Rajput warrior Jaimal during the Siege of Chittorgarh in 1568
Bullocks dragging siege-guns uphill during Akbar's attack on Ranthambhor Fort in 1568
The court of young Akbar, age 13, showing his first imperial act: the arrest of an unruly courtier, who was once a favourite of Akbar's father. Illustration from a manuscript of the Akbarnama
Falcon Mohur of Akbar, minted in Asir. This coin was issued in the name of Akbar, to commemorate the capture of the strategic Asirgarh Fort of the Khandesh Sultanate on 17 January 1601 CE. Legend: "Allah is great, Khordad Ilahi 45, struck at Asir".
Diwan-i-Khas (Hall of Private Audience) in Fatehpur Sikri
Silver coin of Akbar with inscriptions of the Islamic declaration of faith, the declaration reads: "There is no god except Allah, and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah."
Portrait of Empress Mariam-uz-Zamani, commonly known as Jodha Bai, giving birth to Prince Salim, the future emperor Jahangir.
Death of Bahadur Shah of Gujarat at Diu, in front of the Portuguese in 1537
Portuguese ambush against the galleys of Seydi Ali Reis (Akbar's allies) in the Indian Ocean.
The Akbari Mosque, overlooking the Ganges
Portrait of the Mughal Emperor Akbar invocation of a Dua prayer.
The Mughal Emperor Akbar welcomes his son Prince Salim at Fatehpur Sikri, (Akbarnameh).
Akbar holds a religious assembly of different faiths in the Ibadat Khana in Fatehpur Sikri.
Silver square rupee of Akbar, Lahore mint, struck in Aban month of Ilahi
The great Mogul discoursing with a Humble Fakir
Akbar triumphantly enters Surat
Akbar hunting with cheetahs, c. 1602
Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak presenting Akbarnama to Akbar, Mughal miniature
Gate of Akbar's mausoleum at Sikandra, Agra, 1795
Potrait of Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar with Mariam Zamani Begum, drawn as per Akbar's description.

Abu'l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar (25 October 1542 – 27 October 1605), popularly known as Akbar the Great, and also as Akbar I , was the third Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1556 to 1605.

Jahangir

Portrait of fourth Mughal Emperor Jahangir
Potrait of Empress Mariam-uz-Zamani, giving birth to Prince Salim in Fatehpur Sikri.
Emperor Jahangir weighing his son Prince Khurram (the future Shah Jahan) on a weighing scale by artist Manohar (1615).
Jahangir with falcon on horseback
The Tomb of Jahangir in Shahdara, Lahore
A Mughal miniature dated from the early 1620s depicting the Mughal emperor Jahangir preferring an audience with Sufi saint to his contemporaries, the Ottoman Sultan Ahmed I and the King of England James I (d. 1625); the picture is inscribed in Persian: "Though outwardly shahs stand before him, he fixes his gazes on dervishes."
Portrait of Mughal Emperor Jahangir's making a Dua
Jahangir's Jade hookah, National Museum, New Delhi
Jahangir and Anarkali

Nur al-Din Muhammad Salim (31 August 1569 – 28 October 1627), known by his imperial name Jahangir, was the fourth Mughal Emperor, who ruled from 1605 until his death in 1627.

Aurangzeb

The sixth emperor of the Mughal Empire, reigning from July 1658 until his death.

Aurangzeb holding a hawk in c. 1660
A painting from c. 1637 shows the brothers (left to right) Shah Shuja, Aurangzeb and Murad Baksh in their younger years.
The Mughal Army under the command of Aurangzeb recaptures Orchha in October 1635.
A painting from Padshahnama depicts Prince Aurangzeb facing a maddened war elephant named Sudhakar.
Sepoys loyal to the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb maintain their positions around the palace, at Aurangabad, in 1658.
Aurangzeb becomes emperor.
Mughal Empire under Aurangzeb in early 18th century
Aurangzeb compiled Hanafi law by introducing the Fatawa-e-Alamgiri.
Aurangzeb holding a flywhisk
Aurangzeb seated on a golden throne holding a Hawk in the Durbar. Standing before him is his son, Azam Shah.
Aurangzeb Receives Prince Mu'azzam. Chester Beatty Library
Dagger (Khanjar) of Aurangzeb (Badshah Alamgir).
Manuscript of the Quran, parts of which are believed to have been written in Aurangzeb's own hand.
The Birthday of the Grand Mogul Aurangzeb, made 1701–1708 by Johann Melchior Dinglinger.
Josiah Child requests a pardon from Aurangzeb during the Anglo-Mughal War.
By 1690, Aurangzeb was acknowledged as: "emperor of the Mughal Sultanate from Cape Comorin to Kabul".
Aurangzeb spent his reign crushing major and minor rebellions throughout the Mughal Empire.
The tomb of Akbar was pillaged by Jat rebels during the reign of Aurangzeb.
Aurangzeb leads the Mughal Army during the Battle of Satara.
Raja Shivaji at Aurangzeb's Darbar- M V Dhurandhar
Aurangzeb reciting the Quran.
Aurangzeb dispatched his personal imperial guard during the campaign against the Satnami rebels.
Gurudwara Sis Ganj Sahib in Delhi is built at the place where Guru Tegh Bahadur was beheaded.
Zafarnama is the name given to the letter sent by the tenth Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh in 1705 to Aurangzeb. The letter is written in Persian script.
Aurangzeb in a pavilion with three courtiers below.
Bibi Ka Maqbara, the mausoleum of Aurangzeb's wife Dilras Banu Begum, was commissioned by him
Aurangzeb's tomb in Khuldabad, Maharashtra.
Aurangzeb reading the Quran
The unmarked grave of Aurangzeb in the mausoleum at Khuldabad, Maharashtra.
Tughra and seal of Aurangzeb, on an imperial firman
In the year 1689, according to Mughal accounts, Sambhaji was put on trial, found guilty of atrocities and executed.<ref>{{cite book |last=Mehta |first=J. L. |title=Advanced Study in the History of Modern India: Volume One: 1707{{snd}}1813 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=d1wUgKKzawoC&pg=PA50 |access-date=29 September 2012 |date=2005 |publisher=Sterling Publishers |isbn=978-1-932705-54-6 |pages=50–}}</ref><ref name="google2">{{cite book |last=Stein |first=Burton |author-link=Burton Stein |year=2010 |orig-year=First published 1998 |editor-last=Arnold |editor-first=David |editor-link=David Arnold (historian) |title=A History of India |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=QY4zdTDwMAQC&pg=PA180 |publisher=Blackwell Publishers |edition=2nd |page=180 |isbn=978-1-4051-9509-6}}</ref>
Guru Tegh Bahadur was publicly executed in 1675 on the orders of Aurangzeb in Delhi<ref>{{Cite web |url=http://www.allaboutsikhs.com/Sikh-Guru-Ji'/Sri-Guru-Tegh-Bhadur-Sahib-Ji.html |title=A Gateway to Sikhism {{!}} Sri Guru Tegh Bhadur Sahib |website=Gateway to Sikhism |access-date=28 October 2018 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140327223831/http://www.allaboutsikhs.com/Sikh-Guru-Ji'/Sri-Guru-Tegh-Bhadur-Sahib-Ji.html#12 |archive-date=27 March 2014 |url-status=dead}}</ref>
Sarmad Kashani, a Jewish convert to Islam and Sufi mystic was accused of heresy and executed.<ref name="David Cook 2007">{{cite book |last=Cook |first=David |author-link=David Cook (historian) |year=2007 |title=Martyrdom in Islam |publisher=Cambridge University Press |page=80 |isbn=978-0-521-85040-7}}</ref>
Daulatabad cannon
Kalak Bangadi cannon.
One of the Daulatabad cannons
Kilkila cannon
Aurangabad cannon
Seventeenth-century Badshahi Masjid built by Aurangzeb in Lahore.
Bibi ka Maqbara.
Tomb of Sufi saint, Syed Abdul Rahim Shah Bukhari constructed by Aurangzeb.
Shawls manufactured in the Mughal Empire had highly influenced other cultures around the world.
Shawl makers in the Mughal Empire.
Mughal imperial carpet
March of the Great Moghul (Aurangzeb)
François Bernier, was a French physician and traveller, who for 12 years was the personal physician of Aurangzeb. He described his experiences in Travels in the Mughal Empire.
Map of the Mughal Empire by Vincenzo Coronelli (1650–1718) of Venice, who served as Royal Geographer to Louis XIV of France.
French map of the Deccan.
Half rupee
Rupee coin showing full name
Rupee with square area
A copper dam of Aurangzeb
A Mughal trooper in the Deccan.
Aurangzeb leads his final expedition (1705), leading an army of 500,000 troops.
Mughal-era aristocrat armed with a matchlock musket.
Aurangzeb, in later life, hunting with hounds and falconers

Widely considered to be the last effective Mughal ruler, Aurangzeb compiled the Fatawa al-Alamgir and was amongst the few monarchs to have fully established Sharia and Islamic economics throughout South Asia.

Bahadur Shah Zafar

Portrait of Bahadur Shah II, c. 1850
Emblem of the emperor in the first year of his reign

Emperor Bahadur Shah II, usually referred to by his poetic title Bahadur Shah Zafar (Zafar Victory) was born Mirza Abu Zafar Siraj-ud-din Muhammad (24 October 1775 – 7 November 1862) and was the twentieth and last Mughal Emperor of India and Urdu poet.

Humayun

Portrait of Humayun
Babur celebrates the birth of Humayun in the Charbagh of Kabul.
The Mughal Emperor Humayun, fights Bahadur Shah of Gujarat, in the year 1535.
Raja Todar Mal, an ally of Sher Shah Suri, constructed the Rohtas Fort to check Humayun from Persia, and also halt the local Muslim tribes from joining the claimant emperor.
Humayun, detail of miniature of the Baburnama
Humayun's Genealogical Order up to Timur
Humayun and his Mughal Army defeats Kamran Mirza in 1553.
Shah Tahmasp provided Humayun with 12,000 cavalry and 300 veterans of his personal guard along with provisions, so that his guests may recover their lost domains.
Shah Tahmasp I and the Mughal Emperor Humayun in Isfahan.
The infant Akbar presents a painting to his father Humayun.
Humayun is reunited with Akbar.
Humayun receiving the head of his opponent, Qaracha Khan.
An image from an album commissioned by Shah Jahan shows Humayun sitting beneath a tree in his garden in India.
Copper coin of Humayun
Tomb entrance view
Humayun's Tomb in Delhi, India, was commissioned by his chief wife, Bega Begum

Nasir-ud-Din Muhammad (, ; 6 March 1508 – 27 January 1556), better known by his regnal name, Humayun;, was the second emperor of the Mughal Empire, who ruled over territory in what is now Eastern Afghanistan, Pakistan, Northern India, and Bangladesh from 1530 to 1540 and again from 1555 to 1556.

Padishah

Superlative sovereign title of Persian origin.

Suleiman the Magnificent, Padishah of the Ottoman Empire. Portrait attributed to Titian c. 1530

It was adopted by several monarchs claiming the highest rank, roughly equivalent to the ancient Persian notion of "Great King", and later adopted by post-Achaemenid and the Mughal emperors of India.

Timurid dynasty

The ruling family of the Timurid Empire between in 1370–1507 and later of the Mughal Empire in 1526–1857.

Timur, the founder of the Timurid dynasty

The Mughal branch of the dynasty was founded by Emperor Babur ((r.

Mughal Empire

Early modern Islamic empire in South Asia.

The empire at its greatest extent in c. 1700 under Aurangzeb ((r. 1658 – 1707))
Akbar holds a religious assembly of different faiths in the Ibadat Khana in Fatehpur Sikri.
Group portrait of Mughal rulers, from Babur to Aurangzeb, with the Mughal ancestor Timur seated in the middle. On the left: Shah Jahan, Akbar and Babur, with Abu Sa'id of Samarkand and Timur's son, Miran Shah. On the right: Aurangzeb, Jahangir and Humayun, and two of Timur's other offspring Umar Shaykh and Muhammad Sultan. Created c. 1707–12
Horsemen of the invading Maratha Empire
Shah Alam II on horseback
Portrait of Bahadur Shah II
Coin of Aurangzeb, minted in Kabul, dated 1691/2
Miniature painting - Portrait of an Old Mughal Courtier Wearing Muslin
Muslim Lady Reclining or An Indian Girl with a Hookah, painted in Dacca, 18th century
Ruins of the Great Caravanserai in Dhaka.
Ghulam Hamdani Mushafi, the poet first believed to have coined the name "Urdu" around 1780 AD for a language that went by a multiplicity of names before his time.
Mir Taqi Mir, an Urdu poet of the 18th century Mughal Empire
The Taj Mahal in the 1870s
Badshahi Mosque, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan
Buland Darwaza in Fatehpur Sikiri, Agra, India
Lalbagh Fort aerial view in Dhaka, Bangladesh
Shalimar Bagh in Srinagar, Kashmir, India
Illustration by the 17th-century Mughal artist Ustad Mansur
"Alexander Visits the Sage Plato in His Mountain Cave"; illustration by the 16th-century Indian artist Basawan, in a folio from a quintet of the 13th-century Indian poet Amir Khusrau Dihlavi
Folio from Farhang-i-Jahangiri, a Persian dictionary compiled during the Mughal era.
Mughal matchlock rifle, 16th century.
Mughal musketeer, 17th century.
The remnants of the empire in 1751

In the west, the term "Mughal" was used for the emperor, and by extension, the empire as a whole.

Muhammad Shah

Portrait of Muhammad Shah, c. 1730
The Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah with his Falcon visits the imperial garden at sunset on a palanquin.
The imperial Diwan of the Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah
The phrase Zuban-i Urdū-yi Muʿallá (literally "Language of the exalted Horde", contextually the exalted Urdu Language) written in Nastaʿlīq script
Lashkari Zabān ("military camp language" or "Battalionese language") title in Nastaʿlīq script
Baagh e Naazir was built by Muhammad Shah the year 1748.
Elephants pushing Mughal artillery cannons drawn also by bullocks.
An elephant and its mahout in service of the Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah.
Nader Shah finds his troops had been killed in rioting. From
Muhammad Shah with the Persian invader Nader Shah
Provinces of the Mughal Empire in the year 1740
The Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah and his family
Funeral.
A silver coin minted during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah.
A silver coin minted during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah from Bombay.
French-issued rupee in the name of Muhammad Shah (1719-1748) for Northern India trade, cast in Pondichéry.
Koh-i-Noor
Darya-e-Noor
Tomb of Muhammad Shah, in the courtyard of the Nizamuddin Dargah.

Mirza Nasir-ud-Din Muḥammad Shah (born Roshan Akhtar ) (7 August 1702 – 26 April 1748) was the 15th Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1719 to 1748.

Shah Alam II

Shah Alam II in his old life in (1790s – 1800s) era Portation.
Mughal era illustration of Pir Ghazi of Bengal, during the 18th century.
Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II negotiates with the British East India Company, after the arrival of Suffren.
A silver Rupee struck in the name of Shah Alam
Shah Alam II blinded by Ghulam Qadir
The tomb of Shah Alam II, in Mehrauli, Delhi.
Imad-ul-Mulk was the regent imposed by the Maratha Confederacy in 1757, who assassinated Alamgir II and prominent members of the imperial family, within the Maratha controlled city of Delhi; Shah Alam II managed to escape to safety with the Nawab of Awadh.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.britannica.com/biography/Alamgir-II|title=ʿĀlamgīr II - Mughal emperor|access-date=27 July 2018}}</ref>
Mir Jafar, his son Miran and Ramnarian refused to submit to Shah Alam II, who initiated the Bengal War causing the eventual intervention of the British East India Company.
Shuja-ud-Daula served as the leading Nawab Vizier of the Mughal Empire, during the Third Battle of Panipat and the Battle of Buxar
Nawab of Bengal, Mir Qasim defected to Shah Alam II.
Mirza Najaf Khan, the commander-in-chief of the Mughal Army.
Shah Alam II granting Robert Clive the "Diwani rights of Bengal, Behar and Odisha" in return for the annexed territories of the Nawab of Awadh after the Battle of Buxar, on 12 August 1765 at the Benares.
A member of the British East India Company enjoying a Durbar.
The Royal Chamber in the Public Audience Hall in the Middle of Yazdah Darreh, with the Ruler, Alam Bahador Badshah, and the Great Commanders, a page from the Lady Coote Album.
A Firman issued by the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II, dated 1776.
The newly reestablished Mughal Army during the reign of Shah Alam II.
A Mughal infantryman.
Large Mughal Army encampments during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II.
Pierre André de Suffren ally of Hyder Ali and also Shah Alam II.
Hyder Ali was bestowed the title Shams ul-Mulk and Amir ud-Daula by Shah Alam II, his pro-French policies were a continuation of the Mughal Empire's policies during the Seven Years' War.
Map of India in 1765, before the fall of Nawabs and Princely states nominally allied to the emperor (mainly in Green).
Map of India in 1795, 11 years before the death of Shah Alam II

Shah Alam II (25 June 1728 – 19 November 1806), also known by his birth name Ali Gohar (or Ali Gauhar), was the seventeenth Mughal Emperor and the son of Alamgir II.