Genealogy of the Mughal Dynasty. Only principal offspring of each emperor are provided in the chart.
Portrait of Muhammad Shah, c. 1730
Group portrait of Mughal rulers, from Babur to Aurangzeb, with the Mughal ancestor Timur seated in the middle. On the left: Shah Jahan, Akbar and Babur, with Abu Sa'id of Samarkand and Timur's son, Miran Shah. On the right: Aurangzeb, Jahangir and Humayun, and two of Timur's other offspring Umar Shaykh and Muhammad Sultan. Created c. 1707–12
The Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah with his Falcon visits the imperial garden at sunset on a palanquin.
Shah Jahan, accompanied by his three sons: Dara Shikoh, Shah Shuja and Aurangzeb, and their maternal grandfather Asaf Khan IV
The imperial Diwan of the Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah
Akbar Shah II and his four sons
The phrase Zuban-i Urdū-yi Muʿallá (literally "Language of the exalted Horde", contextually the exalted Urdu Language) written in Nastaʿlīq script
Lashkari Zabān ("military camp language" or "Battalionese language") title in Nastaʿlīq script
Baagh e Naazir was built by Muhammad Shah the year 1748.
Elephants pushing Mughal artillery cannons drawn also by bullocks.
An elephant and its mahout in service of the Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah.
Nader Shah finds his troops had been killed in rioting. From
Muhammad Shah with the Persian invader Nader Shah
Provinces of the Mughal Empire in the year 1740
The Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah and his family
Funeral.
A silver coin minted during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah.
A silver coin minted during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah from Bombay.
French-issued rupee in the name of Muhammad Shah (1719-1748) for Northern India trade, cast in Pondichéry.
Koh-i-Noor
Darya-e-Noor
Tomb of Muhammad Shah, in the courtyard of the Nizamuddin Dargah.

Mirza Nasir-ud-Din Muḥammad Shah (born Roshan Akhtar ) (7 August 1702 – 26 April 1748) was the 15th Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1719 to 1748.

- Muhammad Shah

During the reign of Muhammad Shah, the empire began to break up, and vast tracts of central India passed from Mughal to Maratha hands.

- Mughal emperors
Genealogy of the Mughal Dynasty. Only principal offspring of each emperor are provided in the chart.

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A contemporary court portrait of Nader Shah by Mohammad Reza Hendi (c. 1740), now in London's Victoria and Albert Museum

Nader Shah

The founder of the Afsharid dynasty of Iran and one of the most powerful rulers in Iranian history, ruling as shah of Iran (Persia) from 1736 to 1747, when he was assassinated during a rebellion.

The founder of the Afsharid dynasty of Iran and one of the most powerful rulers in Iranian history, ruling as shah of Iran (Persia) from 1736 to 1747, when he was assassinated during a rebellion.

A contemporary court portrait of Nader Shah by Mohammad Reza Hendi (c. 1740), now in London's Victoria and Albert Museum
Statue of Nader Shah at the Naderi Museum
Painting of Nader Shah
Nader Shah and two of his sons
Afsharid forces negotiate with a Mughal Nawab.
The flank march of Nader's army at Battle of Khyber pass has been called a "military masterpiece" by the Russian general & historian Kishmishev
At the Battle of Karnal, Nader crushed an enormous Mughal army six times greater than his own
Silver coin of Nader Shah, minted in Dagestan, dated 1741/2 (left = obverse; right = reverse)
portrait of Reza Qoli Mirza Afshar
The Battle of Kars (1745) was the last major field battle Nader fought in his spectacular military career
A Western view of Nader in his later years from a book by Jonas Hanway (1753). The background shows a tower of skulls.
Nader Shah's dagger with a small portion of his jewelry. Now part of the Iranian Crown Jewels.

Its ruler Muhammad Shah was powerless to reverse this disintegration.

There is a story that says, having demanded the daughter of his defeated enemy Muhammad Shah, the Emperor of Delhi, to marry his son Nasrullah, he received the answer that a royal lineage up to the 7th generation was required for marriage with a princess from the House of Timur.

The empire at its greatest extent in c. 1700 under Aurangzeb ((r. 1658 – 1707))

Mughal Empire

Early modern Islamic empire in South Asia.

Early modern Islamic empire in South Asia.

The empire at its greatest extent in c. 1700 under Aurangzeb ((r. 1658 – 1707))
Akbar holds a religious assembly of different faiths in the Ibadat Khana in Fatehpur Sikri.
Group portrait of Mughal rulers, from Babur to Aurangzeb, with the Mughal ancestor Timur seated in the middle. On the left: Shah Jahan, Akbar and Babur, with Abu Sa'id of Samarkand and Timur's son, Miran Shah. On the right: Aurangzeb, Jahangir and Humayun, and two of Timur's other offspring Umar Shaykh and Muhammad Sultan. Created c. 1707–12
Horsemen of the invading Maratha Empire
Shah Alam II on horseback
Portrait of Bahadur Shah II
Coin of Aurangzeb, minted in Kabul, dated 1691/2
Miniature painting - Portrait of an Old Mughal Courtier Wearing Muslin
Muslim Lady Reclining or An Indian Girl with a Hookah, painted in Dacca, 18th century
Ruins of the Great Caravanserai in Dhaka.
Ghulam Hamdani Mushafi, the poet first believed to have coined the name "Urdu" around 1780 AD for a language that went by a multiplicity of names before his time.
Mir Taqi Mir, an Urdu poet of the 18th century Mughal Empire
The Taj Mahal in the 1870s
Badshahi Mosque, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan
Buland Darwaza in Fatehpur Sikiri, Agra, India
Lalbagh Fort aerial view in Dhaka, Bangladesh
Shalimar Bagh in Srinagar, Kashmir, India
Illustration by the 17th-century Mughal artist Ustad Mansur
"Alexander Visits the Sage Plato in His Mountain Cave"; illustration by the 16th-century Indian artist Basawan, in a folio from a quintet of the 13th-century Indian poet Amir Khusrau Dihlavi
Folio from Farhang-i-Jahangiri, a Persian dictionary compiled during the Mughal era.
Mughal matchlock rifle, 16th century.
Mughal musketeer, 17th century.
The remnants of the empire in 1751

In the west, the term "Mughal" was used for the emperor, and by extension, the empire as a whole.

During the reign of Muhammad Shah (reigned 1719–1748), the empire began to break up, and vast tracts of central India passed from Mughal to Maratha hands.